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Qiryat Shemona, Israel

Turgeman T.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Sitrit Y.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Danai O.,Edible Mushrooms | Danai O.,Galilee College | And 6 more authors.
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2012

A Tuber melanosporum plantation established in 1994/1995 on Kibbutz Bar'am (in the Upper Galilee, Israel) gradually lost its T. melanosporum mycorrhiza. In 1999, T. aestivum inoculated seedlings were inadvertently introduced into the plantation to fill the gaps between trees. A single T. melanosporum fruit body was found in 1999. Although no truffles were found after 1999 and until 2009, in that year and in 2010, truffles were collected. Morphological and molecular analyses proved these to be T. aestivum. Thus, the intentionally introduced T. melanosporum mycorrhiza was replaced by that of another introduced mycorrhizal fungus, T. aestivum. Local oak species produced higher yields compared to introduced host species known to be good T. melanosporum plant symbionts. The yield was comparable to that reported for young commercial orchards, but the fruiting season was earlier than in Europe. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Dag A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Naor A.,Golan Research Institute PO Box 97 Kazrin 12900 Israel | Ben-Gal A.,Israel Agricultural Research Organization | Harlev G.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades, the area of cultivated super-high-density olive orchards has increased rapidly. Water stress is an important tool in super-high-density orchards to reduce tree growth and promote suitability for overhead mechanical harvesters. Little is known regarding the effect of water stress in super-high-density orchards on oil quality parameters. In this study the effect of irrigation rate on oil quality parameters was evaluated in a six-year-old super-high-density 'Koreneiki' olive orchard for five consecutive seasons. Five water status levels, determined by irrigating in order to maintain various midday stem water potential threshold values (-1.5, -2, -2.5, -3 and -4 MPa), were applied during the oil accumulation stage. RESULTS: The MUFA/PUFA ratio and free fatty acid content generally decreased as a function of increasing tree water stress. In most seasons a reduction in polyphenols was found with decreasing irrigation level. Peroxide value was not affected by the water stress level. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that limiting irrigation and exposure of olive trees to water stress in a super-high-density orchard lowers free fatty acid content and therefore benefits oil quality. However, the decreased MUFA/PUFA ratio and the reduction in polyphenol content that were also found under increased water stress negatively influence oil quality. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

Masaphy S.,MIGAL | Masaphy S.,Galilee College | Zabari L.,MIGAL
Fungal Ecology | Year: 2013

Morchella species ascocarps (morels) are sought-after edible mushrooms that exhibit pyrophilous behavior, proliferating in fire-affected soils of certain types of forests. The factors governing fruiting in this habitat are poorly understood. An observational approach was used to determine the spatial distribution on preferred micro-sites of black morel fruiting in a forest after a summer fire, subjected to different post-fire forestry management activities. Clearing the burnt tree stumps from the site, compaction of the burnt soil by heavy machinery (bulldozers) and covering the soil with chopped wood created preferred micro-sites for black morel fruiting. Fewer fruit bodies developed on untouched burnt soil, and almost none on non-burnt soil at the same site. These observations enhance understanding the ecological principles underlying the distribution and abundance of morel ascocarp development in natural habitats; such an understanding could contribute to conservation and management of morel fruiting in the wild. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society.

Shahar E.,MIGAL | Shahar E.,Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center | Gorodetsky R.,Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center | Gaberman E.,Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2010

Antitumor activity of molecules and cells of the innate immune system has been reported. Here we propose a method for targeting preferred innate immune cells and magnifying their tumoricidal effect at the tumor microenvironment, by modular multiple-component complexes (termed TILTAN). As a model, micro-scale complexes were assembled carrying monoclonal anti-HER2 antibodies, lipopolysaccharide and/or mannose. The complexes showed high binding capacity to HER2-positive cancer cells in vitro, high induction of interleukin-1 RNA transcription by the activated monocytes and ability to mediate monocytes' attachment to HER2-positive cells. TILTAN treatment was found safe in in vivo testing and induced change in interleukin-1 RNA transcription in tumors xenografts. We thus present a new vision of targeting a desired innate immune response to the tumor microenvironment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Meir R.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Krispel S.,MIGAL | Simanov L.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Eliahu D.,MIGAL | And 3 more authors.
Viral Immunology | Year: 2012

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is prevented primarily by the use of live attenuated vaccines, which are known to have a limited strain range of protection. Alternative vaccines against the emerging new virus strains can improve control of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunogenic potential of two recombinant viral proteins, when administered by eyedrop, without the assistance of a vector. The recombinant S1 (rS1) and N (rN) proteins of the M41 strain expressed in E. coli were tested, and the live attenuated vaccine H120 was used as a positive control. Protection was evaluated by re-isolation of virus from tracheas of vaccinated chickens after challenge with strain M41. After three immunizations, rS1 glycoprotein induced 40% protection, while vaccination with rN provided no protection. Vaccination with rS1, rN, or H120 induced a cellular immune response as demonstrated by in vitro ChIFN-γ production by splenocytes of vaccinated birds. Vaccination with H120, and to a lesser extent rS1, induced HI and virus-specific IgG antibody production. These findings indicate that recombinant viral proteins administered through the mucosal route can evoke an immune response without the assistance of a vector. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2012.

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