Price K.L.,North Carolina State University |
Lin X.,North Carolina State University |
Van Heugten E.,North Carolina State University |
Odle R.,North Carolina State University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2013
An experiment was conducted to examine the interplay of diet physical form (liquid vs. dry), fatty acid chain length [medium- (MCT) vs. long-chain triglyceride (LCT)], and emulsification as determinants of fat utilization and growth of newly weaned pigs. Ninety-six pigs were weaned at 20.0 ± 0.3 d of age (6.80 ± 0.04 kg) and fed ad libitum 1 of 8 diets for 14 d according to a 23 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per diet and 2 pigs per pen. The MCT contained primarily C8:0 and C10:0 fatty acids, whereas the LCT mainly contained C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C18:2. Diet physical form greatly impacted piglet growth (P < 0.001), with liquid-fed pigs (486 g/d) growing faster than dry-fed pigs (332 g/d) by 46%. Pigs fed LCT grew 22% faster (P = 0.01) than MCT-fed pigs; however, effects of emulsifier were not detected (P > 0.1). Furthermore, feed intake and G:F were 15% and 29% greater for liquid-fed pigs, and intake also was 21% greater for pigs fed LCT (P = 0.01). Diet physical form had no effect on apparent ileal fatty acid digestibility, but as expected, digestibility was greater (P < 0.001) for the MCT than the LCT diet (98.5% vs. 93.4%). Emulsification improved digestibility of most fatty acids in pigs fed LCT but not MCT (interaction, P < 0.01). Both jejunal and ileal villi height increased from 7 to 14 d postweaning (P < 0.01). Liquid-fed pigs had greater jejunal crypt depth (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the dry diet; however, ileal morphology was not affected by diet physical form, fat chain length, or emulsification. Plasma ketone body concentrations were 6-fold greater in pigs fed MCT than LCT, and the difference was greater in pigs fed dry diets (interaction, P = 0.01). The bile salt concentration in jejunal digesta was 2.2-fold greater in pigs fed LCT than in pigs fed MCT (P < 0.001). Collectively, we conclude that feeding liquid diets containing emulsified LCT can improve fat utilization and markedly accentuate feed intake, growth, and G:F of weanling pigs. © 2013 American Society of Animal Science.
Tomkins T.,Milk Specialties Global |
Drackley J.K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Journal of Oil Palm Research | Year: 2010
Palm oil and its derivatives play a significant role in animal nutrition, and the opportunity to increase usage in this sector is large. Fats and oils are used as energy sources, to supply dietary essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) that cannot be synthesized by the animal, to aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, and to provide specific bio-active fatty acids. The amount of fat or oil that can be used in animal diets varies depending on the species and its digestive physiology. The digestive systems of cattle, pigs and poultry differ with respect to the way in which fats/oils are broken down, absorbed and utilized. Cattle are ruminants in which the fermentation of carbohydrates in the rumen provides energy for the animal. Dietary triglycerides are largely hydrolyzed in the rumen by the resident microbial population, while the unsaturated fatty acids are hydrogenated to saturated fatty acids. Feeding large amounts of triglycerides (>3% of the diet), particularly those which are unsaturated, inhibits rumen microorganisms and makes biohydrogenation incomplete. If biohydrogenation does not occur fully, a flow of unsaturated or partially unsaturated fats/oils with trans-double bonds into the small intestine can decrease feed intake and depress milk fat production, as well as alter milk fat profiles. To overcome this problem, fats/oils for ruminant feeding need to be in a form that makes them inert in the rumen, such as in the form of a calcium salt or soap of palm fatty acid distillates (CaPFAD), or after crystallizing the saturated fatty acids by beading or flaking. Pigs and poultry are nonruminants (monogastrics) and rely on their own enzymes for the breakdown of dietary triglycerides. Fatty acids are then absorbed in the small intestine along with mono- or diglycerides. Pigs and poultry can utilize relatively saturated as well as unsaturated fats in their diet, but the inclusion of unsaturated fats/oils results in more unsaturated fatty acids in their body fat, which makes the carcass fat softer and this can reduce carcass quality. Increased energy levels in the diet of dairy cows can benefit the production of milk and milk components, improve reproductive efficiency, reduce heat stress, and improve general health and well-being. Increasing fat/oil levels in pig diets improve growth rates, reproduction and lactation. Hard (more saturated) dietary lipids help produce firmer carcass fat. Increasing fat/oil levels in poultry diets improves feed efficiency and growth rates. