Brain Mind Research Institute


Brain Mind Research Institute

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Meyniel C.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Meyniel C.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Spelman T.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Jokubaitis V.G.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | And 32 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objectives: We conducted a prospective study, MSBASIS, to assess factors leading to first treatment discontinuation in patients with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: The MSBASIS Study, conducted by MSBase Study Group members, enrols patients seen from CIS onset, reporting baseline demographics, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. Follow-up visits report relapses, EDSS scores, and the start and end dates of MS-specific therapies. We performed a multivariable survival analysis to determine factors within this dataset that predict first treatment discontinuation. Results: A total of 2314 CIS patients from 44 centres were followed for a median of 2.7 years, during which time 1247 commenced immunomodulatory drug (IMD) treatment. Ninety percent initiated IMD after a diagnosis of MS was confirmed, and 10% while still in CIS status. Over 40% of these patients stopped their first IMD during the observation period. Females were more likely to cease medication than males (HR 1.36, p = 0.003). Patients treated in Australia were twice as likely to cease their first IMD than patients treated in Spain (HR 1.98, p = 0.001). Increasing EDSS was associated with higher rate of IMD cessation (HR 1.21 per EDSS unit, p<0.001), and intramuscular interferon-β-1a (HR 1.38, p = 0.028) and subcutaneous interferon-β-1a (HR 1.45, p = 0.012) had higher rates of discontinuation than glatiramer acetate, although this varied widely in different countries. Onset cerebral MRI features, age, time to treatment initiation or relapse on treatment were not associated with IMD cessation. Conclusion: In this multivariable survival analysis, female sex, country of residence, EDSS change and IMD choice independently predicted time to first IMD cessation. © 2012 Meyniel et al.

Lechner-Scott J.,John Hunter Hospital | Lechner-Scott J.,University of Newcastle | Spencer B.,John Hunter Hospital | De Malmanche T.,John Hunter Hospital | And 34 more authors.
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2012

Background: With the advent of MRI scanning, the value of lumbar puncture to assess oligoclonal band (OCB) statusfor the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is increasingly uncertain. One major issue is that the reported frequency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-restricted oligoclonal banding for the diagnosis of MS varies considerably in different studies. In addition, the relationship between OCB positivity and disease outcome remains uncertain, as reported studies are generally too small to assess comparative disability outcomes with sufficient power. Methods: In order to further investigate variation of OCB positivity in patients with MS, we utilized MSBase, a longitudinal, Web-based collaborative MS outcomes registry following clinical cohorts in several continents and latitudes. We also assessed whether OCB positivity affects long-term disability outcome. Results: A total of 13,242 patient records were obtained from 37 MS specialist centres in 19 different countries. OCB status was documented in 4481 (34%) patients and 80% of these were OCB positive. The presence of OCB was associated with degree of latitude (p = 0.02). Furthermore, the outcome of patients negative for CSF-specific OCB was significantly better in comparison to the OCB positive patients, as assessed by Expanded Disability Status Scale change (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that latitude could explain some of the inconsistencies in OCB status reported in different populations. The study confirms that OCB positivity in MS is associated with a worse long-term prognosis. © The Author(s) 2012.

Jokubaitis V.G.,University of Melbourne | Jokubaitis V.G.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Spelman T.,Royal Melbourne Hospital | Lechner-Scott J.,John Hunter Hospital | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objective: To prospectively characterise treatment persistence and predictors of treatment discontinuation in an Australian relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) population. Methods: Tertiary MS treatment centres participating in the MSBase registry prospectively assessed treatment utilisation, persistence, predictors of treatment discontinuation and switch rates. Multivariable survival analyses were used to compare treatment persistence between drugs and to identify predictors of treatment discontinuation. Results: 1113 RRMS patients were studied. Patients persisted on their first disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for a median of 2.5 years. Treatment persistence on GA was shorter than on all IFNβ products (p<0.03). Younger age at treatment initiation and higher EDSS were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Patients persisted on subsequent DMTs, for 2.3 years. Patients receiving natalizumab (NAT) as a subsequent DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on IFNβ or GA (p<0.000). The primary reason for treatment discontinuation for any drug class was poor tolerability. Annualised switch or cessation rates were 9.5-12.5% for individual IFNβ products, 11.6% for GA and 4.4% for NAT. Conclusion: This multicentre MS cohort study is the first to directly compare treatment persistence on IFNβ and GA to NAT. We report that treatment persistence in our Australian RRMS population is short, although patients receiving IFNβ as a first DMT persisted longer on treatment than those on GA. Additionally, patients receiving NAT as a subsequent DMT were more likely to persist on treatment than those switched to IFNβ or GA. EDSS and age at DMT initiation were predictive of DMT discontinuation. Treatment intolerance was the principal reason for treatment cessation. © 2013 Jokubaitis et al.

