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PubMed | North University of China, Janssen Pharmaceuticals of Johnson & Johnson Inc., CAS Institute of Automation, University of New Mexico and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of affective disorders | Year: 2015

Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from major depressive disorder (MDD) often poses a major clinical challenge, and optimal clinical care can be hindered by misdiagnoses. This study investigated the differences between BD and MDD in resting-state functional network connectivity (FNC) using a data-driven image analysis method.In this study, fMRI data were collected from unmedicated subjects including 13 BD, 40 MDD and 33 healthy controls (HC). The FNC was calculated between functional brain networks derived from fMRI using group independent component analysis (ICA). Group comparisons were performed on connectivity strengths and other graph measures of FNC matrices.Statistical tests showed that, compared to MDD, the FNC in BD was characterized by more closely connected and more efficient topological structures as assessed by graph theory. The differences were found at both the whole-brain-level and the functional-network-level in prefrontal networks located in the dorsolateral/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, VLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Furthermore, interconnected structures in these networks in both patient groups were negatively associated with symptom severity on depression rating scales.As patients were unmedicated, the sample sizes were relatively small, although they were comparable to those in previous fMRI studies comparing BD and MDD.Our results suggest that the differences in FNC of the PFC reflect distinct pathophysiological mechanisms in BD and MDD. Such findings ultimately may elucidate the neural pathways in which distinct functional changes can give rise to the clinical differences observed between these syndromes.

Mayer A.R.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | Mayer A.R.,University of New Mexico | Bedrick E.J.,Aurora University | Ling J.M.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2014

Algorithms that are capable of capturing subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) in neuroimaging data have long been an area of focus for diverse neuropsychiatric conditions such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and traumatic brain injury. Several algorithms have been proposed that define SSA in patients (i.e., comparison group) relative to image intensity levels derived from healthy controls (HC) (i.e., reference group) based on extreme values. However, the assumptions underlying these approaches have not always been fully validated, and may be dependent on the statistical distributions of the transformed data. The current study evaluated variations of two commonly used techniques ("pothole" method and standardization with an independent reference group) for identifying SSA using simulated data (derived from normal, t and chi-square distributions) and fractional anisotropy maps derived from 50 HC. Results indicated substantial group-wise bias in the estimation of extreme data points using the pothole method, with the degree of bias being inversely related to sample size. Statistical theory was utilized to develop a distribution-corrected z-score (DisCo-Z) threshold, with additional simulations demonstrating elimination of the bias and a more consistent estimation of extremes based on expected distributional properties. Data from previously published studies examining SSA in mild traumatic brain injury were then re-analyzed using the DisCo-Z method, with results confirming the evidence of group-wise bias. We conclude that the benefits of identifying SSA in neuropsychiatric research are substantial, but that proposed SSA approaches require careful implementation under the different distributional properties that characterize neuroimaging data. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5457-5470, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Mayer A.R.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | Mayer A.R.,University of New Mexico | Mayer A.R.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research | Yang Z.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
Brain Imaging and Behavior | Year: 2012

Previous work suggests that the ability to selectively attend to and resolve conflicting information may be the most enduring cognitive deficit following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current study used fMRI to evaluate potential differences in hemodynamic activation in 22 mTBI patients and 22 carefully matched healthy controls (HC) during a multimodal selective attention task (numeric Stroop). Behavioral data indicated faster reaction times for congruent versus incongruent trials and for stimuli presented at 0. 66 compared to 0. 33 Hz across both groups, with minimal differences in behavioral performance across the groups. Similarly, there were no group-wise differences in functional activation within lateral and medial prefrontal cortex during the execution of cognitive control (incongruent versus congruent trials). In contrast, within-group comparisons indicated robust patterns of attention-related modulations (ARM) within the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral visual streams for HC but not mTBI patients. In addition, mTBI patients failed to exhibit task-induced deactivation within the default-mode network (DMN) under conditions of higher attentional load. In summary, in spite of near normal behavioral performance, current results suggest within-group abnormalities during both the top-down allocation of visual attention and in regulating the DMN during the semi-acute stage of mTBI. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mayer A.R.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | Mayer A.R.,University of New Mexico | Bellgowan P.S.F.,The Laureate Institute for Brain Research | Bellgowan P.S.F.,University of Tulsa | Hanlon F.M.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2015

