Islamovic E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Obert D.E.,Limagrain Cereal Seeds |
Budde A.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Schmitt M.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 11 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2014
Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting barley cultivars, markers for marker-assisted breeding are needed. In this study, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for malting traits in a Stellar/01Ab8219 F6:8 recombinant inbred line population grown at Aberdeen and Tetonia, Idaho, USA in 2009 and 2010. We identified QTLs associated with malt extract (ME), wort protein, soluble/total protein (S/T), diastatic power (DP), alpha-amylase, beta-glucan (BG) and free amino nitrogen (FAN) at a logarithm of odds score ≥2.5 using a high-density genetic map produced by merging Diversity Arrays Technology markers with the current single nucleotide polymorphism map. Novel QTLs were identified for DP and FAN on chromosome 5H, S/T on 6H, and BG and ME on 7H. Dissection of the genetic regions associated with malting traits suggests the involvement of multiple molecular pathways. The resulting molecular markers may prove useful for barley improvement. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.
Huettig K.D.,MillerCoors |
Chastain T.G.,Oregon State University |
Garbacik C.J.,Oregon State University |
Young W.C.,Oregon State University |
Wysocki D.J.,Oregon State University
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013
No information is available on irrigation management in tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] seed crops. The objective of this study was to investigate spring irrigation effects on six cultivars of tall fescue managed for seed production. Field trials were conducted with three irrigation treatments: none (control), single irrigation to fill the soil profile to field capacity at anthesis, and multiple irrigations to maintain soil water deficit ≤50mm below field capacity until the beginning of seed fill. Wet conditions in Year 1 prevented multiple irrigations, so only the single (78mm) application was made. Dry conditions in Year 2 were conducive to both single (112mm) and multiple (172mm) treatments. Crop responses to single irrigation were the same as multiple irrigations. Fertile tiller number, spikeletspanicle-1, and floretsspikelet-1 were not affected by irrigation treatments. Irrigation×cultivar interactions for seed yield were evident in both years. Yield increases varied among cultivars and irrigation treatment, ranging from 15% to 47% in Year 1. In Year 2, seed yield in 'Velocity' was not affected by irrigation but was increased by 14% across other cultivars. Seed number and weight were independently influenced by irrigation and cultivar. Irrigation consistently increased seed weight, but increased seed number only in Year 1 which led to the greatest seed yield increases observed. There was no effect of irrigation on HI but WUE was influenced by irrigation×cultivar interactions. Tall fescue seed yield can be increased by strategically timed spring irrigation but the response is dependent on year and cultivar. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists | Year: 2012
Sulfur dioxide is one of the key lager yeast metabolites that brewers seek to control, as it has multiple effects on the quality of lager beers. It has been widely reported that yeast cells, when fermented in high glucose worts, are susceptible to producing elevated sulfur dioxide, yet the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. It is known that when yeast cells utilize glucose as a primary carbon source to fuel yeast growth, this negatively affects mitochondrial development, specifically in its unique membrane lipid, cardiolipin. In this study, we show the results of incubation experiments aimed at altering cardiolipin formation and mitochondrial development with stimulators of cardiolipin synthesis (L-thyroxine and glycerol) and an inhibitor (inositol). These results demonstrated significantly lower sulfite levels (P < 0.05), adjusted for ethanol production, under conditions promoting cardiolipin formation. In addition, fermentations with respiratory deficient mutants also revealed significantly lower efficiency in the conversion of sulfate, as measured by the ratio of the amount of sulfite produced to the amount of sulfate taken up, as compared to the parental strain (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that this overlooked organelle may have a vital role in sulfite production, which we speculate is related to a key prosthetic group in the enzyme complex, sulfite reductase. This group, namely the [4Fe-4S] iron-sulfur cluster, provides the catalytic site in sulfite reductase electrons to reduce sulfur dioxide to sulfide. It is postulated that limitations in mitochondrial ATP levels affect [4Fe-4S] cluster formation or export of the cluster for cytosolic apoprotein modification. © 2012 American Society of Brewing Chemists, Inc.
