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Brookman-Frazee L.,University of California at San Diego | Stahmer A.,MIND Institute | Stadnick N.,University of California at San Diego | Chlebowski C.,University of California at San Diego | And 2 more authors.
Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research | Year: 2016

This study characterized the use of research community partnerships (RCPs) to tailor evidence-based intervention, training, and implementation models for delivery across different childhood problems and service contexts using a survey completed by project principal investigators and community partners. To build on previous RCP research and to explicate the tacit knowledge gained through collaborative efforts, the following were examined: (1) characteristics of studies using RCP models; (2) RCP functioning, processes, and products; (3) processes of tailoring evidence-based practices for community implementation; and (4) perceptions of the benefits and challenges of collaborating with community providers and consumers. Results indicated that researchers were solely or jointly involved in the formation of almost all of the RCPs; interpersonal and operational processes were perceived as primary challenges; community partners’ roles included greater involvement in implementation and participant recruitment than more traditional research activities; and the partnership process was perceived to increase the relevance and “fit” of interventions and research. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ozyurt I.B.,University of California at San Diego | Keator D.B.,University of California at Irvine | Wei D.,University of California at Irvine | Fennema-Notestine C.,University of California at San Diego | And 3 more authors.
Neuroinformatics | Year: 2010

Managing vast datasets collected throughout multiple clinical imaging communities has become critical with the ever increasing and diverse nature of datasets. Development of data management infrastructure is further complicated by technical and experimental advances that drive modifications to existing protocols and acquisition of new types of research data to be incorporated into existing data management systems. In this paper, an extensible data management system for clinical neuroimaging studies is introduced: The Human Clinical Imaging Database (HID) and Toolkit. The database schema is constructed to support the storage of new data types without changes to the underlying schema. The complex infrastructure allows management of experiment data, such as image protocol and behavioral task parameters, as well as subject-specific data, including demographics, clinical assessments, and behavioral task performance metrics. Of significant interest, embedded clinical data entry and management tools enhance both consistency of data reporting and automatic entry of data into the database. The Clinical Assessment Layout Manager (CALM) allows users to create on-line data entry forms for use within and across sites, through which data is pulled into the underlying database via the generic clinical assessment management engine (GAME). Importantly, the system is designed to operate in a distributed environment, serving both human users and client applications in a service-oriented manner. Querying capabilities use a built-in multi-database parallel query builder/result combiner, allowing web-accessible queries within and across multiple federated databases. The system along with its documentation is open-source and available from the Neuroimaging Informatics Tools and Resource Clearinghouse (NITRC) site. © 2010 The Author(s).

Anagnostou E.,Bloorview Research Institute | Anagnostou E.,University of Toronto | Hansen R.,MIND Institute | Hansen R.,University of California at Davis
Current Opinion in Pediatrics | Year: 2011

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 35% of children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) receive at least one psychotropic medication. 50-70% of this population also receives biologically based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The data evaluating such practices are being reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: There are accumulating data to suggest that atypical antipsychotics and stimulants may be useful for the treatment of irritability and hyperactivity in children and youth with ASD. The data for the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are less promising. New avenues of pharmacologic research targeting molecular targets identified by genomics, animal models and neuropathology are being evaluated. Areas of interest include glutamate/gamma-aminobutyric acid systems, neuropeptides such as oxytocin, and immune dysfunction, among others. In the case of biologically based CAM, a few compounds have been shown to be well tolerated, although efficacy is still being evaluated, such as melatonin, certain vitamins, and omega 3 fatty acids. Others have safety concerns without demonstrated efficacy, such as chelation therapies. SUMMARY: Accumulating data suggest a series of existing medications may be useful in ASD and large randomized clinical trials are necessary to evaluate safety and efficacy of both pharmaceuticals and alternative treatments. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Solomon M.,MIND Institute | Solomon M.,Imaging Research Center | Olsen E.,Imaging Research Center | Niendam T.,Imaging Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Research | Year: 2011

Objective: Individuals with autism and schizophrenia exhibit atypical language and social symptoms. The extent to which these symptoms are evident during development and in current functioning is unclear. Method: Three groups of patients aged 11-20 diagnosed as clinical-high-risk for psychosis (CHR; n = 15), first episode psychosis (FEP; n = 16), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD; n = 20), plus typically developing individuals (TYP; n = 20) were compared on common autism parent-report questionnaires assessing social and language development and current functioning including the Social Communication Questionnaire, the Children's Communication Checklist, and the Social Reciprocity Scale. Results: All clinical groups demonstrated atypical social and language development, with social impairment highest in ASD. Twenty percent of participants with CHR and FEP met diagnostic criteria for ASD as assessed by parent-report. ASD exhibited greater current syntactic, and pragmatic language symptoms including delayed echolalia, pedantic speech, and deficits in appreciating irony and sarcasm. All clinical groups exhibited current deficits in social functioning. CHR and FE had similar and intermediate levels of functioning relative to ASD and TYP, with CHR generally scoring closer to TYP, providing construct validity for the CHR diagnostic label. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that ASDs, CHR, and FEP share common features of atypical neurodevelopment of language and social function. Evidence of impaired social reciprocity across both disorders and distinct language symptoms in ASDs provides important information for differential diagnosis and psychosis prevention, as well as leads for future investigations of comparative genetics and pathophysiology. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Pesut D.,University of Belgrade | Raskovic S.,University of Belgrade | Tomic-Spiric V.,University of Belgrade | Bulajic M.,Laboratory of Statistics | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Respiratory Journal | Year: 2014

Background: The increasing prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) is reported worldwide. Illness perception (IP) assessment is warranted in current routine clinical practice to assist communication between patients and medical staff, and improve adherence to treatment and disease outcome. Objective: To investigate a group of patients with AR in terms of their IP by the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ) and to correlate the findings with demographic and clinical features. Methods: In this observational questionnaire-based study, a successive series of patients treated for AR at the Allergology and Immunology Teaching Hospital, Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade, were enrolled from September 2010 to January 2011, and 93 valid questionnaires were analyzed. Each item of the BIPQ assessed one dimension of IP like the consequences, timeline, personal control, treatment control, identity, coherence, emotional representation and concern. Results: The patients' average age: 35.25±12.42; male/female ratio: 0.79; the overall BIPQ score=34.69±11.89. The highest item-related scores were found for treatment control (8.17±2.28), illness understanding (7.34±2.96) and emotional representation (6.30±3.45), and the lowest for identity (4.8±2.78) and affection (4.83±2.65). Women compared with men perceive AR as a significantly more threatening disease (P=0.04). No significant correlation between the BIPQ total or item-related scores was found for any other demographic or clinical feature. Conclusion: The BIPQ, which allows rapid assessment of IP and reveals gender differences in AR, is a convenient tool for use in routine clinical practice. Further investigation is needed to demonstrate how IP may influence patients' behavior in AR, treatment adherence and disease outcome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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