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) offers great promise for elucidating the neuropathology associated with a single or repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The current review discusses the physiological underpinnings of the blood-oxygen level dependent response and how trauma affects the signal. Methodological challenges associated with fMRI data analyses are considered next, followed by a review of current mTBI findings. The majority of evoked studies have examined working memory and attentional functioning, with results suggesting a complex relationship between cognitive load/attentional demand and neuronal activation. Researchers have more recently investigated how brain trauma affects functional connectivity, and the benefits/drawbacks of evoked and functional connectivity studies are also discussed. The review concludes by discussing the major clinical challenges associated with fMRI studies of brain-injured patients, including patient heterogeneity and variations in scan-time post-injury. We conclude that the fMRI signal represents a complex filter through which researchers can measure the physiological correlates of concussive symptoms, an important goal for the burgeoning field of mTBI research. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Meier T.B.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute | Bellgowan P.S.,University of Tulsa | Singh R.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | Kuplicki R.,Laureate Institute for Brain Research | And 2 more authors.
JAMA neurology | Year: 2015

IMPORTANCE: Animal models suggest that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) is one of the most enduring physiological deficits following concussion. Despite this, longitudinal studies documenting serial changes in regional CBF following human concussion have yet to be performed.OBJECTIVE: To longitudinally assess the recovery of CBF in a carefully selected sample of collegiate athletes and compare time course of CBF recovery with that of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of collegiate football athletes (N = 44) participated in this mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study at a private research institute specializing in neuroimaging between March 2012 and December 2013. Serial imaging occurred approximately 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month postconcussion for a subset of participants (n = 17). All athletes reported no premorbid mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, or alcohol abuse.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging was used to collect voxelwise relative CBF at each visit. Neuropsychiatric evaluations and a brief cognitive screen were also performed at all 3 points. Clinicians trained in sports medicine provided an independent measure of real-world concussion outcome (ie, number of days withheld from competition).RESULTS: The results indicated both cognitive (simple reaction time) and neuropsychiatric symptoms at 1 day postinjury that resolved at either 1 week (cognitive; P < .005) or 1 month (neuropsychiatric; P < .005) postinjury. Imaging data suggested both cross-sectional (ie, healthy vs concussed athletes; P < .05) and longitudinal (1 day and 1 week vs 1 month postinjury; P < .001) evidence of CBF recovery in the right insular and superior temporal cortex. Importantly, CBF in the dorsal midinsular cortex was both decreased at 1 month postconcussion in slower-to-recover athletes (t11 = 3.45; P = .005) and was inversely related to the magnitude of initial psychiatric symptoms (Hamilton Depression Scale: r = -0.64, P = .02; Hamilton Anxiety Scale: r = -0.56, P = .046), suggesting a potential prognostic indication for CBF as a biomarker.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: To our knowledge, these results provide the first prospective evidence of reduced CBF in human concussion and subsequent recovery. The resolution of CBF abnormalities closely mirrors previous reports from the animal literature and show real-world validity for predicting outcome following concussion.

Mayer A.R.,The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (pmTBI) is the most prevalent neurological insult in children and is associated with both acute and chronic neurobehavioral sequelae. However, little is known about underlying pathophysiology and how injuries change as a function of recovery. Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were examined in 15 semi-acute pmTBI patients and 15 well-matched controls, with a subset of participants returning for a second visit. A novel analytic strategy was applied to capture spatially heterogeneous white matter injuries (lesions) in addition to standard analyses. Evidence of cognitive dysfunction after pmTBI was observed in the domains of attention (p = 0.02, d = -0.92) and processing speed (p = 0.05, d = -0.73) semi-acutely. Region of interest (ROI) and voxelwise analyses indicated increased anisotropic diffusion for pmTBI patients, with an elevated number of clusters with high anisotropy. Metrics of increased anisotropy were able to objectively classify pmTBI from healthy controls at 90% accuracy but were not associated with neuropsychological deficits. Little evidence of recovery in white matter abnormalities was observed over a 4-month interval in returning patients, indicating that physiological recovery may lag behind subjective reports of normality. Increased anisotropic diffusion has been previously linked with cytotoxic edema after TBI, and the magnitude and duration of these abnormalities appear to be greater in pediatric patients. Current findings suggest that developing white matter may be more susceptible to initial mechanical injury forces and that anisotropic diffusion provides an objective biomarker of pmTBI.

