Busek P.,Charles University |
Hrabal P.,Military University Hospital Prague |
Fric P.,Charles University |
Sedo A.,Charles University
Histochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2015
Fibroblast activation protein (FAP, seprase, EC 3.4.21.B28) and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, CD26, EC 184.108.40.206) are homologous serine proteases implicated in the modulation of the bioavailability and thus the function of a number of biologically active peptides. In spite of their generally nonoverlapping expression patterns, DPP-IV and FAP are co-expressed and probably co-regulated in certain cell types suggesting that for some biological processes their functional synergy is essential. By an in situ enzymatic activity assay, we show an abundant DPP-IV-like enzymatic activity sensitive to a highly specific DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin and corresponding DPP-IV immunoreactivity in the adult human islets of Langerhans. Moreover, the homologous protease FAP was present in the human endocrine pancreas and was co-expressed with DPP-IV. DPP-IV and FAP were found in the pancreatic alpha cells as determined by the co-localization with glucagon immunoreactivity. In summary, we show abundant enzymatic activity of the canonical DPP-IV (CD26) in Langerhans islets in the natural tissue context and demonstrate for the first time the co-expression of FAP and DPP-IV in pancreatic alpha cells in adult humans. Given their ability to proteolytically modify several biologically active peptides, both proteases have the potential to modulate the paracrine signaling in the human Langerhans islets. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Tatarkovic M.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague |
Synytsya A.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague |
Sovickova L.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague |
Bunganic B.,Military University Hospital Prague |
And 3 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2015
Raman optical activity (ROA) is inherently sensitive to the secondary structure of biomolecules, which makes it a method of interest for finding new approaches to clinical applications based on blood plasma analysis, for instance the diagnostics of several protein-misfolding diseases. Unfortunately, real blood plasma exhibits strong background fluorescence when excited at 532 nm; hence, measuring the ROA spectra appears to be impossible. Therefore, we established a suitable method using a combination of kinetic quenchers, filtering, photobleaching, and a mathematical correction of residual fluorescence. Our method reduced the background fluorescence approximately by 90 %, which allowed speedup for each measurement by an average of 50 %. In addition, the signal-to-noise ratio was significantly increased, while the baseline distortion remained low. We assume that our method is suitable for the investigation of human blood plasma by ROA and may lead to the development of a new tool for clinical diagnostics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
PubMed | Military University Hospital Prague, Palacky University, Charles University and Public Health Institute in Usti nad Labem
Type: Case Reports | Journal: Mycopathologia | Year: 2015
A case report of cutaneous mucormycosis and obstacles to early diagnosis is presented. A 38-year-old male was involved in a car accident that led to amputation of both lower limbs. Subsequently, he developed fungal wound infection of the left lower limb stump. The infection was detected very early, although the diagnosis was difficult because only a small area was affected and histopathological examination was initially negative. The infection was proven by microscopy, culture and histopathology. The isolate was identified by sequencing of the rDNA ITS region gene (internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA) as Lichtheimia corymbifera. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery were successful in management of the disease.
PubMed | Military University Hospital Prague, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Charles University and University of Antwerp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.] | Year: 2016
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently heralded by an impairment of glucose homeostasis. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP) are aminopeptidases that regulate several bioactive peptides involved in glucoregulation, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. The present study analyzes blood plasma levels and the quantity and localization of DPP-IV and FAP in PDAC tissues.DPP-IV and FAP concentration and enzymatic activity were evaluated in the plasma from 93 PDAC, 39 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 29 control subjects, and in matched paired non-tumorous and tumor tissues from 48 PDAC patients. The localization of DPP-IV and FAP was determined using immunohistochemistry and catalytic histochemistry.The enzymatic activity and concentration of DPP-IV was higher in PDAC tumor tissues compared to non-tumorous pancreas. DPP-IV was expressed in cancer cells and in the fibrotic stroma by activated (myo)fibroblasts including DPP-IV(+)FAP(+) cells. FAP was expressed in stromal cells and in some cancer cells and its expression was increased in the tumors. Plasmatic DPP-IV enzymatic activity, and in particular the ratio between DPP-IV enzymatic activity and concentration in PDAC with recent onset DM was higher compared to T2DM. In contrast, the plasmatic FAP enzymatic activity was lower in PDAC compared to T2DM and controls and rose after tumor removal.DPP-IV-like enzymatic activity is upregulated in PDAC tissues. PDAC patients with recent onset diabetes or prediabetes have increased plasmatic DPP-IV enzymatic activity. These changes may contribute to the frequently observed association of PDAC and recent onset impairment of glucoregulation.
