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Bogotá, Colombia

Chaparro T.R.,Military University | Pires E.C.,University of Sao Paulo
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

This study assessed the removal efficiency of organic matter and how it relates to the decrease of toxic and mutagenic effects when an anaerobic reactor is used to treat the bleaching effluent from two kraft pulp mills. Parameters such as COD (chemical oxygen demand), DOC (dissolved organic carbon), AOX (adsorbable organic halogen), ASL (acid soluble lignin), color, chlorides, total phenols and absorbance values in the UV-VIS spectral region were measured. The acute and chronic toxicity and genetic toxicity assessments were performed with Daphnia similis, Ceriodaphnia sp. and Allium cepa L, respectively. The removal efficiency of organic matter measured as COD, ranged from 45% to 55%, while AOX removal ranged from 40% to 45%. The acute toxic and chronic effects, as well as the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects, decrease as the biodegradable fraction of the organics is removed. These results, together with the organic load measurement of the effluents of the anaerobic treatment, indicate that these effluents are recalcitrant but not toxic. As expected, color increased when the anaerobic treatment was applied. However, the colored compounds are of microbial origin and do not cause an increase in genotoxic effects. To discharge the wastewater, it is necessary to apply a physico-chemical or aerobic biological post-treatment to the effluents of the anaerobic reactor. © 2011 The authors. Source


Amaya D.,Manuela Beltran University | Amaya D.,District University of Bogota | Amaya D.,Military University | Rojas A.,Manuela Beltran University | And 3 more authors.
International Review on Computers and Software | Year: 2015

The use of technology in terms of improving the production processes of the agro-industry, is increasing significantly. This paper presents the results of the design of an algorithm based on image processing and artificial intelligence for segmenting fruits of Mangifera Indica, with the purpose to establish the shape, the degree of maturity based on color and to estimate the fruit size. This work can be used as a support tool for the agriculturists, for the management of harvest in the crops. Algorithm results allow to determine the condition of the fruit in the harvesting process, helping agriculturist to improve crop productivity. © 2015 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. All rights reserved. Source


The article is a comparative analysis of the visual content of the contemporary Russian ABC book and primer for first graders and the analogous Soviet and Russian books of the past century. There is an update of content and form of the ABC book and primer of the new millennium. The electronic version of the printed ABC book and primer and applications for the books on the teaching of reading have appeared. Therefore, it is possible to classify these publications as new media. The content of the current Russian ABC book and primer reflects the trends of postmodern culture and manifests the postmodern worldview. The visual content of contemporary textbooks contributes to design of realities with a different ontological status (psychological, aesthetic, and others). By comparison, the primers of the twentieth century are dominated by the image of “objective” reality. As a consequence, the visual content of the contemporary Russian primers is more complicated than that of the primers of the twentieth century. The increased cognitive complexity of visual texts of modern textbooks places greater demands on the cognitive abilities of students. The article puts forward the suggestion that the polyontic images (recognition of the multiple realities that exist in the mind) of reality in contemporary textbooks create cognitive prerequisites for the assimilation of virtual reality by students. © 2016 Springer-Verlag London Source


Botelho Ruas D.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodriguez Chaparro T.,Military University | Cleto Pires E.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista Facultad de Ingenieria | Year: 2012

This study investigated the application of an advanced oxidation process combining hydrogen peroxide with ultraviolet radiation (H 2O 2/UV) to remove recalcitrant compounds from Kraft bleaching effluent. Anaerobic pre-treatment was performed to remove easily degraded organics using a horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB) reactor. Bleaching plant effluent was treated in the HAIB reactor processed over 19 h of hydraulic retention time (HRT), reaching the expected removal efficiencies for COD (61 ± 3%), TOC (69 ± 9%), BOD 5 (90 ± 5%) and AOX (55 ± 14%). However, the anaerobic treatment did not achieve acceptable removal of UV 254 compounds. Furthermore, there was an increase of lignin, measured as total phenols. The H 2O 2/UV post-treatment provided a wide range of removal efficiencies depending on the dosage of hydrogen peroxide and UV irradiation: COD ranged from 0 to 11%, UV 254 from 16 to 35%, lignin from 0 to 29% and AOX from 23 to 54%. All peroxide dosages applied in this work promoted an increase in the BOD 5/COD ratio of the wastewater. The experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using H 2O 2/UV for posttreatment of bleaching effluents submitted to anaerobic pre-treatment. Source


Drozda J.,Military University | Synkova V.,Military University | Pejsova P.,Charles University
GL-Conference Series: Conference Proceedings | Year: 2015

We would like to present open source system Invenio that helps to really small specialized library to provide high standard services and grey literature open the access for limited budget and minimal staffing. It will describe access to research outputs in branch of geodesy, topography and cartography. The Surveying Library is unique library focused on geographic branch in the Czech Republic and surrounding countries. The Surveying Library keeps more than 44 thousands units/books, some of them more than 400 years old. Although the Czech Republic is a small country the community of geodesy, topography and cartography is not concentrated in one place. There are four research, ten administrative workplaces and seven universities with geographic or geodetic department. In addition the Surveying Library is located in small city Zdiby outside of Prague and can lure more travellers than students or researchers who should be main users of library. The Surveying Library found the way how to take advantage of the time when readers do not use their legs but mainly their fingers on the keyboard to reach documents they are looking for. Information technology, open source software and the common availability of the internet allowed that the library can provide their services remotely and at higher quality standards than before. In the past the information sources were fragmented. Users had to know how to reach library catalogue, the digital library, electronic resources, archives; many documents were hidden only on the webpages especially grey literature (conference proceedings, research reports, etc.). Today all information sources are provided from one common location and are part of one system in institutional digital repository. It is managed through the implementation of open source software Invenio, whose functions will be presented on the example of implementation in our Surveying Library. Source

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