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Fairfield, AL, United States

Miles College is a historically black college founded in 1898. It is located in Fairfield, Alabama, six miles west of Birmingham. It is a private liberal arts institution of the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church . Miles College is also a member of the United Negro College Fund. Wikipedia.

Escande C.,Rochester College | Escande C.,Institute Investigaciones Biologicas Clemente Estable | Chini C.C.S.,Rochester College | Nin V.,Rochester College | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2010

The enzyme sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a critical regulator of many cellular functions, including energy metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms that modulate SIRT1 activity remain unknown. As SIRT1 activity in vitro was recently found to be negatively regulated by interaction with the deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) protein, we set out to investigate whether DBC1 regulates SIRT1 activity in vivo. We found that DBC1 and SIRT1 colocalized and interacted, and that DBC1 modulated SIRT1 activity, in multiple cell lines and tissues. In mouse liver, increased SIRT1 activity, concomitant with decreased DBC1-SIRT1 interaction, was detected after 24 hours of starvation, whereas decreased SIRT1 activity and increased interaction with DBC1 was observed with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Consistent with the hypothesis that DBC1 is crucial for HFD-induced inhibition of SIRT1 and for the development of experimental liver steatosis, genetic deletion of Dbc1 in mice led to increased SIRT1 activity in several tissues, including liver. Furthermore, DBC1-deficient mice were protected from HFD-induced liver steatosis and inflammation, despite the development of obesity. These observations define what we believe to be a new role for DBC1 as an in vivo regulator of SIRT1 activity and liver steatosis. We therefore propose that the DBC1-SIRT1 interaction may serve as a new target for therapies aimed at non-alcoholic liver steatosis.

Yang J.D.,Miles College | Roberts L.R.,Miles College
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology | Year: 2010

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem, although developing countries are disproportionally affected: over 80% of HCCs occur in such regions. About three-quarters of HCCs are attributed to chronic HBV and HCV infections. In areas endemic for HCV and HBV, viral transmission occurs at an early age, and infected individuals develop HCC in mid-adulthood. As these are their most productive years of life, HCC accounts for a substantial burden on the health-care system and drain of productive capacity in the low-income and middle-income countries most affected by HCV and HBV infections. Environments with disparate resource levels require different strategies for the optimal management of HCC. In high-resource environments, guidelines from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases or European Association for the Study of the Liver should be applied. In intermediate-resource or low-resource environments, the fundamental focus should be on primary prevention of HCC, through universal HBV vaccination, taking appropriate precautions and antiviral treatments. In intermediate-resource and low-resource environments, the infrastructure and capacity for abdominal ultrasonography, percutaneous ethanol injection, radiofrequency ablation and surgical resection should be established. Programs to provide targeted therapy at low cost, similar to the approach used for HIV therapy in the developing world, should be pursued. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Larusso N.F.,Miles College | Larusso N.F.,Rochester College | Masyuk T.V.,Miles College
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2011

Cholangiocytes, the epithelial cells lining intrahepatic bile ducts, are ciliated cells. Each cholangiocyte has a primary cilium consisting of (i) a microtubule-based axoneme and (ii) the basal body, centriole-derived, microtubule-organizing center from which the axoneme emerges. Primary cilia in cholangiocytes were described decades ago, but their physiological and pathophysiological significance remained unclear until recently. We now recognize that cholangiocyte cilia extend from the apical plasma membrane into the bile duct lumen and, as such, are ideally positioned to detect changes in bile flow, bile composition and bile osmolality. These sensory organelles act as cellular antennae that can detect and transmit signals that influence cholangiocyte function. Indeed, recent data show that cholangiocyte primary cilia can activate intracellular signaling pathways when they sense modifications in the flow, molecular constituents and osmolarity of bile. Their ability to sense and transmit signals depends on the participation of a growing number of specific ciliary-associated proteins that act as receptors, channels and transporters. Cholangiocyte cilia, in addition to being important in normal biliary physiology, likely contribute to the cholangiopathies when their normal structure or function is disturbed. Indeed, the polycystic liver diseases that occur in combination with autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease (i.e. ADPKD and ARPKD) are two important examples of such conditions. Recent insights into the role of cholangiocyte cilia in cystic liver disease using in vitro and animal models have already resulted in clinical trials that have influenced the management of cystic liver disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Yang J.D.,Miles College | Roberts L.R.,Miles College
Infectious Disease Clinics of North America | Year: 2010

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major world health problem because of the high incidence and case fatality rate. In most patients, the diagnosis of HCC is made at an advanced stage, which limits the application of curative treatments. Most HCCs develop in patients with underlying chronic liver disease. Chronic viral hepatitis B and C are the major causes of liver cirrhosis and HCC. Recent improvements in treatment of viral hepatitis and in methods for surveillance and therapy for HCC have contributed to better survival of patients with HCC. This article reviews the epidemiology, cause, prevention, clinical manifestations, surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment approach for HCC. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hogan M.C.,Rochester College | Masyuk T.V.,Miles College | Page L.J.,Rochester College | Kubly V.J.,Rochester College | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2010

There are no proven, effective therapies for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) or polycystic liver disease (PLD). We enrolled 42 patients with severe PLD resulting from autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD) or autosomal dominant PLD (ADPLD) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of octreotide, a long-acting somatostatin analogue. We randomly assigned 42 patients in a 2:1 ratio to octreotide LAR depot (up to 40 mg every 28 ± 5 days) or placebo for 1 year. The primary end point was percent change in liver volume from baseline to 1 year, measured by MRI. Secondary end points were changes in total kidney volume, GFR, quality of life, safety, vital signs, and clinical laboratory tests. Thirty-four patients had ADPKD, and eight had ADPLD. Liver volume decreased by 4.95% ± 6.77% in the octreotide group but remained practically unchanged (+0.92% ± 8.33%) in the placebo group (P = 0.048). Among patients with ADPKD, total kidney volume remained practically unchanged (+0.25% ± 7.53%) in the octreotide group but increased by 8.61% ± 10.07% in the placebo group (P = 0.045). Changes in GFR were similar in both groups. Octreotide was well tolerated; treated individuals reported an improved perception of bodily pain and physical activity. In summary, octreotide slowed the progressive increase in liver volume and total kidney volume, improved health perception among patients with PLD, and had an acceptable side effect profile. Copyright © 2010 by the American Society of Nephrology.

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