PubMed | The Mind Research Network & Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute and University of Maryland College Park
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Personality disorders | Year: 2016

Psychopathy is a serious personality disorder characterized by dysfunctional affective and behavioral symptoms. In incarcerated populations, elevated psychopathic traits have been linked to increased rates of violent recidivism. Cognitive processes related to error processing have been shown to differentiate individuals with high and low psychopathic traits and may contribute to poor decision making that increases the risk of recidivism. Error processing abnormalities related to psychopathy may be attributable to error-monitoring (error detection) or posterror processing (error evaluation). A recent bottleneck theory predicts deficiencies in posterror processing in individuals with high psychopathic traits. In the current study, incarcerated males (n = 93) performed a Go/NoGo response inhibition task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Classic time-domain windowed component and principal component analyses were used to measure error-monitoring (as measured with the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne]) and posterror processing (as measured with the error positivity [Pe]). Psychopathic traits were assessed using Hares Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). PCL-R Total score, Factor 1 (interpersonal-affective traits), and Facet 3 (lifestyle traits) scores were positively related to posterror processes (i.e., increased Pe amplitude) but unrelated to error-monitoring processes (i.e., ERN/Ne). These results support the attentional bottleneck theory and further describe deficiencies related to elevated psychopathic traits that could be beneficial for new treatment strategies for psychopathy.

PubMed | The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute and University of New Mexico
Type: | Journal: Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991) | Year: 2016

Parsing multisensory information from a complex external environment is a fundamental skill for all organisms. However, different organizational schemes currently exist for how multisensory information is processed in human (supramodal; organized by cognitive demands) versus primate (organized by modality/cognitive demands) lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging results from a large cohort of healthy controls (N = 64; Experiment 1) revealed a rostral-caudal stratification of LPFC for auditory versus visual attention during an audio-visual Stroop task. The stratification existed in spite of behavioral and functional evidence of increased interference from visual distractors. Increased functional connectivity was also observed between rostral LPFC and auditory cortex across independent samples (Experiments 2 and 3) and multiple methodologies. In contrast, the caudal LPFC was preferentially activated during visual attention but functioned in a supramodal capacity for resolving multisensory conflict. The caudal LPFC also did not exhibit increased connectivity with visual cortices. Collectively, these findings closely mirror previous nonhuman primate studies suggesting that visual attention relies on flexible use of a supramodal cognitive control network in caudal LPFC whereas rostral LPFC is specialized for directing attention to auditory inputs (i.e., human auditory fields).

PubMed | The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute and University of New Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Human brain mapping | Year: 2016

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response has commonly been used to investigate the neuropathology underlying cognitive and sensory deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SP) by examining the positive phase of the BOLD response, assuming a fixed shape for the hemodynamic response function (HRF). However, the individual phases (positive and post-stimulus undershoot (PSU)) of the HRF may be differentially affected by a variety of underlying pathologies. The current experiment used a multisensory detection task with a rapid event-related fMRI paradigm to investigate both the positive and PSU phases of the HRF in SP and healthy controls (HC). Behavioral results indicated no significant group differences during task performance. Analyses that examined the shape of the HRF indicated two distinct group differences. First, SP exhibited a reduced and/or prolonged PSU following normal task-related positive BOLD activation in secondary auditory and visual sensory areas relative to HC. Second, SP did not show task-induced deactivation in the anterior node of the default-mode network (aDMN) relative to HC. In contrast, when performing traditional analyses that focus on the positive phase, there were no group differences. Interestingly, the magnitude of the PSU in secondary auditory and visual areas was positively associated with the magnitude of task-induced deactivation within the aDMN, suggesting a possible common neural mechanism underlying both of these abnormalities (failure in neural inhibition). Results are consistent with recent views that separate neural processes underlie the two phases of the HRF and that they are differentially affected in SP. Hum Brain Mapp 37:745-755, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

PubMed | The Mind Research Network Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Brain imaging and behavior | Year: 2016

Although diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) has been widely used to characterize the effects of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI), to date no studies have investigated how novel geometric models of microstructure relate to more typical diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences. Moreover, few studies have evaluated the sensitivity of different registration pipelines (non-linear, linear and tract-based spatial statistics) for detecting dMRI abnormalities in clinical populations. Results from single-subject analyses in healthy controls (HC) indicated a strong negative relationship between fractional anisotropy (FA) and orientation dispersion index (ODI) in both white and gray matter. Equally important, only moderate relationships existed between all other estimates of free/intracellular water volume fractions and more traditional DTI metrics (FA, mean, axial and radial diffusivity). These findings suggest that geometric measures provide differential information about the cellular microstructure relative to traditional DTI measures. Results also suggest greater sensitivity for non-linear registration pipelines that maximize the anatomical information available in T

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