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Albuquerque, NM, United States

Brown J.L.,Emory University | Littlewood R.A.,Mind Research Network | Vanable P.A.,Syracuse University
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2013

High levels of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence are required to achieve optimal viral suppression. To better understand mechanisms associated with ART adherence, this study characterized demographic and social-cognitive correlates of ART adherence among HIV-infected individuals from a medium-sized northeastern US city (n=116; 42% female; 43% African-American). Participants completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey assessing demographics, social-cognitive constructs, and ART adherence, and the participants' most recent viral load was obtained from their medical charts. Suboptimal ART adherence (taking less than 95% of prescribed medications during the past month) was reported by 39% of participants and was associated with being female, being a minority, and having a detectable viral load. In a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, greater than 95% ART adherence was associated with higher levels of adherence self-efficacy (AOR =1.1; p=0.015), higher perceived normative beliefs about the importance of ART adherence (AOR=1.3; p=0.03), and lower concern about missing ART doses (AOR=0.63; p=0.002). Adherence did not differ based on ART outcome expectancies, ART attitudes, or the perceived necessity of ART. In fact, most participants endorsed positive attitudes and expectancies regarding the need for and effectiveness of ART. Taken together, results indicate that suboptimal adherence remains high among HIV-infected minority women, a subpopulation that experiences particularly high rates of chronic stress due to both illness-specific stressors and broader environmental stressors. Consistent with social-cognitive theory, adherence problems in our sample were linked with deficits in self-efficacy as well as perceived norms and behavioral intentions that do not support a goal of 100% adherence. We suggest that interventions to improve adherence informed by social-cognitive theory (1) target patients who are at risk for adherence problems, (2) provide a supportive environment that promotes high rates of adherence, and (3) address inaccurate beliefs regarding optimal adherence levels. © 2013 Taylor & Francis. Source


McEachern A.D.,Mind Research Network | Snyder J.,Wichita State University
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2012

This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was related to later overt antisocial behavior for boys and girls, and more strongly for girls than for boys. Early relational aggression was not associated with later forms of antisocial behavior. In the context of early physical aggression, for boys and girls peer rejection generally served to increment risk for later overt and covert antisocial behavior in an additive fashion. The data suggest some gender specificity in the social risk processes associated with the development of early overt and covert antisocial behaviors. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source


Turner J.A.,Mind Research Network | Laird A.R.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Neuroinformatics | Year: 2012

We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011. Source


Littlewood R.A.,Mind Research Network | Vanable P.A.,Syracuse University
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2011

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular adjunct to conventional medicine across medical populations, and is particularly relevant in the global HIV epidemic. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV is ubiquitous in high-resource areas and efforts to increase coverage in low-resource areas are underway. To better understand the role of CAM in HIV treatment and the implications of CAM use for ART uptake and adherence, we review international research published between 2007 and 2011. Findings confirm that CAM is commonly used as an adjunct to ART; however, in countries where ART is less accessible, many HIV-positive individuals take a pluralistic approach to health care, incorporating both traditional and, when available, conventional medicine. The reviewed studies provide no consensus on whether the use of CAM interferes with ART uptake or adherence; instead, research suggests that illness-related behaviors are driven by multiple factors and determined, at least in part, by the availability and accessibility of ART. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source


Das P.,University of Sydney | Calhoun V.,Mind Research Network | Calhoun V.,University of New Mexico | Malhi G.S.,University of Sydney
NeuroImage | Year: 2014

Bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality (BPD) disorder share clinical features such as emotional lability and poor interpersonal functioning but the course of illness and treatment differs in these groups, which suggests that the underlying neurobiology of BD and BPD is likely to be different. Understanding the neural mechanisms behind the pathophysiology of BD and BPD will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform the administration of targeted treatment.Since deficits in social cognition or emotion regulation or in the self-referential processing system can give rise to these clinical features, and impairment in these domains have been observed in both patient groups, functional connectivity within and between networks subserving these processes during resting was investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Data were acquired from 16 patients with BD, 14 patients with BPD, and 13 healthy controls (HC) and functional connectivity strength was correlated with scores using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale.Functional network connectivity (FNC) patterns differentiated BD and BPD patients from HC. In BD, FNC was increased while in BPD it was decreased. In BD impaired FNC was evident primarily among networks involved in self-referential processing while in BPD it also involved the emotion regulatory network. Impaired FNC displayed an association with impulsivity in BPD and emotional clarity and emotional awareness in BD.This study shows that BD and BPD can perhaps be differentiated using resting state FNC approach and that the neural mechanisms underpinning overlapping symptoms discernibly differ between the groups. These findings provide a potential platform for elucidating the targeted effects of psychological interventions in both disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

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