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Vilnius, Lithuania

Kaukas E.,Military Academy of Lithuania
Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues | Year: 2013

The United States of America and the United Kingdom with the assistance of other NATO and non-NATO states initiated an international counter terrorism campaign the War on Terror (also known as the Global War on Terror (GWOT)). However, after more than ten years the War on Terror is still in the active stage. The pivotal issue regarding counter-terrorism actions in Afghanistan, considering how much money and energy spent on them, is whether such actions are effective or not. Dynamic system simulation approach was used to investigate interactions between counter-terrorism strategies used in Afghanistan (in the context of coalition strength) and the effectiveness of these strategies (in the context of terrorist strength). Data form different sources over a ten-year-period was used for analysis (2000-2010). It was found dynamic relation between recruitment rate of terrorist and coalition manpower that depends on time adjustments. However, further research is needed to get more precise results in finding causal loops in counter-terrorism system, thus this study should be evaluated only as a framework in further similar researches. Source


Labeckas G.,Lithuanian University of Agriculture | Slavinskas S.,Lithuanian University of Agriculture | Vilutiene V.,Military Academy of Lithuania
Journal of Energy Engineering | Year: 2014

The article presents the bench test results of a fully instrumented, four cylinder, naturally aspirated, (60 kW) direct injection (DI) diesel engine running on the normal (class C) diesel fuel (DF) and aviation-turbine (JP-8) fuel. The article addresses changes in engine performance and exhaust emissions resulting from the replacement of commercial diesel fuel with JP-8 fuel. Investigation and comparison of the effects of the cetane number improving additive on the autoignition delay, maximum heat release rate, maximum in-cylinder pressure, performance efficiency of an engine, and exhaust emissions were provided for sound analysis of the test results. The series of engine tests were conducted running alternately on the normal diesel fuel, JP-8 fuel, and JP-8 treated with 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.16, and 0.24 vol% of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate. Studies on the operating characteristics of an engine were carried out for 15-10%, 50 and 100% loads, and the two ranges of speed: 1,400 revolutions per minute (rpm), at which maximum torque occurs, and a rated speed of 2,200 rpm. Use of JP-8 fuel suggested fuel energy savings and ecological benefits for medium (50%) and full (100%) loads mainly when running at a low speed of 1,400 rpm. Autoignition delay, maximum heat release rate, maximum in-cylinder pressure, and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions decreased; however, the carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, and the smoke opacity of the exhaust increased to a certain extent responding to the addition of 2-ethylhexyl nitrate to the JP-8 fuel. The brake-specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency of a fully (100%) loaded engine changed little when running on treated JP-8-12 fuel at a rated speed of 2,200 rpm. Analysis of the test results revealed that the cetane number improving additive can be considered as an effective but not the only measure to be applied for an intended use of aviation-turbine JP-8 fuel in ground-based diesel engines. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers. Source


Smaliukiene R.,Military Academy of Lithuania
Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues | Year: 2014

Drawing on policy variation across European countries this study analyses the differences, similarities and the best practices in officers and serviceman reintegration into labour market after their early retirement. The success of reintegration depends on national labour market policy towards employability and specific measures in employment assistance for officers and serviceman. The search for sustainable approach toward employability of retired officers and serviceman fostered to conduct institutional survey. The survey was conducted using set of connections of military attaché and the network of CEPOL1. Analyzing retirement practice of the police and the military in EU countries, it is noted that the police officers retirement is organized 5-10 earlier than full retirement; their pension is worth a substantial part of previous salary. F or that reason, reintegration programs are not needed and in majority of countries do not exist. The situation in military is different. Military rejuvenation forces to cut middle-age people into early retirement. It means that they will have to reintegrate into the labour market in order to maintain a similar level of well-being for themselves and their families. Results reveals four different types of reintegration programmes for serviceman in EU member states. Source


Tvaronaviciene M.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University | Tvaronaviciene M.,Military Academy of Lithuania | Grybaite V.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues | Year: 2012

The aim of this paper is to estimate and to compare sustainable development processes in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia focusing on institutional dimension of sustainable development. Attention has been focused on the selection of system of indicators with particular emphasis on institutional indicators. The authors employ the most popular two multicriteria methods: Simple Additive Weighting (SAW) and multi-criteria complex proportional method (MCP). Data embracing 2004-2010 year period is being analyzed. In order to obtain a multi-faceted view, several variants of sustainable development estimations of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are being performed. Each variant represents a different approach to development perception. The difference lies in emphasis, which is being put on the economic and institutional aspects of development. Hypothesis has been raised that the different methods employed may affect comparison results. Source


Dubauskas G.,Military Academy of Lithuania
Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues | Year: 2012

A possible sustainable growth of the financial sector due to the development of activity of credit unions is being examined in this paper. Moreover the analysis of contemporary credit unions conceptions and problems of management improvement are performed. In addition theoretical priorities for credibility and international capabilities of credit unions are presented. A sketch of some actual theories is being performed and methods for analysis of credit unions' activities are particularly composed. Following method of improvement of observational research was performed in this paper. In order to evaluate common tendencies of activities of the credit unions in the World and particularly in the European Union the financial institutions' legal regulations are specially surveyed. Furthermore legal regulations of credit unions are analyzed in practice for local and international credit unions of Lithuania. The preliminary evaluation of the credit unions activity in the circumstances of contemporary waves of the financial crisis is presented. After examining available and possible theoretical and practical aspects the assumptions from the analyzed material are proposed. The article discusses the development of credit unions and the factors affecting the credit union managers approach to the credit union system development prospects. Despite an occurrence of the recent commercial banks global situation concerning the possible disappointment of consumers - credit unions are one of the best institutions for further financial sustainability in the retail credit markets. An object of this research is credit unions and some other self-credit institutions. In addition the accumulated global information from the cooperative financial institutions is overviewed. Source

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