News Article | March 25, 2016
In a converted gasworks building in western Berlin’s Mariendorf neighborhood, American craft beer brand Stone Brewing is engaged in an unusual project: Selling Germans—and Europeans in general—on the joys of bitter, hoppy beers like Stone IPA and the company’s popular Arrogant Bastard Ale. Germans have traditionally enjoyed lagers and wheat beers that are a far cry from the IPAs that are fashionable on the American scene, but Stone hopes Europeans will go gaga for the alternative. IPA stands for "India Pale Ale." First invented as a spoil-proof variety of beer for export from Great Britain to India during the colonial era, IPAs enjoyed a resurgence in the United States thanks to brewers like Sierra Nevada, Brooklyn Brewery, and Stone. Despite their British roots, IPAs are nowadays primarily associated with American and Canadian breweries. Meanwhile, until 1993, Germany abided by a collection of regulations called the reinheitsgebot that restricted beer ingredients and discouraged brewers from significant deviations from traditional formulas. Deregulation has given brewers more leeway, leading to homegrown brewers like Schoppebraeu creating beers that owe much to foreign styles like Californian IPAs and Belgian Lambics. But Stone faces a challenge in Germany—the beer audience skews largely traditional. Stone, one of the largest American craft brewers to survive a recent binge of craft brewery acquisitions by multinationals AB InBev, Heineken, and MillerCoors, is opening both a brewpub and a larger commercial beer operation at the Berlin facility. It will serve as the center of a European operation that, as of press time, includes distribution in Germany, France, Finland, and the Netherlands. There will be some changes from the American model—the recipes, which are still being finalized, will include more European ingredients and beers come in cans rather than bottles. According to Stone's president and cofounder Steve Wagner, the brewery is opening in the German market by selling four different IPAs and Arrogant Bastard. He added that "We're not holding ourselves to perfect flavor matching. We would like to use more local ingredients and they will be as close as we can make them. The hops will be identical and imported from the United States, but with more malted barley from Germany and Europe." It’s not only American beer that Stone’s bringing to Europe—they’re also bringing a very specific combination of American beer culture and marketing savvy. Their German headquarters in the old gasworks is a combination brewpub, restaurant, and packaging facility that’s approximately 10 blocks from the nearest U-Bahn stop. The facility, which is opening after months of delays, cost more than $25 million to renovate and is at the center of a much larger marketing push into the European market. When I spoke via Skype to Greg Koch, the company’s CEO and cofounder, he was on site in Germany. He explained that the Berlin facility was getting ready for opening in a few months, and told me about the latest unexpected development: An asbestos-lined pipe found underground that wasn’t shown on any maps and had to be safely removed. Wagner noted that the age of the facility made renovation more of a challenge than the company expected: Berlin buildings simply have those issues more often than Stone's nerve center back in Escondido, California. Koch also quickly made appeals to craft beer culture. I asked him about one central issue Stone faces—the fact that Stone’s hoppy beers are pretty much the opposite of every Pilsener or Kolsch I’ve ever had in a German bar. "It’s cool to know that we're going to be a major part of a shift in European awareness of American craft beer," he said. "A lot of people over here have an outdated mindset that all America makes is cheap industrial beer, and it’s fun to watch the expression on peoples faces when they taste amazing craft beer for the first time." From a business perspective, this attempt is happening at a crucial time for Stone. While it remains independently owned by Koch and Wagner, the company has been in the middle of its own expansion and shakeup. This past autumn, Koch announced plans to step down as CEO (although he has not left as of press time) and for the company to search for a new executive; Stone is also building a second production facility in Virginia that will brew beer for East Coast customers in the next few months. The Virginia facility is opening at almost the same time as the European branch. Wagner told me that the situation was "not how we planned it but it’s how the timeline turned out," thanks to delays in opening the German branch and faster-than-expected progress on the East Coast. As of press time, Stone says they are the ninth largest craft brewery in the United States and that their beers are sold in 41 states. In the meantime, Stone’s short-term goal is simple: Sell Europeans on the virtues of American craft beers. While IPAs might not show up at Munich’s Oktoberfest or in the pubs of Belgium anytime soon, the company sees a market in Europe for these hoppy drinks. Update: This article has been updated to reflect that, although Stone is searching for a new CEO, Koch remains the company's CEO; in addition, while Wagner was Stone's original brewmaster, he currently serves as president. It has also been updated to reflect that Stone has not finalized the recipes for their Berlin beers.
News Article | April 15, 2016
In an effort to rally fans into the playoffs, the NBA's Dallas Mavericks revealed a new emoji keyboard on April 14. The keyboard, created by Swyft Media, includes a wide range of Mavericks-themed emojis, including an image of the team's arena and Owner Mark Cuban. "We want to attract and engage the next generation of Mavs fans - and in order to do that, we need to speak their language," said Cuban. "Mobile is a critical piece of our fan engagement strategy and an important way to carry the excitement from American Airlines Center to fans' mobile devices. Our new lineup of Mavs branded emoji and digital stickers delivers fun and entertaining content that our greatest MFFLs can share with their friends." The free app can be downloaded onto both Apple and Android devices. Additionally, the Mavericks website promotes the emojis as a way to show team pride "year-round," including beyond the playoffs. "Mobile messaging apps are where millennials and GenZs are spending most of their time these days, and the Dallas Mavericks are creating a fun, engaging way to make their brand and team a focal point of the conversation - building brand loyalty and fan engagement." said Evan Wray, co-founder and vice president of Swyft Media. "This keyboard takes the fun beyond physical arenas and into mobile, with content that inspires playful banter and fun rivalry exchanges across messaging apps and social media." Swyft Media has worked with more than 300 popular global brands, including Ford, 1-800-Flowers and MillerCoors. The company's mobile engagement platform allows users to create everything from emojis to photo filters. The Mavericks are not the first to embrace the emoji as a marketing tactic. Everyone from Kim Kardashians to Pope Francis now has an emoji keyboard. In Summer 2015, Sony announced that it would be creating a movie based on emojis - the smiley-faced characters that can be found on every smartphone. At CinemaCon in Las Vegas, Sony President Kristine Belson revealed that the upcoming movie would also be an "app movie." For example, Spotify will be the music streaming service featured in the film. The fact that a movie based on emojis may not be so far-fetched when this statistic is considered - 5 percent of smartphone users say they use emojis "several" times per week. A whopping 92 percent of the online population uses emojis. © 2016 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.