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Kondo M.,Mie University | Akachi S.,Mie Prefecture Health and Environment Research Institute | Ando K.,Mie University | Nomura T.,Mie Prefectural Shima Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2016

Two Japanese siblings visited the Cook Islands on business and stayed for 2 months. The sister developed a high fever, arthralgia, erythema and leg edema on the day after returning to Japan. The brother also developed neck and joint pain on the day following the sister's onset. Subsequently, his erythematous lesions spread over his whole body. Chikungunya virus was detected from the sister's blood and urine by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in the brother's samples. Retrospectively, his history of Chikungunya fever was confirmed by the presence of the anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG antibodies using the specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. In Japan, no autochthonous case of Chikungunya fever was reported previously. We should give attention to the imported infectious diseases for epidemic prevention. This report warns about the danger of the imported infectious diseases, and also suggests that covering the topic of infectious disease in the world is critical to doctors as well as travelers. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.


Kondo M.,Mie University | Akachi S.,Mie Prefecture Health and Environment Research Institute | Yamanaka K.,Mie University | Yamagiwa A.,Mie University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2015

Rickettsia diseases, including Japanese spotted fever (JSF), are serious infections. Delayed diagnosis occasionally results in life-threatening liver disorders and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Because of the shortness of the latent period, serological diagnosis is not preferable for early diagnosis of JSF. Until now, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnosis method has been used for early diagnosis, and the sensitivity reaches as high as 90% using skin biopsy samples as we previously reported. On the other hand, the sensitivity of the same PCR method using blood samples is limited at less than 50%. In the present study, using peripheral blood samples, we developed a novel diagnostic method for JSF using a Rick PCR system with original PCR primers, showing improved sensitivity compared with the conventional nested PCR. It may constitute a preferable diagnostic tool for early and sensitive diagnosis of Rickettsia infection. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.


Kishida N.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Fujisaki S.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Yokoyama M.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | Sato H.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases | And 19 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2012

The vaccine strains against influenza virus A/H3N2 for the 2010-2011 season and influenza virus B for the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons in Japan are a high-growth reassortant A/Victoria/210/2009 (X-187) strain and an egg-adapted B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Victoria lineage) strain, respectively. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests with postinfection ferret antisera indicated that the antisera raised against the X-187 and egg-adapted B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine production strains poorly inhibited recent epidemic isolates of MDCK-grown A/H3N2 and B/Victoria lineage viruses, respectively. The low reactivity of the ferret antisera may be attributable to changes in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of production strains during egg adaptation. To evaluate the efficacy of A/H3N2 and B vaccines, the cross-reactivities of postvaccination human serum antibodies against A/H3N2 and B/Victoria lineage epidemic isolates were assessed by a comparison of the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of HI and neutralization (NT) tests. Serum antibodies elicited by the X-187 vaccine had low cross-reactivity to both MDCK-and egg-grown A/H3N2 isolates by HI test and narrow cross-reactivity by NT test in all age groups. On the other hand, the GMTs to B viruses detected by HI test were below the marginal level, so the cross-reactivity was assessed by NT test. The serum neutralizing antibodies elicited by the B/Brisbane/60/2008 vaccine reacted well with egg-grown B viruses but exhibited remarkably low reactivity to MDCK-grown B viruses. The results of these human serological studies suggest that the influenza A/H3N2 vaccine for the 2010-2011 season and B vaccine for the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 seasons may possess insufficient efficacy and low efficacy, respectively. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Kurokawa I.,Meiwa Hospital | Kondo M.,Mie University | Akachi S.,Mie Prefecture Health and Environment Research Institute
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

We studied the suitability of a PCR method using samples of skin and whole blood and serological tests for the early diagnosis of Japan spotted fever (JSF) in its acute and convalescent stages and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these different diagnostic methods. In the acute stage, the percentage of positive results was 91.2 % for the PCR method using skin samples, 52.3 % for the PCR method using whole blood samples, and 40.4 % for the serological tests with IgM. In the convalescent stage, paired serum showed positive results (IgM, 98.5 %; IgC, 94.0 %). The PCR method using samples of skin (eschar) is the most sensitive, specific, and suitable method for promptly and accurately diagnosing JSF in the early stage. Therefore, this method is recommended for early definite diagnosis of JSF in the critical stage. © 2012 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases.


Iwade Y.,Mie Prefecture Health and Environment Research Institute | Yamazaki W.,University of Miyazaki | Gondaira F.,Denka Seiken Co. | Vuddhakul V.,Prince of Songkla University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2014

Although thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (tdh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, the enumeration of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus remains challenging due to its low densities in the environment. In this study, we developed a most-probable-number (MPN)-based procedure designated A-IS1-LAMP, in which an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique targeting as many as 69 established K antigens and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were applied in an MPN format. Our IMS employed PickPen, an eight-channel intrasolution magnetic particle separation device, which enabled a straightforward microtiter plate-based IMS procedure (designated as PickPen-IMS). The ability of the procedure to quantify a wide range of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus levels was evaluated by testing shellfish samples in Japan and southern Thailand, where shellfish products are known to contain relatively low and high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The Japanese and Thai shellfish samples showed, respectively, relatively low (<3 to 11 MPN/10 g) and considerably higher (930 to 110,000 MPN/10 g) levels of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus, raising concern about the safety of Thai shellfish products sold to domestic consumers at local morning markets. LAMP showed similar or higher performance than conventional PCR in the detection and quantification of a wide range of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. Whereas a positive effect of PickPen-IMS was not observed in MPN determination, PickPen-IMS was able to concentrate tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus 32-fold on average from the Japanese shellfish samples at an individual tube level, suggesting a possibility of using PickPen-IMS as an optional tool for specific shellfish samples. The A-IS1-LAMP procedure can be used by any health authority in the world to measure the tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. © International Association for Food Protection.

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