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Giannenas I.A.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Papaneophytou C.P.,University of Thessaly | Tsalie E.,Laboratory of Pathology | Triantafillou E.,Military Veterinary Training and Nursing Center | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences | Year: 2014

Experiments were conducted to study the effect of benzoic acid and of essential oil blends in combination with protease on the growth performance of broiler chickens. In the first trial, the birds were divided into three dietary treatments. The control group was fed a basal diet, while the other two groups were given benzoic acid at 300 and 1000 mg kg-1, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by benzoic acid inclusion. The pH values of the caecal content decreased following benzoic acid supplementation, while no differences were noticed in the pH of the crop, gizzard, ileum and rectum contents. Following benzoic acid supplementation, lactic acid bacteria populations increased in the caecum, and coliform bacteria, decreased. In the second trial, the birds were divided into three dietary treatments. The controls were fed a basal diet, while the other two groups were given thymol and a mixture of essential oil compounds (30 mg • kg-1). The dietary inclusion of the mixture of essential oil compounds enhanced growth performance compared with the other groups (P < 0.05), increased lactic acid bacteria populations, and decreased the coliform bacteria population in the caecum. In the third trial, the control group was fed the basal diet, while the other group was given a diet with similar ingredients and containing more benzoic acid and a mixture of essential oils, protease, and less protein and amino acids. In vitro tests showed that addition of benzoic acid, the mixture of essential oils and protease reduced buffering capacity compared with control feed and simulation experiments revealed that the protease Increased protein extraction, hydrolysis and digestion. The combination of benzoic acid, essential oils and protease effectively improved weight gain and the feed conversion ratio compared with the control, as well as villus height, lactic acid bacteria counts, and reduced coliform bacteria counts compared with the control group. Finally, it was demonstrated for the first time that the novel, acid-stable protease increases protein solubilization, hydrolysis and digestion In an in vitro simulation model.


Giannenas I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Papaneophytou C.P.,University of Thessaly | Tsalie E.,University of Thessaly | Pappas I.,University of Thessaly | And 3 more authors.
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2014

Three trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of a basal diet with benzoic acid or thymol or a mixture of essential oil blends (MEO) or a combination of benzoic acid with MEO (BMEO) on growth performance of turkey poults. Control groups were fed a basal diet. In trial 1, benzoic acid was supplied at levels of 300 and 1,000 mg/kg. In trial 2, thymol or the MEO were supplied at levels of 30 mg/kg. In trial 3, the combination of benzoic acid with MEO was evaluated. Benzoic acid, MEO and BMEO improved performance, increased lactic acid bacteria populations and decreased coliform bacteria in the caeca. Thymol, MEO and BMEO improved antioxidant status of turkeys. Benzoic acid and BMEO reduced the buffering capacity compared to control feed and the pH values of the caecal content. Benzoic acid and EOs may be suggested as an effective alternative to AGP in turkeys. © 2014 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


Giannenas I.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Giannenas I.,University of Thessaly | Tsalie E.,University of Thessaly | Triantafillou E.,Military Veterinary Training and Nursing Center | And 4 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014

In this study, the effect of probiotic supplementation via drinking water or feed on the performance of broiler chickens experimentally infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria acervulina (5 × 104), Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella (2 × 104 each one) at 14 days of age was evaluated. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were separated into eight equal groups with three replicates. Two of the groups, one infected with mixed Eimeria oocysts and the other not, were given a basal diet and served as controls. The remaining groups were also challenged with mixed Eimeria species and received the basal diet and either water supplemented with probiotic (three groups) or probiotic via feed (two groups); the probiotic used consisted of Enterococcus faecium #589, Bifidobacterium animalis #503 and Lactobacillus salivarius #505 at a ratio of 6:3:1. Probiotic supplementation was applied either via drinking water in different inclusion rates (groups W1, W2 and W3) or via feed using uncoated (group FN) or coated strains (group FC). The last group was given the basal diet supplemented with the anticoccidial lasalocid at 75 mg/kg. Each experimental group was given the corresponding diet or drinking water from day 1 to day 42 of age. Throughout the experimental period of 42 days, body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly and feed conversion ratios were calculated. Seven days after infection, the infected control group presented the lowest weight gain values, while probiotics supplied via feed supported growth to a comparable level with that of the lasalocid group. Probiotic groups presented lesion score values and oocyst numbers that were lower than in control infected birds but higher than in the lasalocid group. In the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, the highest villous height values were presented by probiotic groups. In conclusion, a mixture of probiotic substances gave considerable improvement in both growth performance and intestinal health in comparison with infected control birds and fairly similar improvement to an approved anticoccidial during a mixed Eimeria infection. © 2014 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Giannenas I.,University of Thessaly | Triantafillou E.,Military Veterinary Training and Nursing Center | Stavrakakis S.,University of Thessaly | Margaroni M.,Hellenic Pasteur Institute | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

The manipulation and control of fish health and production by natural substances has been identified as an important area for future developments in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of two phytogenic feed additives, one rich in carvacrol (CARV containing 12. g/kg carvacrol) and the other rich in thymol (THYM containing 6. g/kg thymol) on growth performance, gut microbiota and antioxidant status of rainbow trout (. Oncorhynchus mykiss) under commercial farming conditions. Groups of 30 sub-adult trout (113.0. g. ±. 10.4) were randomly allocated into 3 different treatments with three replicates each. The control group was fed a basal diet, while the other two groups were fed diets supplemented with the two phytogenic diets at the level of 1. g/kg. The fish were fed to apparent satiation for a period of 8. weeks. Body weight, body length and feed intake were recorded weekly. The intestinal bacteria populations (total aerobes, total anaerobes, . Lactobacilli spp., . Enterobacter spp., coliforms, . E. coli and . Aeromonas spp.) were enumerated by conventional microbiological techniques using selective agar media. Antioxidant status of fish was assayed for levels of glutathione reductase, glutathione-. S-transferase and malondialdehyde levels in fish fillet at day 0 and 5 after slaughter. Lysozyme, nitric oxide (NO), total complement concentrations and catalase activity were also evaluated in fish blood serum. Results showed that dietary phytogenic supplementation with both products improved (P. <. 0.05) feed efficiency compared to control diet, although, body weight gain was unaffected by phytogenic supplementation. Total anaerobe counts were lower in phytogenic fed fish for both products compared to control; and lactobacillus loads in THYM group compared to CARV and control; however, other bacteria loads were similar among dietary treatments. Both phytogenic inclusion decreased significantly (P. <. 0.05) malondialdehyde formation on day 5 of refrigerated storage compared to control fish. Activity of glutathione based enzymes at both time points were significantly high in both phytogenic supplemented groups compared to control (P. <. 0.05). Levels of lysozyme and total complement concentrations as well as catalase activity were higher in phytogenic supplemented groups, especially in CARV group compared to control. Thymol supplementation reduced NO serum levels significantly compared to control group. In conclusion, dietary phytogenic supplementation exerted a beneficial feed conversion effect and increased antioxidant protective capacities in the trout fillet at 5. days of refrigerated storage. It also modulated intestinal microbial communities disfavouring total anaerobes and affected some innate immunity parameters. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

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