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Kirkhus B.,Norwegian Institute of Food | Lamglait A.,Mills da | Storro I.,Sintef | Vogt G.,Norwegian Institute of Food | And 4 more authors.
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2015

The thermal stability of liquid margarine and vegetable oils was investigated by measuring the oxidative stability index (OSI) at temperatures ranging from 90 to 180 °C, whereas total polar compounds (TPC) and tocopherols (vitamin E) were measured during heating at 180°C in frying trays. Results showed that the OSI of liquid margarine was in the same range as the OSI of vegetable oils at lower temperatures, but at 160 and 180°C, liquid margarine had significantly higher thermal stability, close to that observed for hard margarine and butter. The increased stability was confirmed by lower levels of TPC and a smaller relative reduction in vitamin E content during heating. Variations between different vegetable oils could partly be explained by differences in degree of saturation and level of vitamin E, with high oleic sunflower oil being the most stable oil at all temperatures. The water in liquid margarine vaporized within 1.5 min at 160°C, and it is hypothesized that volatile pro-oxidants are removed with the water, inducing a delay in deterioration. The results indicate a role for water in preventing lipid oxidation and decomposition in fat emulsion products at 160-180°C, suggesting that liquid margarine, low in saturated fat, may be the healthier and preferable alternative for pan-frying compared to other liquid vegetable oils. © 2015 AOCS. Source


Bjorkestol K.,University of Agder | Sivertsen E.,Mills da | Sivertsen E.,Sintef | Naes T.,NOFIMA
Journal of Chemometrics | Year: 2012

This paper considers the problem of the optimal setting of controllable variables in two-step processes with quality constraints. The optimal setting minimizes the cost and satisfies quality constraints defined for the final output. The main emphasis is given to processes where it is possible to make intermediate measurements after the first processing step and to utilize these measurements before the control variables in the second step are set. Optimization based on this method of compensation for random error can yield substantially lower cost than does optimization based on a strategy where all variables are fixed before the process starts. An example of application of the method is taken from the food industry. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Dizdarevic L.L.,University of Oslo | Biswas D.,University of Oslo | Uddin M.,University of Oslo | Jorgenesen A.,University of Oslo | And 3 more authors.
Platelets | Year: 2014

Previous human studies suggest that supplementation with kiwifruits lowers several cardiovascular risk factors such as platelet hyperactivity, blood pressure and plasma lipids. The cardiovascular health benefit of fruit and vegetables is usually attributed to the complex mixture of phytochemicals therein; however, kiwifruit's cardioprotective factors are not well studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of kiwifruit extract on human blood platelet aggregation and plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. A sugar-free, heatstable aqueous extract with molecular mass less than 1000 Da was prepared from kiwifruits. Typically, 100 g kiwifruits produced 66.3 ± 5.8 mg (1.2 ± 0.1 mg CE) of sugar-free kiwifruit extract (KFE). KFE inhibited both human platelet aggregation and plasma ACE activity in a dose-dependent manner. KFE inhibited platelet aggregation in response to ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid, and inhibitory action was mediated in part by reducing TxA2 synthesis. The IC50 for ADP-induced platelet aggregation was 1.6 ± 0.2 mg/ml (29.0 ± 3.0 μg CE/ml), whereas IC50 for serum ACE was 0.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml (11.0 ± 1.2 μg CE/ml). Consuming 500mg of KFE (9.0 mg CE) in 10 g margarine inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation by 12.7%, 2 h after consumption by healthy volunteers (n = 9). All these data indicate that kiwifruit contains very potent antiplatelet and anti-ACE components. Consuming kiwifruits might be beneficial as both preventive and therapeutic regime in cardiovascular disease. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd. Source


Heggen E.,University of Oslo | Granlund L.,Mills da | Pedersen J.I.,University of Oslo | Holme I.,University of Oslo | And 4 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aims: Data comparing the impact of different sources of plant sterols on CVD risk factors and antioxidant levels is scarce. We evaluated the effects of plant sterols from rapeseed and tall oils on serum lipids, lipoproteins, fat-soluble vitamins and plant sterol concentrations. Methods and results: This was a double-blinded, randomized, crossover trial in which 59 hypercholesterolemic subjects consumed 25 g/day of margarine for 4 weeks separated by 1 week washout periods. The two experimental margarines provided 2 g/day of plant sterols from rapeseed or tall oil. The control margarine had no added plant sterols. The control margarine reduced LDL cholesterol by 4.5% (95% CI 1.4, 7.6%). The tall and rapeseed sterol margarines additionally reduced LDL cholesterol by 9.0% (95% CI 5.5, 12.4%) and 8.2% (95% CI 5.2, 11.4%) and apolipoprotein B by 5.3% (95% CI 1.0, 9.6%) and 6.9% (95% CI 3.6, 10.2%), respectively. Lipid-adjusted β-carotene concentrations were reduced by both sterol margarines (P < 0.017). α-Tocopherol concentrations were reduced by the tall sterol compared to the rapeseed sterol margarine (P = 0.001). Campesterol concentrations increased more markedly with the rapeseed sterol versus tall sterol margarine (P < 0.001). The rapeseed sterol margarine increased while the tall sterol margarine decreased brassicasterol concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Plant sterols from tall and rapeseed oils reduce atherogenic lipids and lipoproteins similarly. The rapeseed sterol margarine may have more favorable effects on serum α-tocopherol concentrations. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Naes T.,430 As | Naes T.,Copenhagen University | Tomic O.,430 As | Greiff K.,Sintef | Thyholt K.,Mills da
Food Quality and Preference | Year: 2014

This paper presents a comparison of different methods for analyzing designed experiments. The methods used are based on PCA, PLS and ANOVA, used either separately or in combination. Special emphasis will be on how to obtain information about medium and less important factors in the presence of very dominating ones. It will be shown that this could be done by splitting the dataset in two. Our propositions will be illustrated on a data set obtained for studying the effect of salt reduction in liver paste. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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