Marawi City, Philippines

Mindanao State University
Marawi City, Philippines

Mindanao State University is a public coeducational institution of higher education and research located in the Islamic City of Marawi, Philippines. Founded in 1961 it is the flagship and the largest campus of the Mindanao State University System. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 28, 2017

Philippine marines walk to the frontline in the continuing assaults to retake control of some areas of Marawi city Sunday, May 28, 2017 in southern Philippines. Philippine forces launched fresh airstrikes Sunday to drive out militants linked to the Islamic State group after days of fighting left corpses in the streets and hundreds of civilians begging for rescue from a besieged southern city. (AP Photo/Bullit Marquez) MARAWI, Philippines (AP) — Philippine forces found corpses in the streets of a besieged southern city on Sunday, including at least eight civilians who appeared to have been executed, as soldiers battled a weakened but still forceful group of militants linked to the Islamic State group. The death toll from six days of fighting neared 100. The crisis in Marawi, home to some 200,000 people, has grown increasingly dire as the militants show unexpected strength, fending off a military that has unleashed attack helicopters, armored vehicles and scores of soldiers. The violence prompted President Rodrigo Duterte on Tuesday to declare 60 days of martial law in the southern Philippines, where a Muslim separatist rebellion has raged for decades. But the recent bloodshed in Marawi has raised fears that extremism is growing as smaller militant groups unify and align themselves with the Islamic State group. Much of the city is a no-go zone, but as the military advances and more civilians escape, the scope of the battle is becoming clear. Thousands of civilians have streamed out of Marawi and more than 2,000 were still trapped inside the city. Many sent desperate text messages begging to be rescued and reporting that their homes had been destroyed, said Zia Alonto Adiong, an official in Lanao del Sur, one of the country's poorest provinces. "Have mercy on us, we don't have any more water to drink," read one of the messages, sent to a hotline set up for trapped residents. The Associated Press was shown the messages by relief workers at a provincial government complex in Marawi. Another message asked authorities to retrieve three bodies that were rotting near a resident's home. Speaking at the evacuation center on Sunday, Saddat Liong said his house was hit by mortar fire and burned to the ground. Liong, his wife and eight children lost everything, he said — even their cooking pots. "I feel that we've lost our city," he said. Military spokesman Brig. Gen. Restituto Padilla said that combat operations were still going on, but that the militants were weakening. "We believe they're now low on ammunition and food," he said, speaking by phone from Manila, the capital. "Compared to the initial days, there has been increasingly less resistance from the militants within Marawi." Padilla said the bodies of four men, three women and a child were found near a road close to Mindanao State University in Marawi. Eight other men were found gunned down and thrown into a shallow ravine early Sunday in Marawi's Emi village, said police officer Jamail Mangadang. A paper sign attached to one of the men indicated that the victims had "betrayed their faith," he said, identifying the men as civilians. In addition to the civilian deaths, Padilla said 61 militants, 11 soldiers and four police were among the dead. The violence erupted Tuesday night when the government launched a raid to capture Isnilon Hapilon, who is on Washington's list of most-wanted terrorists. But the operation went awry and militants rampaged through the city, torching buildings and battling government forces in the streets. A priest and several worshippers were taken hostage. There was no word on their condition. Hapilon, an Islamic preacher, was once a commander of the Abu Sayyaf militant group who pledged allegiance to the Islamic State group in 2014. He now heads an alliance of at least 10 smaller militant groups, including the Maute, which has a heavy presence in Marawi and has been instrumental in fighting off government forces in the current battles. All of the groups are inspired by the Islamic State group. Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana told reporters that Hapilon has received funds from the Islamic State group. Washington has offered a $5 million reward for information leading to Hapilon's capture.

