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Kersting W.H.,Milsoft Utility Solutions Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications | Year: 2015

Distribution systems are typically composed of radial feeders. Radial means that there is only one path of current flow to each of the loads on the feeder. There are times when it becomes necessary to form a loop in a feeder by closing switches. This may be because of an outage or a new load that will cause the radial current to exceed the conductor current rating or violate the American National Standards Institute voltage requirement. This paper will present a method for simulating the loop flow using an injection current technique. A simple single-phase circuit is used to demonstrate the steps in the simulation. Following that, the IEEE 13 bus test feeder will be studied as it is right now, followed by the addition of a new three-phase load at one bus and a new single-phase load added at another bus. Both of these loads are going to require the addition of new lines and the capability of operating the feeder with one or two closed loops. The process for simulating the closed loops will be presented. © 1972-2012 IEEE. Source


Kersting W.H.,Milsoft Utility Solutions Inc.
Papers Presented at the Annual Conference - Rural Electric Power Conference | Year: 2011

The IEEE Comprehensive Test Feeder was presented at the 2010 IEEE Transmission and Distribution Conference. [1] The purpose of this test feeder was to present the data for a radial distribution feeder that will require the modeling of all possible overhead and underground lines, voltage regulator connections and transformer connections. The data for the feeder can be found at the IEEE PES website. [2] This paper will demonstrate how the test feeder can be used to assist the distribution engineer in making decisions regarding the design of new or the upgrading of existing feeders. Particular attention will be paid to the many possible choices of three-phase transformer banks. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Kersting W.H.,Milsoft Utility Solutions Inc.
2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Smart Solutions for a Changing World | Year: 2010

In 1991 a paper giving the data for four distribution system test feeders was published [1]. The purpose of the test feeders was to give software developers a common set of data that could be used to verify the correctness of their programs. Since then the original four test feeders along with additional special purpose test feeders have been made available on the IEEE website [2]. The purpose of this paper is to present a "comprehensive" test feeder that will allow for the models of all the standard components of a distribution system to be tested. Only the system will be described in this paper. The total data will be found on the IEEE website [2]. © 2010 IEEE. Source


Collier S.,Milsoft Utility Solutions Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2010

The U.S. electric grid is not smart. It was not planned and constructed to be able to meet the new constraints, variables and uncertainties that the future holds. The central system architecture and operating schemes havent really changed in a century. Long term construction and operations plans were founded upon the availability of extra capacity and redundancy to passively withstand short-term variation of demand, longer term growth and outages of lines and equipment. The traditional tools to achieve adequacy and reliability, additions to conventional generation, transmission and distribution assets, arenet as viable now. Already, electric utility performance indicators eroding: economy, reliability, security, asset value, profitability, sustainability, and service quality. © 2006 IEEE. Source


Kersting W.H.,Milsoft Utility Solutions Inc.
IEEE Industry Applications Magazine | Year: 2011

New engineers entering the electric utility industry should know the answers to the following questions. Why do electrical engineers perform distribution system planning studies? Why are unbalanced studies needed? Why should distribution lines be modeled as nontransposed? Why is the phasing of distribution lines and loads important? Why are power losses important, and how are they computed? Why is the power factor measured at the substation important? Why is the power factor of the loads important? Why is it necessary to know the exact connection of three-phase transformer banks? Why are the symmetrical components not used in distribution system analysis? Why should not an induction motor be modeled as a constant PQ load? Why are R and X settings used on tap-changing voltage regulators? This article will present the answers for the above questions. © 2011 IEEE. Source

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