Yokota K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture |
Teraoka T.,Tokyo University of Agriculture |
Tsujii Y.,Alpha Food Co. |
Suzuki H.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2010
Potato dextrose broth (PDB), one of the most popular culture media for fungi, can be made in the laboratory from potato extract and glucose (handmade PDB) and also bought as powder (commercial PDB). We compared growth of Fusarium oxysporum in handmade and commercial PDBs. For seven strains tested, bud cell formation and fungal biomass were higher in handmade PDB than in commercial PDB. Gel filtration analyses revealed that handmade PDB contained carbohydrates with molecular weights <20 MDa, while most carbohydrates in commercial PDB were <45 kDa. Freshly prepared, raw potato starch had a molecular weight <20 MDa and enhanced bud cell formation by five of seven strains when added to commercial PDB. The addition of glucose to commercial PDB promoted biomass production but not bud cell formation. Furthermore, in a semisynthetic medium containing raw potato starch, bud cell formation was enhanced for all strains tested. These results indicate that the high molecular carbohydrates present in raw potatoes enhanced bud cell formation by Fusarium oxysporum. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.
Murakami K.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Hara M.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Kondo T.,Suzuka Poultry Co. Inc |
Hashimoto Y.,Mie University
Soil Science and Plant Nutrition | Year: 2011
Microbial mineralization of urea and uric acid in poultry litter can lead to loss of nitrogen (N) content and its value as a fertilizer. To minimize the loss of N in the composting processes, controlling the water content in litters is a key to reduce the mineralization processes of N compounds. The N content of litter may be influenced by diets, hen age and the type of poultry houses used. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the relationship between the water content and the decomposition rate of uric acid in poultry litter and ii) to investigate the effect of hen age and crude protein (CP) percentages in diets on the N content of poultry litter. A layer feeding trial was conducted in two poultry farms with windowless and open-floor houses. An incubation study of poultry litter was performed under different levels of water content. Our study found that the diet CP percentage (16.5-18%) and the growth stage of laying hens did not have a significant effect on the amount of total N (52-56 g kg -1) and uric acid-N (26-31g kg -1) in fresh litters. At the 7 th day of litter incubation study, the concentration of uric acid-N was 22 g kg -1 in litters with a water content of 35%, whereas it further decreased to less than 1.3 g kg -1 in litters with a water content of 55% and higher levels. The decomposition rate of uric acid-N in litter was 0.3-3.1g kg -1day-1 in the windowless house and 3.1-7.1g kg -1day-1 in the open-floor house. Decomposition of uric acid in litters was positively correlated to the litter moisture content that is controlled to be lower in windowless houses (40-50%) than in open-floor houses (55-80%) during the composting period. Our study suggests that the use of windowless houses for layer chicken production is effective for producing poultry manure with a high N content. © 2011 Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition.
Hayashi K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Nagumo Y.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute |
Domoto A.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016
In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation—methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Sato H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization |
Matsumoto K.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Ota C.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Yamakawa T.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2015
Brown spot is a devastating rice disease. Quantitative resistance has been observed in local varieties (e.g., ‘Tadukan’), but no economically useful resistant variety has been bred. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from ‘Tadukan’ (resistant) × ‘Hinohikari’ (susceptible), we previously found three QTLs (qBS2, qBS9, and qBS11) that conferred resistance in seedlings in a greenhouse. To confirm their effect, the parents and later generations of RILs were transplanted into paddy fields where brown spot severely occurred. Three new resistance QTLs (qBSfR1, qBSfR4, and qBSfR11) were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 11, respectively. The ‘Tadukan’ alleles at qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 and the ‘Hinohikari’ allele at qBSfR4 increased resistance. The major QTL qBSfR11 coincided with qBS11 from the previous study, whereas qBSfR1 and qBSfR4 were new but neither qBS2 nor qBS9 were detected. To verify the qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 ‘Tadukan’ resistance alleles, near-isogenic lines (NILs) with one or both QTLs in a susceptible background (‘Koshihikari’) were evaluated under field conditions. NILs with qBSfR11 acquired significant field resistance; those with qBSfR1 did not. This confirms the effectiveness of qBSfR11. Genetic markers flanking qBSfR11 will be powerful tools for marker-assisted selection to improve brown spot resistance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Breeding. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute, Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science, Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization and The University of Shimane
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Breeding science | Year: 2015
Brown spot is a devastating rice disease. Quantitative resistance has been observed in local varieties (e.g., Tadukan), but no economically useful resistant variety has been bred. Using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from Tadukan (resistant) Hinohikari (susceptible), we previously found three QTLs (qBS2, qBS9, and qBS11) that conferred resistance in seedlings in a greenhouse. To confirm their effect, the parents and later generations of RILs were transplanted into paddy fields where brown spot severely occurred. Three new resistance QTLs (qBSfR1, qBSfR4, and qBSfR11) were detected on chromosomes 1, 4, and 11, respectively. The Tadukan alleles at qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 and the Hinohikari allele at qBSfR4 increased resistance. The major QTL qBSfR11 coincided with qBS11 from the previous study, whereas qBSfR1 and qBSfR4 were new but neither qBS2 nor qBS9 were detected. To verify the qBSfR1 and qBSfR11 Tadukan resistance alleles, near-isogenic lines (NILs) with one or both QTLs in a susceptible background (Koshihikari) were evaluated under field conditions. NILs with qBSfR11 acquired significant field resistance; those with qBSfR1 did not. This confirms the effectiveness of qBSfR11. Genetic markers flanking qBSfR11 will be powerful tools for marker-assisted selection to improve brown spot resistance.
