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Yang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Q.L.,Wuhan Military Economic Academy | Geng M.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo Z.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Plant and Soil

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been found to be involved in plant resistance to various types of environmental stress. Aluminum (Al) toxicity, as one of the most important environmental stress in acid soils, is coped by most plants through the efflux of organic acids via anion channel. This study aims to evaluate the effect of IAA on efflux of malic acid from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Al stress. Hydroponic experiments were performed by wheat ET8 (Al-tolerant). The efflux of malic acid was investigated under different treatments. Results showed that Al treatments increased the accumulation of endogenous IAA, but decreased the activity of IAA oxidase in a dose-dependent manner. A good correlation between all the data of malic acid efflux rate and endogenous IAA content was obtained (R2 = 0.9859**). IAA treatment alone had no effect on the efflux of malic acid. But compared to Al (50 μM) treatment, the efflux of malic acid increased significantly under the co-treatment of IAA (50 μM) and Al (50 μM). In split-root experiments, the root with half of it being treated with Al (CK/Al), the other part (CK) showed significantly higher malic acid efflux rate and endogenous IAA content in root apexes, compared with the root without such treatment (CK/CK). The Al-induced malic acid efflux decreased under the treatments of IAA transport inhibitor N-1-napthyl-phtalamic acid (NPA) (or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, TIBA). These above results suggested the possible involvement of IAA in the stimulation of malic acid efflux under Al stress. In addition, anion channel inhibitor treatment experiment showed that IAA (50 μM) relieved the inhibiting effect of 5 μM anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (A9C) (or niflumic acid, NIF) on malic acid efflux induced by Al (50 μM), compared to the co-treatment of Al (50 μM) and 5 μM anion channel inhibitor A9C (or NIF) it is thus speculated that the anion channel might have been activated when IAA was involved in malic acid efflux. This study showed that IAA was involved in aluminum-induced efflux of malic acid from wheat. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Yang Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Wang Q.L.,Wuhan Military Economic Academy | Geng M.J.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Guo Z.H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhao Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Plant, Soil and Environment

Aluminum (Al)-tolerance of different cultivars shows considerable differences. Elevation of rhizosphere pH is an external Al-resistant mechanism of plants. To elucidate the correlation between Al tolerance and the capacity of plants to modify the rhizosphere pH at different Al-tolerant levels, a comparative study on the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ET8 (Al-tolerant) and ES8 (Al-sensitive) was performed. Rhizosphere pH of ET8 was much higher than that of ES8 under the same treatment, significant correlations were obtained among all the data of rhizosphere pH and relative root elongation (R2 = 0.9209**), or Al content in root apex (R2 = 0.9321**), which indicated that Al tolerance may be related to pH changes in the rhizosphere. The elevation of rhizosphere pH was inhibited by H+-ATPase specific inhibitor DCCD (dicylcohexylcarbodiimide, 25 μmol). Relative PM (plasma membrane) H+-ATPase activity of ET8 was significantly higher than that of ES8 under the same treatment. Significant correlation between all the data of relative PM H+-ATPase activity and rhizosphere pH (R2 = 0.8319**) were obtained. Taken together, these results suggest that PM H+-ATPase was involved in regulating rhizosphere pH. Under Al stress, the Al-tolerant line showed a stronger capacity of up-regulating rhizosphere pH by PM H+-ATPase than the Al-sensitive line, which may explain the observed differences in Al tolerance between the two wheat cultivars. Source

Liu X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu X.,Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Type Fertilizer | Wang Q.,Wuhan Military Economic Academy | Hu C.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