Nuneza O.M.,MSU Iligan Institute of Technology | Ates F.B.,University of the Philippines at Mindanao | Alicante A.A.,Mindanao State University
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2010

Mt. Malindang is one of the upland ranges where biodiversity has been severely threatened due to forest loss. Fieldwork was conducted from October 2003 to December 2004 in 14 sampling sites from an elevation of 120 to over 1,700 m above sea level to assess the distribution of endemic and threatened herpetofaunal species. Twenty-six species of amphibians and 33 species of reptiles were observed for all sampling sites. The level of endemism for amphibians was 42% where 7 of the 11 recorded species are found only in Mindanao. Nine species were in the threatened category, 8 vulnerable and 1 endangered. For the reptiles, 48% endemicity was observed. No threatened species was found. Field observations show that the major threat to the herpetofauna is habitat destruction, particularly the conversion of the forest to agricultural farms by the local people. It was also observed that endemic and threatened species were distributed in high elevation sites (submontane, dipterocarp, almaciga, and montane forests). Despite habitat loss in Mt. Malindang, 18% of the recorded herpetofaunal species recorded in the Philippines were found in Mt. Malindang, indicating the conservation importance of this mountain range. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

Mabuhay J.A.,Mindanao State University | Nakagoshi N.,Hiroshima University
Landscape and Ecological Engineering | Year: 2012

Japan has suffered a lot from forestry losses due to pine wilt disease caused by pinewood nematode infestations. Studies were conducted regarding its causative agent and the effects of natural vegetation succession after pine wilt disease, but its effects on microorganisms were not given equal attention. This study determined the effects of pine wilt disease on light conditions, soil microbial biomass, litter decomposition, microbial abundance and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Results showed that in a forest currently affected by pine wilt disease, there was higher light penetration, greater microbial biomass carbon, and a faster rate of litter decomposition. Microbial abundance was shown to be reduced in pine wilt affected areas. There were close correlations between the biological and physicochemical properties of the soil, but the reason for the decrease in microbial abundance is not yet well understood, and thus requires further study. © 2011 International Consortium of Landscape and Ecological Engineering and Springer.

Pacaldo R.S.,SUNY ESF | Pacaldo R.S.,Mindanao State University | Volk T.A.,SUNY ESF | Briggs R.D.,SUNY ESF
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2013

Shrub willow biomass crops (SWBC) have been developed as a biomass feedstock for bioenergy, biofuels, and bioproducts in the northeastern and midwestern USA as well as in Europe. A previous life cycle analysis in North America showed that the SWBC production system is a low-carbon fuel source. However, this analysis is potentially inaccurate due to the limited belowground biomass data and the lack of aboveground stool biomass data. This study provides new information on the above- and belowground biomass, the carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and the root/shoot (R/S) ratio of willow biomass crops (Salix × dasyclados [SV1]), which have been in production from 5 to 19 years. The measured amounts of biomass were: 2. 6 to 4. 1 odt ha-1 for foliage, 4. 9 to 10. 9 odt ha-1 for aboveground stool (AGS), 2. 9 to 5. 7 odt ha-1 for coarse roots (CR), 3. 1 to 10. 2 odt ha-1 for belowground stool (BGS), and 5. 6 to 9. 9 odt ha-1 for standing fine root (FR). The stem biomass production ranged from 7. 0 to 18. 0 odt ha-1 year-1 for the 5- and 19-year-old willows, respectively. C/N ratios ranged from 23 for foliage to 209 for belowground stool. An average R/S ratio of 2. 0, calculated as total belowground biomass (BGS, CR, and FR) plus AGS divided by annual stem biomass, can be applied to estimate the total belowground biomass production of a mature SWBC. Based on AGS, BGS, and CR and standing FR biomass data, SWBC showed a net GHG potential of -42. 9 Mg CO2 eq ha-1 at the end of seven 3-year rotations. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Muallil R.N.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Muallil R.N.,Mindanao State University | Cleland D.,Australian National University | Alino P.M.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2013

