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Okinawa, Japan

Minami Kyushu University is a private university in Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded in 1962, and it was chartered as a university in 1967. Wikipedia.

Nishizaki Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Yasunaga M.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Okamoto E.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Okamoto M.,Ehime Research Institute of Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2013

The blue color of delphinium (Delphinium grandiflorum) flowers is produced by two 7-polyacylated anthocyanins, violdelphin and cyanodelphin. Violdelphin is derived from the chromophore delphinidin that has been modified at the 7-position by Glc and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) molecules. Modification of violdelphin by linear conjugation of Glc and pHBA molecules to a Glc moiety at the 7-position produces cyanodelphin. We recently showed that anthocyanin 7-O-glucosylation in delphinium is catalyzed by the acyl-Glc-dependent anthocyanin glucosyltransferase (AAGT). Here, we sought to answer the question of which enzyme activities are necessary for catalyzing the transfer of Glc and pHBA moieties to 7-glucosylated anthocyanin. We found that these transfers were catalyzed by enzymes that use p-hydroxybenzoyl-Glc (pHBG) as a bifunctional acyl and glucosyl donor. In addition, we determined that violdelphin is synthesized via step-by-step enzymatic reactions catalyzed by two enzymes that use pHBG as an acyl or glucosyl donor. We also isolated a cDNA encoding a protein that has the potential for p-hydroxybenzoylation activity and two AAGT cDNAs that encode a protein capable of adding Glc to delphinidin 3-Orutinoside- 7-O-(6-O-[p-hydroxybenzoyl]-glucoside) to form violdelphin. © 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

An automatic drip irrigation system based on sap flow rate measured by the heat pulse method was developed and examined for sweet pepper cultivation. When the accumulated sap flow rates reached a certain point, irrigation was executed at an intensity of 40 ml min-1. In this study, 3 irrigation plots, (1 L, 3 L, and 4.5 L), were examined for sweet pepper cultivation and compared with a general automatic irrigation system based on soil moisture monitoring, determined by a soil moisture sensor. Automatic drip irrigation systems based on soil moisture measurement have a tendency to decrease crop transpiration under high atmospheric demand conditions. Two approaches to avoid this decrease were investigated; one approach was based on the location of drip points and the other approach was based on applying supplemental irrigation in various ways. Measurements of solar radiation were used to control additional watering under high evaporative conditions. The supplemental irrigation system adopted in this study had positive practical results without significant reduction in transpiration due to water stress. Source

Tatsuzawa F.,Iwate University | Saito N.,Hoshi University | Toki K.,Minami Kyushu University | Shinoda K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Honda T.,Hoshi University
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

The flower colors and anthocyanin constitution of eight cultivars of Vintage series bedding Stock (Matthiola incana) were surveyed to determine the relation between their flower colors and anthocyanin components. Thirteen anthocyanins were isolated from the flowers of these cultivars as major anthocyanins, and their structures were identified by chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Among them, a novel anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-caffeoyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucoside (pigment 1) was found in single and double flowers in cultivars of 'Vintage Lavender' and 'Vintage Burgundy'. Furthermore, two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucoside (pigment 2) and cyanidin 3-feruloyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucoside (pigment 3), were also found in these cultivars for the first time in Matthiola incana flowers. Regarding the flower color variation in these cultivars, the hue values (b*/a*) of these flower colors were roughly responsible for the numbers of hydroxycinnamic acid residues in anthocyanin molecules and also hydroxyl patterns of the B-ring in anthocyanidins. These flower colors were classified into eight groups, A-H, based on the hue values of their flowers, and were arranged as follows. In violet flowers (hue values b*/a* = -0.66 and -0.69, V 84A) of group A, cyanidin 3-dihydroxycinnamoyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucosides were major anthocyanin pigments. In purple flowers (-0.43 and -0.45, P 75A) and red-purple flowers (-0.14 and -0.16, RP 74A) of groups B and D, pelargonidin 3-dihydroxycinnamoyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucosides were major anthocyanin pigments. In red-purple flowers (-0.21 and -0.24, RP 72A) of group C, cyanidin 3-monohydroxycinnamoyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucosides were major anthocyanin pigments. In red flowers (0.05 and 0.06, RP 66A) of group E, pelargonidin 3-monohydroxycinnamoyl-sambubioside-5-malonyl-glucosides were major anthocyanin pigments. In copper (0.23 and 0.16, R 54A) and peach (2.37 and 2.09, R38C) of groups F and G, pelargonidin 3-glucoside was a major anthocyanin pigment, and a small amount of pelargonidin 3-glucoside was present in yellow flowers of group H. From these results, the relation between flower colors and the bluing effects of acylated anthocyanins with hydroxycinnamic acids was discussed in flowers of Matthiola incana cultivars of Vintage series. © 2012. Source

