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Claus E.D.,Mind Research Network | Blaine S.K.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Filbey F.M.,University of Texas at Dallas | Mayer A.R.,Mind Research Network | And 2 more authors.
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Enhanced motivational salience towards smoking cues is a consequence of chronic nicotine use, but the degree to which this value increases beyond that of other appetitive cues is unknown. In addition, it is unclear how connectivity between brain regions influences cue reactivity and how cue reactivity and functional connectivity are related to nicotine dependence severity. This study examined neural responses during the presentation of smoking cues and appetitive control cues, as well as functional connectivity in 116 smokers with a range of nicotine dependence severity. Smoking cues elicited greater response above baseline than food cues in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) and less deactivation below baseline in middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, and middle temporal gyrus. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis using right OFC as a seed revealed increased connectivity with somatosensory cortex and lateral inferior parietal lobe during smoking cues compared with food cues. Similarly, a PPI analysis using left insula as a seed showed stronger connectivity with somatosensory cortex, right insula, OFC, and striatum. Finally, relationships with nicotine dependence scores showed enhanced response in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the smoking vs food comparison, and increased connectivity between insula and circuits involved in motivated behavior. Combined, these results suggest that smokers engage attentional networks and default mode networks involved in self-referential processing to a greater degree during smoking cues. In addition, individuals with greater nicotine dependence severity show increased engagement of sensorimotor and motor preparation circuits, suggesting increased reliance on habitual behavior. © 2013 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology.


Schacht J.P.,Medical University of South Carolina | Hutchison K.E.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Hutchison K.E.,Mind Research Network | Filbey F.M.,University of Texas at Dallas
Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2012

Heavy cannabis users display smaller amygdalae and hippocampi than controls, and genetic variation accounts for a large proportion of variance in liability to cannabis dependence (CD). A single nucleotide polymorphism in the cannabis receptor-1 gene (CNR1), rs2023239, has been associated with CD diagnosis and intermediate phenotypes, including abstinence-induced withdrawal, cue-elicited craving, and parahippocampal activation to cannabis cues. This study compared hippocampal and amygdalar volumes (potential CD intermediate phenotypes) between heavy cannabis users and healthy controls, and analyzed interactions between group, rs2023239 variation, and the volumes of these structures. Ninety-four heavy cannabis users participated, of whom 37 (14 men, 23 women; mean age27.8) were matched to 37 healthy controls (14 men, 23 women; mean age27.3) for case-control analyses. Controlling for total intracranial volume and other confounding variables, matched cannabis users had smaller bilateral hippocampi (left, p=0.002; right, p=0.001) and left amygdalae (p=0.01) than controls. When genotype was considered in the case-control analyses, there was a group by genotype interaction, such that the rs2023239 G allele predicted lower volume of bilateral hippocampi among cannabis users relative to controls (both p=0.001). This interaction persisted when all 94 cannabis users were compared to controls. There were no group by genotype interactions on amygdalar volume. These data replicate previous findings of reduced hippocampal and amygdalar volume among heavy cannabis users, and suggest that CNR1 rs2023239 variation may predispose smaller hippocampal volume after heavy cannabis use. This association should be tested in future studies of brain volume differences in CD. © 2012 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. All rights reserved.


Turner J.A.,Mind Research Network | Laird A.R.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Neuroinformatics | Year: 2012

We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Brown J.L.,Emory University | Littlewood R.A.,Mind Research Network | Vanable P.A.,Syracuse University
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2013

High levels of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are required to achieve optimal viral suppression. To better understand mechanisms associated with ART adherence, this study characterized demographic and social-cognitive correlates of ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals from a medium-sized northeastern US city (n=116; 42% female; 43% African-American). Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey assessing demographics, social-cognitive constructs, and ART adherence, and the participants' most recent viral load was obtained from their medical charts. Suboptimal ART adherence (taking less than 95% of prescribed medications during the past month) was reported by 39% of participants and was associated with being female, being a minority, and having a detectable viral load. In a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, greater than 95% ART adherence was associated with higher levels of adherence self-efficacy (AOR =1.1; p=0.015), higher perceived normative beliefs about the importance of ART adherence (AOR=1.3; p=0.03), and lower concern about missing ART doses (AOR=0.63; p=0.002). Adherence did not differ based on ART outcome expectancies, ART attitudes, or the perceived necessity of ART. In fact, most participants endorsed positive attitudes and expectancies regarding the need for and effectiveness of ART. Taken together, results indicate that suboptimal adherence remains high among HIV-infected minority women, a subpopulation that experiences particularly high rates of chronic stress due to both illness-specific stressors and broader environmental stressors. Consistent with social-cognitive theory, adherence problems in our sample were linked with deficits in self-efficacy as well as perceived norms and behavioral intentions that do not support a goal of 100% adherence. We suggest that interventions to improve adherence informed by social-cognitive theory (1) target patients who are at risk for adherence problems, (2) provide a supportive environment that promotes high rates of adherence, and (3) address inaccurate beliefs regarding optimal adherence levels. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Calhoun V.D.,Mind Research Network | Calhoun V.D.,University of New Mexico | Adali T.,University of Maryland Baltimore County
IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2012