Small-scale fishers in the Philippines are highly diverse in their fishing behavior and demographic characteristics. Understanding this heterogeneity will provide valuable insights for fisheries management efforts that could result in win-win outcomes, both for (i) improving sustainable incomes for fishers, and (ii) facilitating recovery and resilience of depleted fisheries. We determined how different socioeconomic factors were associated with fishing effort, measured as the number of fishing trips per month, in six neighboring coastal towns along the West Philippines Sea biogeographic region of the Philippines. We found that types of alternative livelihoods and fisher age were the most important factors influencing fishing effort. Employed fishers (e.g. drivers, boat operators, construction workers, carpenters, etc.) had lower fishing effort than both those without alternative livelihoods and self-employed ones (e.g. subsistence farmers/livestock raisers and small business operators). Younger fishers fished more frequently than older ones. Our study provides valuable insights for management interventions that can effectively foster transitions into alternative livelihoods to alleviate fishing pressure while providing fishers with sustainable source of income. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Villanueva R.D.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Romero J.B.,Mindanao State University | Montano M.N.E.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | de la Pena P.O.,National Seaweed Training and Development Center
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2011

The booming seaweed industry in the Philippines has been recently challenged by several problems, including the degrading quality of carrageenan extracts from farmed Kappaphycus species. One emerging concern is the correctness of certain agronomic protocols, specifically the recommended duration of culture of farmed seaweeds. We determined in this study the effect of duration of culture on seaweed biomass and carrageenan quantity and quality of four commercially farmed Kappaphycus species. A mathematical formula was then employed to derive a weekly optimization index (a metric incorporating several parameters or product attributes, viz., biomass, carrageenan yield and gel strength) which was used to determine the appropriate time of harvest. The Kappaphycus species exhibited c. 300% increase in biomass within 4-7 weeks in culture (c. 150 g from an initial biomass of 50 g wet weight) and then a biomass plateau was observed. Carrageenan yield in all seaweeds fluctuated minimally (mean: 55-58%; s.d.: 2-4%), however, gel strength peaked at 8-9 weeks of culture. Highest optimization index was obtained during week 8 for Kappaphycus alvarezii var. alvarezii and week 9 for the rest of the cultured seaweeds (Kappaphycus striatum var. sacol, Kappaphycus sp. " aring-aring" and Kappaphycus sp. " duyan"); hence, the recommended harvest times for the respective seaweeds are during these weeks of culture. As several seaweed manuals recommend other culture durations, a revision of these is appealed in order to safeguard the quality of farmed Kappaphycus species. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Filipinas J.C.,University of the Philippines at Diliman | Filipinas J.C.,Mindanao State University | Almoro P.F.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

A method for automated evaluation of fringe localization using focus measure is demonstrated experimentally. Dual-illumination digital holographic interferometry is used to generate phase difference maps (PDMs) of a rough test object. Focus measure values of the PDMs along the axial direction (increment: 10λ . 6.33 μm) yield an inverted bell-shaped curve which, in turn, facilitates the characterizations of the plane and region of fringe localization. The method can be applied in the distance measurement of rough objects and in the optimization of fringe visibility. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

Honda K.,Hokkaido University | Nakamura Y.,Kochi University | Nakaoka M.,Hokkaido University | Uy W.H.,Mindanao State University | Fortes M.D.,University of the Philippines at Diliman
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Understanding the interconnectivity of organisms among different habitats is a key requirement for generating effective management plans in coastal ecosystems, particularly when determining component habitat structures in marine protected areas. To elucidate the patterns of habitat use by fishes among coral, seagrass, and mangrove habitats, and between natural and transplanted mangroves, visual censuses were conducted semiannually at two sites in the Philippines during September and March 2010-2012. In total, 265 species and 15,930 individuals were recorded. Species richness and abundance of fishes were significantly higher in coral reefs (234 species, 12,306 individuals) than in seagrass (38 species, 1,198 individuals) and mangrove (47 species, 2,426 individuals) habitats. Similarity tests revealed a highly significant difference among the three habitats. Fishes exhibited two different strategies for habitat use, inhabiting either a single (85.6% of recorded species) or several habitats (14.4%). Some fish that utilized multiple habitats, such as Lutjanus monostigma and Parupeneus barberinus, showed possible ontogenetic habitat shifts from mangroves and/or seagrass habitats to coral reefs. Moreover, over 20% of commercial fish species used multiple habitats, highlighting the importance of including different habitat types within marine protected areas to achieve efficient and effective resource management. Neither species richness nor abundance of fishes significantly differed between natural and transplanted mangroves. In addition, 14 fish species were recorded in a 20-year-old transplanted mangrove area, and over 90% of these species used multiple habitats, further demonstrating the key role of transplanted mangroves as a reef fish habitat in this region. © 2013 Honda et al.