Saito N.,Hoshi University | Tatsuzawa F.,Iwate University | Toki K.,Minami Kyushu University | Shinoda K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Phytochemistry | Year: 2011

Six acylated delphinidin glycosides (pigments 1-6) and one acylated kaempferol glycoside (pigment 9) were isolated from the blue flowers of cape stock (Heliophila coronopifolia) in Brassicaceae along with two known acylated cyanidin glycosides (pigments 7 and 8). Pigments 1-8, based on 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides of delphinidin and cyanidin, were acylated with hydroxycinnamic acids at 3-glycosyl residues of anthocyanidins. Using spectroscopic and chemical methods, the structures of pigments 1, 2, 5, and 6 were determined to be: delphinidin 3-O-[2-O-(β-xylopyranosyl)-6-O-(acyl)- β-glucopyranoside]-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], in which acyl moieties were, respectively, cis-p-coumaric acid for pigment 1, trans-caffeic acid for pigment 2, trans-p-coumaric acid for pigment 5 (a main pigment) and trans-ferulic acid for pigment 6, respectively. Moreover, the structure of pigments 3 and 4 were elucidated, respectively, as a demalonyl pigment 5 and a demalonyl pigment 6. Two known anthocyanins (pigments 7 and 8) were identified to be cyanidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl- glucoside) for pigment 7 and cyanidin 3-(6-feruloyl-sambubioside)-5-(6-malonyl- glucoside) for pigment 8 as minor anthocyanin pigments. A flavonol pigment (pigment 9) was isolated from its flowers and determined to be kaempferol 3-O-[6-O-(trans-feruloyl)-β-glucopyranoside]-7-O-cellobioside-4′-O- glucopyranoside as the main flavonol pigment. On the visible absorption spectral curve of the fresh blue petals of this plant and its petal pressed juice in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, three characteristic absorption maxima were observed at 546, 583 and 635 nm. However, the absorption curve of pigment 5 (a main anthocyanin in its flower) exhibited only one maximum at 569 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution, and violet color. The color of pigment 5 was observed to be very unstable in the pH 5.0 solution and soon decayed. In the pH 5.0 solution, the violet color of pigment 5 was restored as pure blue color by addition of pigment 9 (a main flavonol in this flower) like its fresh flower, and its blue solution exhibited the same three maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm. On the other hand, the violet color of pigment 5 in the pH 5.0 buffer solution was not restored as pure blue color by addition of deacyl pigment 9 or rutin (a typical flower copigment). It is particularly interesting that, a blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was extracted from the blue flowers of this plant with H 2O or 5% HOAc solution as a dark blue powder. This complex exhibited the same absorption maxima at 546, 583 and 635 nm in the pH 5.0 buffer solution. Analysis of FAB mass measurement established that this blue anthocyanin-flavonol complex was composed of one molecule each of pigment 5 and pigment 9, exhibiting a molecular ion [M+1] + at 2102 m/z (C 93H 105O 55 calc. 2101.542). However, this blue complex is extremely unstable in acid solution. It really dissociates into pigment 5 and pigment 9. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

The chrysanthemum longicorn beetle, Phytoecia rufiventris, overwinters in the adult stage and reproduces in spring. Larvae of this beetle develop during summer inside a host stem or root. In the present study, photoperiodic control of larval development and its adaptive significance were examined in this beetle using an artificial diet. Larvae showed a short-day photoperiodic response at 25 °C with a critical day length of around 14. h; larvae reared under short-day conditions pupated, whereas those reared under long-day conditions entered summer diapause with some supernumerary molts and did not pupate. A similar response was found at 30 °C, but with a shorter critical day length. Below the critical day length, a shorter day length corresponded to a shorter larval period. Larvae transferred from long-day conditions to various photoperiods showed a similar quantitative response. Field rearing of larvae starting at various times of year showed that pupation occurs within a relatively short period in early autumn. Field rearing of pupae and adults at various times indicated that only pupation in early autumn results in a high survival rate until winter. Earlier or later pupation led to a low survival rate due to death before overwintering in the adult and pupal stages, respectively. Thus, in P. rufiventris, timing of pupation regulated by the quantitative short-day photoperiodic response is vital for survival. Relatively lower developmental threshold in the pupal stage supports this hypothesis. © 2011. Source

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