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Trafny E.A.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Lewandowski R.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Stepinska M.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Kaliszewski M.,Military University of Technology
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2014

The improvements in the existing methods of rapid detection and biological pathogen surveillance are still needed. The new spectroscopic methods that rely on the unique structural features and intrinsic fluorescence of microorganisms are well fitted for monitoring the spread of airborne biological agents or their reagentless detection in the air, and these methods may bring a new quality to bioaerosols remote detection. This review describes the problem of the confidence in the environmental testing results that may affect clearance standard, sampling techniques, and the estimation of risk of human exposure to the low concentrations of harmful microorganisms during bioterrorist event or naturally occurring outbreaks. Higher recovery efficiency of dangerous biological agents from the air and contaminated surfaces would enable more reliable environmental human risk exposure assessment. © 2014 L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy.


Bodera P.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery | Year: 2011

RNA-protein interactions have been characterized often. Above all, the proteins which are associated with the studied RNA should be precisely identified. The pharmaceutical compositions containing nucleic acids and/or other compounds can be administered by any suitable route for administering medications. The immunostimulatory oligonucleotides play the role of antisense drugs which are being researched to treat cancers (including lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, malignant glioma and malignant melanoma), diabetes, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and diseases such as asthma and arthritis with an inflammatory component. The immunostimulatory oligonucleotides may contain one or more natural or unnatural amino acid residues which are connected to the polymer by peptide (amide) linkages. The vaccine against cancer which has been produced during this work can be prophylactic or therapeutic. Since most studies so far have been performed with first-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs), it is interesting to observe how second-generation immune stimulatory drug candidates with enhanced potency and efficacy can further improve the utility of this class of therapeutic agents. The aim of this article is to review most significant patents on immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.


Bodera P.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Stankiewicz W.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Drug Discovery | Year: 2011

Thalidomide has a broad spectrum of anti-cancer activity. Antitumor activity of thalidomide may be related to a number of known properties, including anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and T-cell costimulatory and antiangiogenic activities. The therapeutic potential of thalidomide provided motivation to develop more effective derivatives with considerably reduced toxicity. Thalidomide's immunomodulatory (IMiDs) analogs (lenalidomide, CC-5013; CC-4047, ACTIMID) represent a novel class of compounds with numerous effects on the immune system. Some of these analogs are thought to mediate the anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects observed in humans. Thalidomide is currently approved for the treatment of dermal reaction to leprosy and is currently in phase III trials for multiple myeloma (MM). IMiDs inhibit the cytokine's tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukins (IL) 1β, 6, 12, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The repression of the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) expression is the crucial factor of many of the anti-inflammatory properties of thalidomide. The mechanisms underlying many of the anti-inflammatory properties of thalidomide, including its ability to co-stimulate T cells, still remain unclear. Some recent patent are also summarized in this review. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers.


Szmigielski S.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short. © Informa UK Ltd.


Szmigielski S.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the "weak biological influence" of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli.In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation.Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions. © 2013.


Olender A.,Medical University of Lublin | Niemcewicz M.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2010

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is commonly found in normal upper respiratory tract flora in humans. In certain conditions it can cause the opportunistic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. In certain strains of Corynebacterium sp., the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSb) resistance mechanism related to the presence of the erm(X) gene was discovered; hence, the need appeared for further investigation to confirm the existence of this gene among C. pseudodiphtheriticum. About 58 strains of C. pseudodiphtheriticum were used in this study. All strains were isolated from the nasal mucous membrane of patients with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the tested strains 52 were erythromycin resistant, and only 6 were erythromycin sensitive. The tested strains showed a very high percentage (89.7%) of the phenotype MLSb-constitutive resistance mechanism. The MLSb-inducible resistance among the tested strains was not observed. Association of the MLSb mechanism with resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was observed in 12.1%, 15.5%, and 44.8% tested strains, respectively. Among all isolates with the phenotype MLSb resistance, the presence of the erm(X) gene was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction method. The results suggest that C. pseudodiphtheriticum with the MLSb-constitutive-type resistance can play a significant role in crossing this mechanism with other Corynebacterium sp., which colonize the nasal and throat mucous membrane. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.


Lewandowski R.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Kozlowska K.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Szpakowska M.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Stepinska M.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Trafny E.A.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

The present study had three goals: (i) to evaluate the relative quantities of aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on the vertical, horizontal top, and horizontal bottom surfaces in a chamber; (ii) to assess the relative recoveries of the aerosolized spores from glass and stainless steel surfaces with a polyester swab and a macrofoam sponge wipe; and (iii) to estimate the relative recovery efficiencies of aerosolized B. atrophaeus spores and Pantoea agglomerans using a foam spatula at several different bacterial loads by aerosol distribution on glass surfaces. The majority of spores were collected from the bottom horizontal surface regardless of which swab type and extraction protocol were used. Swabbing with a macrofoam sponge wipe was more efficient in recovering spores from surfaces contaminated with high bioaerosol concentrations than swabbing with a polyester swab. B. atrophaeus spores and P. agglomerans culturable cells were detected on glass surfaces using foam spatulas when the theoretical surface bacterial loads were 2.88 X 104 CFU and 8.09 X 106 CFU per 100-cm2 area, respectively. The median recovery efficiency from the surfaces using foam spatulas was equal to 9.9% for B. atrophaeus spores when the recovery was calculated relative to the theoretical surface spore load. Using a foam spatula permits reliable sampling of spores on the bioaerosol-exposed surfaces in a wide measuring range. The culturable P. agglomerans cells were recovered with a median efficiency of 0.001%, but staining the swab extracts with fluorescent dyes allowed us to observe that the viable cell numbers were higher by 1.83 log units than culturable organisms. However, additional work is needed to Improve the analysis of the foam extracts in order to decrease the limit of detection of Bacillus spores and Gram-negative bacteria on contaminated surfaces. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Manh C.D.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Malaria journal | Year: 2010

Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. In two rural villages--Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon--in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003-2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons allowing for year round transmission. In rural communities in north central Vietnam, malaria transmission was maintained by a number of anopheline species which though collected feeding on humans were predominantly zoophilic, this behaviour allows for low level but persistent malaria transmission. The important animal baits--cattle and buffalo--were kept in the village and barrier spraying around these animals may be more effective at reducing vector densities and longevity than the currently used indoor residual spraying.


Bodera P.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Stankiewicz W.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology | Kocik J.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Pharmacological Reports | Year: 2014

Background: Brain-immune system interactions and neurohormonal changes which are induced by psychophysiological factors are growing areas of scientific interest. Central (CNS) and autonomic nervous-endocrine-immune system pathways are connected with a number of behavioral and physiological factors which may be linked to disease susceptibility and progression. Methods: In this paper, influence of orphanin FQ/nociceptin receptor (OFQ/N) on the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and their influence on the immunological system was reviewed. Conclusions: The neuroendocrine system, in particular the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is closely connected with the cytokines. HPA axis activation by cytokines, via the release of glucocorticoids has, in turn, been found to play a critical role in restraining and shaping immune responses. Investigation of the OFQ/N system and G-proteins suggests a role for this receptor as a downregulator of cytokine, chemokine and chemokine receptor expression. © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.


Trafny E.A.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofilms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofilms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system) have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofilms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofilm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms' proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

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