Gunay N.S.,Mindanao State University
8th International Conference on Humanoid, Nanotechnology, Information Technology, Communication and Control, Environment and Management, HNICEM 2015 | Year: 2015

A system that makes one send/receive SMS and be notified of calls using a computer via a bluetooth connection to one or more android mobile devices is presented in this paper. The system is called iSMS which is a client-server system with an android app as the client and a Java swing app as the server. The server app uses the ABTSMSLib (Android BlueTooth SMS Library), a work in progress which currently requires MySQL and Hibernate in order to work. ABTSMSLib is a Java-based SMS API designed to communicate with android mobile devices via bluetooth. This library used Bluecove 2.1, a JSR-82 implementation on Java Standard Edition (J2SE). iSMS is developed to test the capability of the ABTSMSLib while providing an application that could be of great use to various individuals & business entities. The intention is to release the source code of ABTSMSLib for anybody to extend the functionality to suit anybody's needs. iSMS is shown to handle multiple android mobile clients, is able to send and receive SMSs and log calls with separate user interface for each client. This app and future extensions could take advantage of the cheap rates for unlimited texting to all mobile networks while enjoying many benefits of popular internet-based messaging apps and business-related benefits (like inter-operating with already existing business apps) without needing internet connection. Future considerations for ABTSMSLib include load balancing for multiple android mobile clients, providing conversation-type chat interface & other great features found in popular internet-based messaging apps. © 2015 IEEE.

Tahil A.S.,Mindanao State University | Dy D.T.,University of San Carlos
Aquaculture | Year: 2016

Declining pH levels caused by absorption of accumulating atmospheric CO2 in the ocean threaten the normal development of early life stages and particularly impair the ability of calcifying organisms to construct their shells. An experiment was conducted to determine the direct effects of reduced pH on % hatching of fertilized eggs, survival and developmental stages of trochophore larvae of the Donkey's ear abalone, Haliotis asinina. The ambient pH (7.97 ± 0.02) of experimental seawater was reduced by bubbling food-grade CO2 to obtain the desired pH levels of 7.78 ± 0.03, 7.60 ± 0.03 and 7.40 ± 0.02 as treatments. There were increasing negative impacts of reduced pH on the mean % hatched trochophores (97.6 at ambient pH conditions, 83.9 at pH 7.78, 24.1 at pH 7.60, and 1.4 at pH 7.40). Significant impacts of reduced pH were also observed on mean % survival of trochophores (98.3 at ambient pH conditions, 84.9 at pH 7.78, 24.1 at pH 7.60, and 1.4 at pH 7.40). Of the surviving trochophores, 23.2 ± 3.2% (mean ± sd) of those exposed to pH 7.60 were morphologically deformed but in much lower pH treatment (pH 7.40), all the trochophores were deformed. At pH 7.78, only 63.3 ± 3.7% of the surviving trochophores developed normally compared to 96.7 ± 1.6% normal trochophores at ambient pH conditions. Normal trochophores have prototrochal cells and girdle fully developed and developing shell tissue. Malformed trochophores showed highly undefined morphological characters and cleavage failed to progress to further developmental stages. In conclusion, the early larval development of H. asinina was found to be highly sensitive to reduced pH levels projected for the end of the present century. Therefore, future rise in CO2 concentration in tropical marine waters will likely pose a significant threat to the natural population densities of this species. Statement of relevance: •To understand how lower pH levels can affect this high-value haliotid species is critical because of the importance of this species to fishery and mariculture production;•The deleterious effects of reduced pH on the early larval development of (up to hatch-out stage) of the tropical abalone (H. asinina) were demonstrated in this study;•A significant decrease in hatching rates, increased larval mortality, delayed and abnormal development will most likely have great impact on the population dynamics of this species in their natural habitat;•All the observations in this study suggest that reduced pH can affect early larval development and survival of abalone in the coastal ecosystem; and•these negative effects on larvae may persist into juvenile and adult stages of abalone which would likely contribute to a severe reduction of their natural populations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V..

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