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Cisternas F.,Andres Bello University | Morales M.G.,Andres Bello University | Meneses C.,Andres Bello University | Simon F.,Andres Bello University | And 5 more authors.
Clinical Science | Year: 2015

Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass, an increase in myosin heavy chain (MHC) degradation and increase in the expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases: atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Angiotensin II (AngII) induces muscle atrophy. Angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)], through its receptor Mas, produces the opposite effects than AngII. We assessed the effects of Ang-(1-7) on the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by AngII. Our results show that Ang-(1-7), through Mas, prevents the effects induced by AngII in muscle gastrocnemius: the decrease in the fibre diameter, muscle strength and MHC levels and the increase in atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Ang-(1-7) also induces AKT phosphorylation. In addition, our analysis in vitro using C2C12 myotubes shows that Ang-(1-7), through a mechanism dependent on Mas, prevents the decrease in the levels of MHC and the increase in the expression of the atrogin-1 and MuRF-1, both induced by AngII. Ang-(1-7) induces AKT phosphorylation in myotubes; additionally, we demonstrated that the inhibition of AKT with MK-2206 decreases the anti-atrophic effects of Ang-(1-7). Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that Ang-(1-7) counteracts the skeletal muscle atrophy induced by AngII through a mechanism dependent on the Mas receptor, which involves AKT activity. Our study indicates that Ang-(1-7) is novel molecule with a potential therapeutical use to improve muscle wasting associated, at least, with pathologies that present high levels of AngII. © 2015 Biochemical Society. Source


Wiederstein M.,University of Salzburg | Gruber M.,University of Salzburg | Frank K.,University of Salzburg | Melo F.,University of Santiago de Chile | And 2 more authors.
Structure | Year: 2014

Multiprotein complexes govern virtually all cellular processes. Their 3D structures provide important clues to their biological roles, especially through structural correlations among protein molecules and complexes. The detection of such correlations generally requires comprehensive searches in databases of known protein structures by means of appropriate structure-matching techniques. Here, we present a high-speed structure search engine capable of instantly matching large protein oligomers against the complete and up-to-date database of biologically functional assemblies of protein molecules. We use this tool to reveal unseen structural correlations on the level of protein quaternary structure and demonstrate its general usefulness for efficiently exploring complex structural relationships among known protein assemblies. © 2014 The Authors. Source


Cabello-Verrugio C.,Andres Bello University | Morales M.G.,Andres Bello University | Rivera J.C.,Andres Bello University | Cabrera D.,Bernardo OHiggins University | And 2 more authors.
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2015

Skeletal muscle is a tissue that shows the most plasticity in the body; it can change in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Among the diseases that affect skeletal muscle are myopathy-associated fibrosis, insulin resistance, and muscle atrophy. A common factor in these pathologies is the participation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This system can be functionally separated into the classical and nonclassical RAS axis. The main components of the classical RAS pathway are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang-II), and Ang-II receptors (AT receptors), whereas the nonclassical axis is composed of ACE2, angiotensin 1-7 [Ang (1-7)], and the Mas receptor. Hyperactivity of the classical axis in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis. In contrast, current evidence supports the action of the nonclassical RAS as a counter-regulator axis of the classical RAS pathway in skeletal muscle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in the pathological effects of the classical RAS, advances in the use of pharmacological molecules to inhibit this axis, and the beneficial effects of stimulation of the nonclassical RAS pathway on insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis in skeletal muscle. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Stehberg J.,Andres Bello University | Moraga-Amaro R.,Andres Bello University | Salazar C.,Andres Bello University | Becerra A.,Laboratorio Of Fisiopatologia Integrativa | And 9 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2012

Recent in vitro evidence indicates that astrocytes can modulate synaptic plasticity by releasing neuroactive substances (gliotransmitters). However, whether gliotransmitter release from astrocytes is necessary for higher brain function in vivo, particularly for memory, as well as the contribution of connexin (Cx) hemichannels to gliotransmitter release, remain elusive. Here, we microinfused into the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA) TAT-Cx43L2, a peptide that selectively inhibits Cx43-hemichannel opening while maintaining synaptic transmission or interastrocyte gap junctional communication. In vivo blockade of Cx43 hemichannels during memory consolidation induced amnesia for auditory fear conditioning, as assessed 24 h after training, without affecting short-term memory, locomotion, or shock reactivity. The amnesic effect was transitory, specific for memory consolidation, and was confirmed after microinfusion of Gap27, another Cx43-hemichannel blocker. Learning capacity was recovered after coinfusion of TAT-Cx43L2 and a mixture of putative gliotransmitters (glutamate, glutamine, lactate, D-serine, glycine, and ATP). We propose that gliotransmitter release from astrocytes through Cx43 hemichannels is necessary for fear memory consolidation at the BLA. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate a physiological role for astroglial Cx43 hemichannels in brain function, making these channels a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. © FASEB. Source


Cespedes P.F.,Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy | Gonzalez P.A.,Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy | Kalergis A.M.,Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy | Kalergis A.M.,University of Santiago de Chile | Kalergis A.M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Immunology | Year: 2013

Summary: Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most common cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children, causing a significant public health burden worldwide. Given that hMPV can repeatedly infect the host without major antigenic changes, it has been suggested that hMPV may have evolved molecular mechanisms to impair host adaptive immunity and, more specifically, T-cell memory. Recent studies have shown that hMPV can interfere with superantigen-induced T-cell activation by infecting conventional dendritic cells (DCs). Here, we show that hMPV infects mouse DCs in a restricted manner and induces moderate maturation. Nonetheless, hMPV-infected DCs are rendered inefficient at activating naive antigen-specific CD4+ T cells (OT-II), which not only display reduced proliferation, but also show a marked reduction in surface activation markers and interleukin-2 secretion. Decreased T-cell activation was not mediated by interference with DC-T-cell immunological synapse formation as recently described for the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), but rather by soluble factors secreted by hMPV-infected DCs. These data suggest that although hMPV infection is restricted within DCs, it is sufficient to interfere with their capacity to activate naive T cells. Altogether, by interfering with DC function and productive priming of antigen-inexperienced T cells, hMPV could impair the generation of long-term immunity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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