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Milwaukee, WI, United States

Grilo M.L.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Grilo M.L.,University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover | Vanstreels R.E.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Wallace R.,Milwaukee County Zoo | And 4 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2016

ABSTRACT: Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50–80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however, its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of avian malaria, and provides details on the strategies that can be employed for the diagnostic, treatment and prevention of this disease in captive penguins, discussing possible directions for future research. © 2016 Houghton Trust Ltd. Source

Lyda R.O.,Science and Conservation Center | Frank K.M.,Science and Conservation Center | Wallace R.,Milwaukee County Zoo | Lamberski N.,San Diego Zoo Safari Park | Kirkpatrick J.F.,Science and Conservation Center
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Native porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception has been used to inhibit fertility in more than 80 species of ungulates, although the duration of contraception efficacy varies among species in both Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. This study examined anti-PZP antibody titers in Dall sheep and domestic goats at the Milwaukee County Zoo, and also Himalayan tahr and Armenian Mouflon sheep at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, and, for comparison, Altai wapiti, lowland wisent, Javan banteng, and southern pudu at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park, all were given a primer dose and booster dose of PZP. Of the San Diego Zoo Safari Park animals, the 4 comparison species demonstrated the typical 1-yr pattern of anti-PZP antibodies, whereas the Armenian sheep and Himalayan tahr showed prolonged (2-3 yr) antibody responses after a single primer and booster dose. The Dall sheep and domestic goats had significantly longer durations of antibody titers (3 yr) from a single year's treatment (primer plus booster). Analysis of the data indicates that Armenian sheep, Himalayan tahr, Dall sheep, and domestic goats have prolonged responses, and are more sensitive to PZP in that they produce a protracted antibody response. © Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Anderson R.,Wisconsin Lutheran College | Morrall C.,St. Georges University | Jossart J.,University of the Virgin Islands | Nimrod S.,St. Georges University | And 4 more authors.
Revista de Biologia Tropical | Year: 2014

Grenada is highly dependent on coral reefs as a source of food and to support tourism. Local and global environmental stressors threaten these reefs. Legislation was created for this MPA in 2001, permanent mooring buoys were deployed in 2009 and enforcement of fishing restrictions began in 2010. Initiatives to address point and nonpoint source pollution from the land have recently begun, aimed at reducing stress on reef area. This study documents benthic cover and fish populations associated with reefs in a Marine Protected Area (MPA) along Grenada’s southwest coast from 2008 through 2012. Both Point Line Intercept and Photo Quadrat methods were used to assess benthic cover along permanent 30m transects (8 in and 12 outside the area) annually. Fish and Diadema antillarum urchin relative abundance were determined based on 2m wide belt surveys along the same transects. The predominant substrate cover was algae, ranging from 41% in 2009 to 74.2% in 2011. A general trend of increasing algal cover was noted. Combined annual survey results prior (2008-2010) and after controls were implemented (2011-2012) showed a significant increase in algal cover. The predominant algal form was macroalgae comprising 65.4% - 90.8% of total algae. Live hard coral percent cover ranged from 8.7% to 21.1%. Little annual variation was observed in percent live coral cover. Branching corals (34.1% - 52.3% of total living hard coral) were the most common. Of the 19 living hard coral species identified, Porites porites (21%-23%) and Porites astreoides (20%) dominated percentage composition. Madracis mirabilis contributed 21% of total live hard coral outside the MPA but only 8.7% in the MPA. Of the 63 species of fish identified in the study areas Chromis spp. (71.5% - 46%) was the dominant group. Wrasse had a significant increase from 6.9% in 2008 to 21.5% in 2010 inside the MPA with a similar increase peaking in 2011 outside the MPA. There was a noticeable (though not statistically significant) increase in piscivorous fishes in the MPA in 2012. This is a promising indication that fishing restrictions in the MPA may be having an effect. Diadema antil-larum density was low, ranging from 4.58 to 0.21 urchins/100m2 outside and 0.28 to 0.10 urchins/100m2 inside despite a stocking attempt in the area in 2011. © 2014 Universidad de Costa Rica. All rights reserved. Source

Goldberg T.L.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Goldberg T.L.,Wisconsin National Primate Research Center | Gendron-Fitzpatrick A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Deering K.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 7 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

A captive juvenile Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) died from an unknown disseminated parasitic infection. Deep sequencing of DNA from infected tissues, followed by gene-specific PCR and sequencing, revealed a divergent species within the newly proposed genus Versteria (Cestoda: Taeniidae). Versteria may represent a previously unrecognized risk to primate health. Source

Lee L.M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Wallace R.S.,Milwaukee County Zoo | Clyde V.L.,Milwaukee County Zoo | Gendron-Fitzpatrick A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 10 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2016

We previously reported fatal infection of a captive Bornean orangutan with metacestodes of a novel taeniid tapeworm, Versteria sp. New data implicate mustelids as definitive hosts of these tapeworms in North America. At least 2 parasite genetic lineages circulate in North America, representing separate introductions from Eurasia. © 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Source

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