PubMed | University Hospital Olomouc, Military University Hospital Prague, University of Ostrava, Charles University and Palacky University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical radiology | Year: 2015
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multimodal endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO), including bridging therapy [intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with subsequent EVT], to compare particular EVT techniques and identify predictors of clinical outcome.This retrospective, multi-centre study comprised 72 acute ischaemic stroke patients (51 males; mean age 59.1 13.3 years) with radiologically confirmed BAO. The following data were collected: baseline characteristics, risk factors, pre-event antithrombotic treatment, neurological deficit at time of treatment, localization of occlusion, time to therapy, recanalization rate, post-treatment imaging findings. Thirty- and 90-day outcomes were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale with a good clinical outcome defined as 0-3 points.Successful recanalization was achieved in 94.4% patients. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis identified the presence of arterial hypertension (OR = 0.073 and OR = 0.067, respectively), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at the time of treatment (OR = 0,829 and OR = 0.864, respectively), and time to treatment (OR = 0.556 and OR = 0.502, respectively) as significant independent predictors of 30- and 90-day clinical outcomes.Data from this multicentre study showed that multimodal EVT was an effective recanalization method in acute BAO. Bridging therapy shortens the time to treatment, which was identified as the only modifiable outcome predictor.
Kovandova H.,Czech Technical University |
Valka R.,Military University Hospital Prague
Promet - Traffic - Traffico | Year: 2014
The paper deals with safety of transport from the point of view of an important social problem, which are accidents at railroad (including tramway) and road level crossings, which means compatibility of rail and road vehicles crash. The scale of such accidents can be very wide. Regarding the statistics and frequency of accidents particularly at railway level crossings and tramway level crossings, a collision simulating the collision of a tram and passenger car was experimentally carried out. The experiment took place at the site of testing laboratory of Rail Vehicles Research Institute in Cerhenice. The experiment was conducted with a passenger car Škoda Superb of the first generation that was exposed to two collisions from both sides. Firstly by the impactor for tram headstock tests and secondly by the tram headstock itself. Both the impactor and the headstock were placed on the experimental vehicle for tests of passive safety of rail vehicles. Various speeds were chosen so that the passenger car could be used for two subsequent experiments without the influence on properties of skeleton´s supporting structure. © 2014, Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering. All rights reserved.
PubMed | University of South Bohemia, Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Military University Hospital Prague, Avda. Padre Claret no 7 and Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic
Type: | Journal: Persoonia | Year: 2015
Five Psilocybe species with unresolved systematic position (P. atrobrunnea, P. laetissima, P. medullosa, P. pelliculosa, and P. silvatica) were investigated using four molecular markers (EF1-, ITS, LSU, and IGS). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that with the exception of P. laetissima, which is now rightfully classified in the genus Leratiomyces, all investigated species belong to Psilocybe sect. Psilocybe. For the first time, psychotropic compounds psilocin and psilocybin were detected in P. medullosa using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On the contrary, neither psilocin, nor psilocybin was detected in P. atrobrunnea and negative results were also obtained from mycelia grown in vitro on tryptamine/tryptophan-amended media. These results strongly suggest that biosynthesis of these alkaloids was lost in P. atrobrunnea. With the exception of minor differences detected in EF1- marker, all sequences of American and European collections of P. atrobrunnea were identical. On the other hand, a thorough nomenclatural study revealed that the name P. atrobrunnea must be considered dubious; the oldest available candidate name, P. fuscofulva, was therefore adopted. The molecular data suggests that morphologically identical American P. silvatica and European P. medullosa likely represent distinct species; epitypes of both taxa were therefore designated.
Sosvorova L.,Institute of Endocrinology |
Mohapl M.,Military University Hospital Prague |
Vcelak J.,Institute of Endocrinology |
Hill M.,Institute of Endocrinology |
And 2 more authors.
Physiological Research | Year: 2015
Cytokines are widely known mediators of inflammation accompanying many neurodegenerative disorders including normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). NPH is caused by impaired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) reabsorption and treated by surgical shunt insertion. The diagnostics is still complicated and the shunt effect is not durable; after several years, dementia may develop. In the clinical practice, biomarkers support the diagnostics as well as the further time course of many neurodegenerative diseases. Until recently, no reliable biomarker for NPH was evaluated. The attempt of this review was to make a survey concerning cytokines as possible NPH markers. Among all reviewed cytokines, the most promising are CSF IL-10 and IL-33, enabling to follow-up the disease progression and monitoring the effectiveness of the shunt insertion. © 2015 Institute of Physiology v.v.i.
Nemec I.,Military University Hospital Prague
Acta Chirurgiae Plasticae | Year: 2013
Closure of a nasal tip defect has specific characteristics with regards to the shape, colour, thickness and texture of skin. During the reconstruction it is necessary to observe aesthetic and functional characteristics to achieve an optimal result. There are several methods for closure of a defect in this area. One of the possible techniques is usage of a local flap. In the selection of an optimal procedure it is suitable to consider the aesthetic subunits in the nose. Usage of the V-Y flap is beneficial compared to a rotation flap or a transposition flap, which are associated with significant scaring and deformities, such as a dog-ear. Such conditions may require further corrections later. Ercocen et al. described a V-Y island dorsal nasal flap, which they used to close a nasal tip defect. The blood supply of the flap was based on the terminal branches of angular artery on both sides (1). In our case report we used the aforementioned flap to close a nasal defect. The flap was based on the terminal branches of the angular artery only on one side.