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Szmigielski S.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation have been used in the modern world for many years. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones in recent years has seen increased interest in relation to the possible health effects of exposure to RF/MW radiation. In 2011 a group of international experts organized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. The incomplete knowledge of RF/MW-related cancer risks has initiated searches for biological indicators sensitive enough to measure the "weak biological influence" of RF/MWs. One of the main candidates is the immune system, which is able to react in a measurable way to discrete environmental stimuli.In this review, the impacts of weak RF/MW fields, including cell phone radiation, on various immune functions, both in vitro and in vivo, are discussed. The bulk of available evidence clearly indicates that various shifts in the number and/or activity of immunocompetent cells are possible, however the results are inconsistent. For example, a number of lymphocyte functions have been found to be enhanced and weakened within single experiments based on exposure to similar intensities of MW radiation.Certain premises exist which indicate that, in general, short-term exposure to weak MW radiation may temporarily stimulate certain humoral or cellular immune functions, while prolonged irradiation inhibits the same functions. © 2013.

Bodera P.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Recent Patents on Inflammation and Allergy Drug Discovery | Year: 2011

RNA-protein interactions have been characterized often. Above all, the proteins which are associated with the studied RNA should be precisely identified. The pharmaceutical compositions containing nucleic acids and/or other compounds can be administered by any suitable route for administering medications. The immunostimulatory oligonucleotides play the role of antisense drugs which are being researched to treat cancers (including lung cancer, colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, malignant glioma and malignant melanoma), diabetes, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and diseases such as asthma and arthritis with an inflammatory component. The immunostimulatory oligonucleotides may contain one or more natural or unnatural amino acid residues which are connected to the polymer by peptide (amide) linkages. The vaccine against cancer which has been produced during this work can be prophylactic or therapeutic. Since most studies so far have been performed with first-generation antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs), it is interesting to observe how second-generation immune stimulatory drug candidates with enhanced potency and efficacy can further improve the utility of this class of therapeutic agents. The aim of this article is to review most significant patents on immunostimulatory oligonucleotides. © 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Manh C.D.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Malaria journal | Year: 2010

Malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central Vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector Anopheles dirus is uncommon. In these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. Basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species. In two rural villages--Khe Ngang and Hang Chuon--in Truong Xuan Commune, Quang Binh Province, north central Vietnam, a series of longitudinal entomological surveys were conducted during the wet and dry seasons from 2003-2007. In these surveys anopheline mosquitoes were collected in human landing catches, paired human and animal bait collections, and from larval surveys. Specimens belonging to species complexes were identified by PCR and sequence analysis, incrimination of vectors was by detection of circumsporozoite protein using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Over 80% of the anopheline fauna was made up of Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles harrisoni, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles philippinensis. PCR and sequence analysis resolved identification issues in the Funestus Group, Maculatus Group, Hyrcanus Group and Dirus Complex. Most species were zoophilic and while all species could be collected biting humans significantly higher densities were attracted to cattle and buffalo. Anopheles dirus was the most anthropophilic species but was uncommon making up only 1.24% of all anophelines collected. Anopheles sinensis, An. aconitus, An. harrisoni, An. maculatus, An. sawadwongporni, Anopheles peditaeniatus and An. philippinensis were all found positive for circumsporozoite protein. Heterogeneity in oviposition site preference between species enabled vector densities to be high in both the wet and dry seasons allowing for year round transmission. In rural communities in north central Vietnam, malaria transmission was maintained by a number of anopheline species which though collected feeding on humans were predominantly zoophilic, this behaviour allows for low level but persistent malaria transmission. The important animal baits--cattle and buffalo--were kept in the village and barrier spraying around these animals may be more effective at reducing vector densities and longevity than the currently used indoor residual spraying.

Trafny E.A.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health | Year: 2013

The microbial contamination of water miscible metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a serious problem in metal industry. A good maintenance of MWF re-circulation systems can extend the lifetime of coolants and ensure the quality of the tools produced. In MWFs, as in the other water-based environments, microorganisms usually live in the form of biofilms, the communities of bacteria and fungi attached to the surface of sumps, metal parts and also to each other. Biofilms exhibit very high resistance to biocides. The effect of biocides that are used as additives to MWFs to control the growth of the bacterial and fungal microbiomes (microorganisms characteristic to the individual coolant system) have become the subject of research only in recent years. There are also only sparse reports on the impact of biocides on microorganisms growing in biofilms in MWF installations. Fast growing mycobacteria are important members of these biofilm communities. Their presence has recently been linked with the occurrence of cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, a serious respiratory disorder in the metal industry employees. The new, relatively fast and inexpensive techniques to assess the species diversity within MWF microbiomes and their population size should be developed in order to control the microorganisms' proliferation in MWFs and to diminish the occupational exposure to harmful bioaerosols in metal industry. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Olender A.,Medical University of Lublin | Niemcewicz M.,Military Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology
Microbial Drug Resistance | Year: 2010

Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is commonly found in normal upper respiratory tract flora in humans. In certain conditions it can cause the opportunistic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. In certain strains of Corynebacterium sp., the macrolide, lincosamide, and streptogramin B (MLSb) resistance mechanism related to the presence of the erm(X) gene was discovered; hence, the need appeared for further investigation to confirm the existence of this gene among C. pseudodiphtheriticum. About 58 strains of C. pseudodiphtheriticum were used in this study. All strains were isolated from the nasal mucous membrane of patients with upper respiratory tract infection symptoms. Among the tested strains 52 were erythromycin resistant, and only 6 were erythromycin sensitive. The tested strains showed a very high percentage (89.7%) of the phenotype MLSb-constitutive resistance mechanism. The MLSb-inducible resistance among the tested strains was not observed. Association of the MLSb mechanism with resistance to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was observed in 12.1%, 15.5%, and 44.8% tested strains, respectively. Among all isolates with the phenotype MLSb resistance, the presence of the erm(X) gene was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction method. The results suggest that C. pseudodiphtheriticum with the MLSb-constitutive-type resistance can play a significant role in crossing this mechanism with other Corynebacterium sp., which colonize the nasal and throat mucous membrane. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2010.

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