Selenite is a form of selenium (Se) commonly found in Se-excessive soils. To regulate the Se content in plants in high-Se areas, a potted soil experiment was performed on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to evaluate the effects of varied amounts of sulfur (S) on the biomass, accumulation and distribution of Se in B. napus under the conditions of different amounts of Se in the soil. The results showed that the seedlings of B. napus were more sensitive to Se than the mature plants were. The addition of S significantly alleviated the growth inhibition in seedlings and facilitated the growth of mature plants under higher Se (15 mg kg−1) conditions. S treatment significantly decreased soil pH within the range of 0.22–0.60. An appropriate moderate amount (150 mg kg−1) of S exerted the strongest inhibition on Se concentration and accumulation in B. napus at the seedling stage, but a higher amount (300 mg kg−1) of S led to a more significant decrease in the mature plants under higher Se conditions, with the maximum reduction in various parts of B. napus reaching 51.3–60.9% and 42.5–53.4%, respectively. The application of S only affected the uptake of Se, and not the translocation of Se; the accumulation of Se in B. napus follows the sequence of pod ≈ stem > rapeseed > root, and the distribution ratio is approximately 1.00:0.97:0.69:0.49. Overall, the application of S alleviated the inhibitory effect on growth caused by excessive Se by reducing the Se concentration in B. napus and facilitating its growth, suggesting that S treatment is a suitable and highly cost-effective method to regulate the content of Se in B. napus. © 2016 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Source

Liu X.-W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Liu X.-W.,Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Type Fertilizer | Wang Q.-L.,Wuhan Military Economic Academy | Duan B.-H.,Huazhong Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology

The rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Xiangnongyou 571) was chosen as the experimental material to undergo solution cultivation at seedling stage to investigate the effects of selenite addition on the selenium (Se) absorption and distribution, root morphology and physiological characteristics of rape seedlings. The results showed that the bioaccumulation ability of Se decreased significantly with increasing the Se application rate, but the Se distribution coefficient remained around 0.9 with no significant influence. The application of 10 μmol·L-1 selenite stimulated the growth of rape seedlings through improving the root physiological characteristics and root morphology significantly, including significantly increasing the production of superoxide radical (O2-·) rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and fungal catalase (CAT) in the root system, which resulted in a reduction of the lipids peroxidation (MDA) content as much as 26.0%, consequently increasing the root activity as much as 17.4%. The promoting degrees of selenite on root morphological parameters were from strong to weak in such a tendency: root volume > total surface area > number of root forks > total root length > number of root tips > average diameter. However, such positive effects had no significant difference with those in treatment with 1 μmol·L-1 selenite, indicating that small amounts (≤10 μmol·L-1) of selenite were able to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes and reduce the content of MDA in root system, which could increase root activity and improve root morphology, hence increased the biomass of rape seedlings. ©, 2015, Editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology. All right reserved. Source

Ye Y.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Qiaolan W.,Wuhan Military Economic Academy | Mingjian G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zaihua G.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Zhuqing Z.,Huazhong Agricultural University
African Journal of Biotechnology

Root growth is different in plants with different levels of Al-tolerance under Al stress. Cell wall chemical components of root tip cell are related to root growth. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between root growth difference and cell wall chemical components. For this purpose, the cell wall chemical components of root tip cell in two near-isogenic lines (NIL) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), ET8 (Al-tolerant) and ES8 (Al-sensitive) were investigated. In ET8 and ES8, after treatments with Al (50 _M), relative root elongation (RRE) and relative cell length (RCL) decreased with time increase (6, 12 and 24 h), but was more significant in ES8. There was a good correlation between RRE and RCL (R 2= 0.866). Activities of the metabolism enzyme of cell wall chemical components varied, for example, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1) increased; and activities of callase (EC, cellulase (EC decreased. Cell wall chemical contents of lignin, H 2O 2 and callose increased and contents of cellulose decreased. Changes of enzyme activities and cell wall chemical components were significant in both lines, but were more prominent in the ES8 line. The analysis indicated that under Al stress, differences in cell wall chemical components of root tip cell between wheat lines with different Al tolerances induce the root tip elongation differences, thereby causing different root growth. © 2011 Academic Journals. Source

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