Mills da

Oslo, Norway
Oslo, Norway
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Myhrstad M.C.W.,Akershus University College | Narverud I.,Akershus University College | Narverud I.,University of Oslo | Telle-Hansen V.H.,Akershus University College | And 12 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a single high-fat meal with different fat quality on circulating inflammatory markers and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to elucidate the role of fat quality on postprandial inflammation. A postprandial study with fourteen healthy females consuming three test meals with different fat quality was performed. Test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6h after intake were analysed. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat (43% energy as saturated fat and 1% energy as α-linolenic acid (ALA)), linseed oil (14% energy as ALA and 30% energy as saturated fat) and cod liver oil (5% energy as EPA and DHA and 5% energy as ALA in addition to 31% energy as saturated fat). In addition, ex vivo PBMC experiments were performed in eight healthy subjects investigating the effects of EPA and ALA on release and gene expression of inflammatory markers. The IL-8 mRNA level was significantly increased after intake of the cod liver oil cake at 6h compared with fasting level, which was significantly different from the effect observed after the intake of linseed cake. In contrast, no effect was seen on circulating level of IL-8. In addition, ALA and EPA were shown to elicit different effects on the release and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers in PBMC cultured ex vivo, with EPA having the most prominent pro-inflammatory potential. © 2011 The Authors.


Dizdarevic L.L.,University of Oslo | Biswas D.,University of Oslo | Uddin M.,University of Oslo | Jorgenesen A.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
Platelets | Year: 2014

Previous human studies suggest that supplementation with kiwifruits lowers several cardiovascular risk factors such as platelet hyperactivity, blood pressure and plasma lipids. The cardiovascular health benefit of fruit and vegetables is usually attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals therein; however, kiwifruit's cardioprotective factors are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of kiwifruit extract on human blood platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. A sugar-free, heatstable aqueous extract with molecular mass less than 1000 Da was prepared from kiwifruits. Typically, 100 g kiwifruits produced 66.3 ± 5.8 mg (1.2 ± 0.1 mg CE) of sugar-free kiwifruit extract (KFE). KFE inhibited both human platelet aggregation and plasma ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. KFE inhibited platelet aggregation in response to ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid, and inhibitory action was mediated in part by reducing TxA2 synthesis. The IC50 for ADP-induced platelet aggregation was 1.6 ± 0.2 mg/ml (29.0 ± 3.0 μg CE/ml), whereas IC50 for serum ACE was 0.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml (11.0 ± 1.2 μg CE/ml). Consuming 500mg of KFE (9.0 mg CE) in 10 g margarine inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation by 12.7%, 2 h after consumption by healthy volunteers (n = 9). All these data indicate that kiwifruit contains very potent antiplatelet and anti-ACE components. Consuming kiwifruits might be beneficial as both preventive and therapeutic regime in cardiovascular disease. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.


Ulven S.M.,Akershus University College | Kirkhus B.,Nofima Materials As | Lamglait A.,Mills DA | Basu S.,Uppsala University | And 5 more authors.
Lipids | Year: 2011

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of krill oil and fish oil on serum lipids and markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and to evaluate if different molecular forms, triacylglycerol and phospholipids, of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) influence the plasma level of EPA and DHA differently. One hundred thirteen subjects with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels were randomized into three groups and given either six capsules of krill oil (N = 36; 3.0 g/day, EPA + DHA = 543 mg) or three capsules of fish oil (N = 40; 1.8 g/day, EPA + DHA = 864 mg) daily for 7 weeks. A third group did not receive any supplementation and served as controls (N = 37). A significant increase in plasma EPA, DHA, and DPA was observed in the subjects supplemented with n-3 PUFAs as compared with the controls, but there were no significant differences in the changes in any of the n-3 PUFAs between the fish oil and the krill oil groups. No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed. Krill oil and fish oil thus represent comparable dietary sources of n-3 PUFAs, even if the EPA + DHA dose in the krill oil was 62.8% of that in the fish oil. © 2011 AOCS.


Kirkhus B.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Lamglait A.,Mills DA | Eilertsen K.E.,University of Tromsø | Falch E.,Mills DA | And 10 more authors.
The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2012

There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pâté (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pâté and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.


Heggen E.,University of Oslo | Granlund L.,Mills DA | Pedersen J.I.,University of Oslo | Holme I.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aims: Data comparing the impact of different sources of plant sterols on CVD risk factors and antioxidant levels is scarce. We evaluated the effects of plant sterols from rapeseed and tall oils on serum lipids, lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins and plant sterol concentrations. Methods and results: This was a double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial in which 59 hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed 25 g/day of margarine for 4 weeks separated by 1 week washout periods. The two experimental margarines provided 2 g/day of plant sterols from rapeseed or tall oil. The control margarine had no added plant sterols. The control margarine reduced LDL cholesterol by 4.5% (95% CI 1.4, 7.6%). The tall and rapeseed sterol margarines additionally reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.0% (95% CI 5.5, 12.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 5.2, 11.4%) and apolipoprotein B by 5.3% (95% CI 1.0, 9.6%) and 6.9% (95% CI 3.6, 10.2%), respectively. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene concentrations were reduced by both sterol margarines (P < 0.017). α-Tocopherol concentrations were reduced by the tall sterol compared to the rapeseed sterol margarine (P = 0.001). Campesterol concentrations increased more markedly with the rapeseed sterol versus tall sterol margarine (P < 0.001). The rapeseed sterol margarine increased while the tall sterol margarine decreased brassicasterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Plant sterols from tall and rapeseed oils reduce atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins similarly. The rapeseed sterol margarine may have more favorable effects on serum α-tocopherol concentrations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Link Medical Research AS, University of Oslo, Skanemejerier, Uppsala University and 6 more.
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2014