PubMed | University of Sydney, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Specialist MRI and Brain & Mind Research Institute
Type: | Journal: NeuroImage. Clinical | Year: 2014

Chronic cyanosis in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) may cause structural brain changes that could contribute to impaired neurological functioning. The extent of these changes has not been adequately characterized.We hypothesized that adults with cyanotic CHD would have widespread changes including abnormal brain volumetric measures, decreased cortical thickness and an increased burden of small and large vessel ischemic changes.Ten adults with chronic cyanosis from CHD (404years) and mean oxygen saturations of 822% were investigated using quantitative MRI. Hematological and biochemical parameters were also assessed. All subjects were free from major physical or intellectual impairment. Brain volumetric results were compared with randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls from our database of normal subjects.Five of 10 cyanotic subjects had cortical lacunar infarcts. The white matter (WM) hyperintensity burden was also abnormally high (Scheltens Scale was 82). Quantitative MRI revealed evidence of extensive generalized WM and gray matter (GM) volumetric loss; global GM volume was reduced in cyanosed subjects (63016 vs. 69614mL in controls, p=0.01) as was global WM volume (47110 vs. 56418mL, p=0.003). Ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volume was increased (3510 vs. 265mL, p=0.002). There were widespread regions of local cortical thickness reduction observed across the brain. These changes included bilateral thickness reductions in the frontal lobe including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus, the posterior parietal lobe and the middle temporal gyrus. Sub-cortical volume changes were observed in the caudate, putamen and in the thalamus (p0.005 for all regions). Cortical GM volume negatively correlated with brain natriuretic peptide (R=-0.89, p=0.009), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (R=-0.964, p<0.0001) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (R=-0.75, p=0.026) but not with oxygen saturations, packed cell volume or viscosity.We present the first comprehensive analysis of brain structure in adults with chronic neurocyanosis due to congenital heart disease. We demonstrate clear evidence for marked macro- and microvascular injury. Cyanotic patients show global evidence for reduced brain volume as well as specific foci of cortical thickness reduction. The GM volume loss correlated with hsCRP, BNP and ADMA suggesting that inflammation, neurohormonal activation and endothelial dysfunction may have important roles in its pathogenesis.

PubMed | Brain & Mind Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of affective disorders | Year: 2011

Sleep-wake disturbance in older people is a risk factor for depression onset and recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine if objective sleep-wake disturbance in late-life depression relates to neuropsychological functioning.Forty-four older patients with a lifetime history of major depression and 22 control participants underwent psychiatric, medical and neuropsychological assessments. Participants completed self-report sleep measures, sleep diaries and wore wrist actigraphy for two weeks. Outcome measures included sleep latency, the number and duration of nocturnal awakenings and the overall sleep efficiency.Patients with depression had a greater duration of nocturnal awakenings and poorer sleep efficiency, in comparison to control participants. Sleep disturbance in patients was associated with greater depression severity and later ages of depression onset. It also related to poorer psychomotor speed, poorer verbal and visual learning, poorer semantic fluency as well as poorer performance on tests of executive functioning. These relationships largely remained significant after controlling for depression and estimated apnoea severity.This sample had only mild levels of depression severity and results require replication in patients with moderate to severe depression. The inclusion of polysomnography and circadian markers would be useful to delineate the specific features of sleep-wake disturbance that are critical to cognitive performance.Sleep-wake disturbance in older patients with depression is related to neuropsychological functioning and to later ages of illness onset. This study suggests that common neurobiological changes may underpin these disease features, which may, in turn, warrant early identification and management.

PubMed | Brain & Mind Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Early intervention in psychiatry | Year: 2011

The study aims to compare social functioning in young people considered to be at risk of psychosis with those meeting criteria for first episode psychosis (FEP) and controls, and to determine the association between social functioning and positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety.This study examined social functioning in 20 individuals at risk of psychosis, 20 FEP patients and 20 healthy controls. Social functioning was measured using the Social Functioning Scale and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale. Psychiatric variables were also measured using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Brief Social Phobia Scale, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale.At-risk individuals had comparable social deficits to the FEP group, and both patient groups had significantly poorer social functioning than controls. Importantly, social functioning was most strongly associated with depressive and social anxiety symptoms and to a lesser extent with positive symptoms. However, negative symptoms did not appear to relate to social functioning.Social functioning impairments precede the onset of full-threshold psychosis and may therefore be a significant marker for the illness. Additionally, associated psychiatric symptoms such as depression and social anxiety may provide an avenue for early interventions of social functioning deficits in psychosis.

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