Since the discovery of functional connectivity in fMRI data (i.e., temporal correlations between spatially distinct regions of the brain) there has been a considerable amount of work in this field. One important focus has been on the analysis of brain connectivity using the concept of networks instead of regions. Approximately ten years ago, two important research areas grew out of this concept. First, a network proposed to be a default mode of brain function since dubbed the default mode network was proposed by Raichle. Secondly, multisubject or group independent component analysis (ICA) provided a data-driven approach to study properties of brain networks, including the default mode network. In this paper, we provide a focused review of how ICA has contributed to the study of intrinsic networks. We discuss some methodological considerations for group ICA and highlight multiple analytic approaches for studying brain networks. We also show examples of some of the differences observed in the default mode and resting networks in the diseased brain. In summary, we are in exciting times and still just beginning to reap the benefits of the richness of functional brain networks as well as available analytic approaches. © 2008-2011 IEEE.


Littlewood R.A.,Mind Research Network | Vanable P.A.,Syracuse University
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2011

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular adjunct to conventional medicine across medical populations, and is particularly relevant in the global HIV epidemic. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV is ubiquitous in high-resource areas and efforts to increase coverage in low-resource areas are underway. To better understand the role of CAM in HIV treatment and the implications of CAM use for ART uptake and adherence, we review international research published between 2007 and 2011. Findings confirm that CAM is commonly used as an adjunct to ART; however, in countries where ART is less accessible, many HIV-positive individuals take a pluralistic approach to health care, incorporating both traditional and, when available, conventional medicine. The reviewed studies provide no consensus on whether the use of CAM interferes with ART uptake or adherence; instead, research suggests that illness-related behaviors are driven by multiple factors and determined, at least in part, by the availability and accessibility of ART. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Decety J.,University of Chicago | Chen C.,University of Chicago | Harenski C.,University of New Mexico | Harenski C.,Mind Research Network | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2013

While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare psychopathy checklist-revised, PCL-R ≥ 30), intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21 and 29), and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20) psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula (aINS), anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical problem. © 2013 Decety, Chen, Harenski and Kiehl.


McEachern A.D.,Mind Research Network | Snyder J.,Wichita State University
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2012

This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was related to later overt antisocial behavior for boys and girls, and more strongly for girls than for boys. Early relational aggression was not associated with later forms of antisocial behavior. In the context of early physical aggression, for boys and girls peer rejection generally served to increment risk for later overt and covert antisocial behavior in an additive fashion. The data suggest some gender specificity in the social risk processes associated with the development of early overt and covert antisocial behaviors. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.


Johnson C.,Sandia National Laboratories | Schwindt P.D.D.,Sandia National Laboratories | Weisend M.,Mind Research Network
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2010

The authors have detected magnetic fields from the human brain with a compact, fiber-coupled rubidium spin-exchange-relaxation-free magnetometer. Optical pumping is performed on the D1 transition and Faraday rotation is measured on the D2 transition. The beams share an optical axis, with dichroic optics preparing beam polarizations appropriately. A sensitivity of <5 fT/ Hz is achieved. Evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer. Recordings were validated by comparison with those taken by a commercial magnetoencephalography system. The design is amenable to arraying sensors around the head, providing a framework for noncryogenic, whole-head magnetoencephalography. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.


Anderson N.E.,Mind Research Network | Stanford M.S.,Baylor University
Psychophysiology | Year: 2012

Psychopaths exhibit abnormalities processing emotional information, but there is less certainty regarding the role attention plays in these processes. We present data from two affective picture-viewing tasks comparing event-related potential (ERP) modulation effects when emotional information is present but not task relevant (Task 1) followed by a condition directing attention to the categorization of emotional content (Task 2). Controls show a robust, persistent ERP positivity (200-900ms) associated with emotional target photos compared to neutral targets in both tasks. Individuals with psychopathy only showed this differentiation when explicitly attending to the emotional content of the photos (Task 2), and these effects remained smaller than the amplitude differences demonstrated by controls. Although abnormal allocation of attention may play a critical role, this cannot completely account for emotional processing deficits associated with psychopathy. © 2012 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

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