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are also of interest, particularly in young animals where their rapid absorption can help provide a readily available energy supply. Palm oil and palm kernel oil can be used to replace butterfat in milk replacers for feeding young animals to substitute their mother's milk. Fats are also used in the diets of companion animals (dogs and cats) and horses. Worldwide animal production is increasing rapidly. As standards of living increase, more animal products are being consumed in the diet, including meat, milk and eggs. Livestock consume approximately 33% of global cereal grain production, and the animal nutrition industry consumes between 8 and 10 million tonnes of fats and oils per annum. This use will increase significantly in the next 15 years as more animal products are consumed. In addition, there is greater focus on finding ways to replace cereal energy in animal nutrition as cereals are increasingly being diverted to human foods or biofuel production. Fat/oil levels in feed are generally lower than the levels that can be utilized by the animal based on its digestive and metabolic processes. More calories could be supplied by fats/oils but there are limitations based on the physical characteristics of the fats and oils and their interactions with the target animal's physiology.
Milk Specialties Global | Date: 2015-07-31
The present invention includes a nutritional supplement composition that may be used for livestock and the like, as well as to a livestock feed mixture containing same. Also included are methods of preparing the nutritional supplement composition, the livestock feed mixture, as well as methods of providing nutrition to livestock and the like. The livestock feed composition comprises: (a) a solid particulate livestock feed material and (b) a solidified particulate mixture of (i) free fatty acid and (ii) a calcium salt of a fatty acid, the calcium salt of a fatty acid being present in a molar ratio amount in the range of from about 25% to about 55% of the amount of the free fatty acid. The preferred mixture is a solid having an onset melt point of between about 140 and 170 degrees Fahrenheit, and a hardness of from about 5 to about 15 Shore A units at 170 degrees Fahrenheit.
Loften J.R.,Milk Specialties Global |
Linn J.G.,Milk Specialties Global |
Drackley J.K.,Urbana University |
Jenkins T.C.,Clemson University |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014
Energy is the most limiting nutritional component in diets for high-producing dairy cows. Palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids have unique and specific functions in lactating dairy cows beyond a ubiquitous energy source. This review delineates their metabolism and usage in lactating dairy cows from diet to milk production. Palmitic acid is the fatty acid (FA) found in the greatest quantity in milk fat. Dietary sources of C16:0 generally increase milk fat yield and are used as an energy source for milk production and replenishing body weight loss during periods of negative energy balance. Stearic acid is the most abundant FA available to the dairy cow and is used to a greater extent for milk production and energy balance than C16:0. However, C18:0 is also intimately involved in milk fat production. Quantifying the transfer of each FA from diet into milk fat is complicated by de novo synthesis of C16:0 and desaturation of C18:0 to oleic acid in the mammary gland. In addition, incorporation of both FA into milk fat appears to be limited by the cow's requirement to maintain fluidity of milk, which requires a balance between saturated and unsaturated FA. Oleic acid is the second most abundant FA in milk fat and likely the main unsaturated FA involved in regulating fluidity of milk. Because the mammary gland can desaturate C18:0 to oleic acid, C18:0 appears to have a more prominent role in milk production than C16:0. To understand metabolism and utilization of these FA in lactating dairy cows, we reviewed production and milk fat synthesis studies. Additional and longer lactation studies on feeding both FA to lactating dairy cows are required to better delineate their roles in optimizing milk production and milk FA composition and yield. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.
Milk Specialties Global | Date: 2014-07-02
This disclosure describes compositions that include a partially neutralized mixture of free fatty acid and a potassium salt of a fatty acid in which the potassium salt of the fatty acid is present in a molar ratio amount in the range of from about 10% to about 40% of the amount of the free fatty acid based upon the theoretical requirement to accomplish total neutralization of all fatty acid in the composition, animal feed compositions that include such compositions, and methods of preparing such compositions.