There is convincing evidence that consumption of fish and fish oil rich in long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA), EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3) reduce the risk of CHD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether n-3 LCPUFA-enriched food products provide similar beneficial effects as fish oil with regard to incorporation into plasma lipids and effects on cardiovascular risk markers. A parallel 7-week intervention trial was performed where 159 healthy men and women were randomised to consume either 34 g fish pt (n 44), 500 ml fruit juice (n 38) or three capsules of concentrated fish oil (n 40), all contributing to a daily intake of approximately 1 g EPA and DHA. A fourth group did not receive any supplementation or food product and served as controls (n 37). Plasma fatty acid composition, serum lipids, and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured. Compared with the control group, plasma n-3 LCPUFA and EPA:arachidonic acid ratio increased equally in all intervention groups. However, no significant changes in blood lipids and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were observed. In conclusion, enriched fish pt and fruit juice represent suitable delivery systems for n-3 LCPUFA. However, although the dose given is known to reduce the risk of CVD, no significant changes were observed on cardiovascular risk markers in this healthy population.


PubMed | Mills DA, University of Oslo and Oslo University College
Type: | Journal: Journal of nutritional science | Year: 2014

Dietary fat is normally in TAG form, but diacylglycerol (DAG) is a natural component of edible oils. Studies have shown that consumption of DAG results in metabolic characteristics that are distinct from those of TAG, which may be beneficial in preventing and managing obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate if food items in which part of the TAG oil is replaced with DAG oil combined with high -linolenic acid (ALA) content would influence metabolic markers. A 12-week double-blinded randomised controlled parallel-design study was conducted. The participants (n 23) were healthy, overweight men and women, aged 37-67 years, BMI 27-35kg/m(2), with waist circumference >94cm (men) and >88cm (women). The two groups received 20g margarine, 11g mayonnaise and 12g oil per d, containing either high ALA and sn-1,3-DAG or high ALA and TAG. Substitution of TAG oil with DAG oil in food items for 12 weeks led to an improvement of the predicted 10 years cardiovascular risk score in overweight subjects by non-significantly improving markers of health such as total body fat percentage, trunk fat mass, alanine aminotransferase, systolic blood pressure, -glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase and total fat-free mass. This may suggest that replacing TAG oil with DAG oil in healthy, overweight individuals may have beneficial metabolic effects.


Ibrahim F.,University of Turku | Ruvio S.,University of Turku | Granlund L.,Mills da | Salminen S.,University of Turku | And 2 more authors.
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2010

Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 109 CFU day-1 of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.


Lahtinen S.J.,Danisco | Forssten S.,Danisco | Aakko J.,University of Turku | Granlund L.,Mills da | And 4 more authors.
Age | Year: 2012

Aging is associated with alterations in the intestinal microbiota and with immunosenescence. Probiotics have the potential to modify a selected part of the intestinal microbiota as well as improve immune functions and may, therefore, be particularly beneficial to elderly consumers. In this randomized, controlled cross-over clinical trial, we assessed the effects of a probiotic cheese containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on the intestinal microbiota and fecal immune markers of 31 elderly volunteers and compared these effects with the administration of the same cheese without probiotics. The probiotic cheese was found to increase the number of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus NCFM in the feces, suggesting the survival of the strains during the gastrointestinal transit. Importantly, probiotic cheese administration was associated with a trend towards lower counts of Clostridium difficile in the elderly, as compared with the run-in period with the plain cheese. The effect was statistically significant in the subpopulation of the elderly who harbored C. difficile at the start of the study. The probiotic cheese was not found to significantly alter the levels of the major microbial groups, suggesting that the microbial changes conferred by the probiotic cheese were limited to specific bacterial groups. Despite that the administration of the probiotic cheese to the study population has earlier been shown to significantly improve the innate immunity of the elders, we did not observe measurable changes in the fecal immune IgA concentrations. No increase in fecal calprotectin and β-defensin concentrations suggests that the probiotic treatment did not affect intestinal inflammatory markers. In conclusion, the administration of probiotic cheese containing L. rhamnosus HN001 and L. acidophilus NCFM, was associated with specific changes in the intestinal microbiota, mainly affecting specific subpopulations of intestinal lactobacilli and C. difficile, but did not have significant effects on the major microbial groups or the fecal immune markers. © 2011 American Aging Association.


Naes T.,430 As | Naes T.,Copenhagen University | Tomic O.,430 As | Greiff K.,Sintef | Thyholt K.,Mills DA
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2014

This paper presents a comparison of different methods for analyzing designed experiments. The methods used are based on PCA, PLS and ANOVA, used either separately or in combination. Special emphasis will be on how to obtain information about medium and less important factors in the presence of very dominating ones. It will be shown that this could be done by splitting the dataset in two. Our propositions will be illustrated on a data set obtained for studying the effect of salt reduction in liver paste. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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