Okuda H.,Mie University |
Ichinokiyama H.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Noda K.,Chiba University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015
The fruit quality of Satsuma Mandarin strongly depends on drought stress during the maturation period. Most commercial orchards in Japan receive significant amounts of rain during the maturation period. To obtain the highest quality fruit, water vapor-permeable sheets are used to cover the ground (mulching) in approximately 20% of the very early ripening Satsuma Mandarin orchards in Japan. However, these sheets are ineffective in citrus fields converted from paddy fields. Chemicals, such as ethyclozate, might be used to improve fruit quality as a substitute for mulching for applying water stress and reducing water uptake through roots. This effect was notable in young trees, but there was no report of effects in mature trees. In this experiment, seasonal changes in the volumetric water content (VWC) in the trunks of mature trees were monitored using time domain reflectometry (TDR) along with the effects of the chemical. The results suggested that VWC decreased in the treated trees from early July immediately after treatment until early September. In addition, coloring began to develop one week earlier, and the Brix increased by about one degree at harvest. These results suggest that the application of ethyclozate in early summer might play a role in applying water stress to improve fruit quality.
Hinomoto N.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science |
Todokoro Y.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Todokoro Y.,Mie Prefectural Agricultural College |
Higaki T.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science
Experimental and Applied Acarology | Year: 2011
The predatory mite Neoseiulus womersleyi (Schicha) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an important natural enemy of the Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawaki Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), in tea fields. Attraction and preservation of natural enemies by habitat management to reduce the need for acaricide sprays is thought to enhance the activity of N. womersleyi. To better conserve N. womersleyi in the field, however, it is essential to elucidate the population genetic structure of this species. To this end, we developed ten microsatellite DNA markers for N. womersleyi. We then evaluated population structure of N. womersleyi collected from a tea field, where Mexican sunflower, Tithonia rotundifolia (Mill.), was planted to preserve N. womersleyi. Seventy-seven adult females were collected from four sites within 200 m. The fixation indexes FST among subpopulations were not significantly different. The kinship coefficients between individuals did not differ significantly within a site as a function of the sampling dates, but the coefficients gradually decreased with increasing distance. Bayesian clustering analysis revealed that the population consisted of three genetic clusters, and that subpopulations within 100 m, including those collected on T. rotundifolia, were genetically similar to each other. Given the previously observed population dynamics of N. womersleyi, it appears that the area inhabited by a given cluster of the mite did not exceed 100 m. The estimation of population structure using microsatellite markers will provide valuable information in conservation biological control. © 2010 The Author(s).
Kameoka T.,Mie University |
Kondo H.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Isozaki M.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute |
Nakamura T.,Panasonic |
And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the SICE Annual Conference | Year: 2011
The environmental measurement in the plant factory is the factor which is extremely important when it makes the peculiar most suitable environment that a plant has. It has kept the stabilization of a harvest managed by the peculiar know-how of the farmhouse conventionally. But if we can control a certain level scientifically on environmental data we can always control condition of the plant under the most suitable condition. We were micro miniature this time and developed the wireless temperature-humidity sensor which added a radio function to the temperature-humidity sensor of the independence type in such a background and measured the temperature-humidity distribution in the plant factory house in real time. The most suitable environment peculiar to a plant can always control it if we can measure temperature-humidity distribution in real time. © 2011 SICE.
Isobe S.N.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute |
Hirakawa H.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute |
Sato S.,Kazusa DNA Research Institute |
Maeda F.,Crop Breeding Institute |
And 25 more authors.
DNA Research | Year: 2013
The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa) is an octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) of the Rosaceae family whose genomic architecture is still controversial. Several recent studies support the AAA′A′BBB′ B′ model, but its complexity has hindered genetic and genomic analysis of this important crop. To overcome this difficulty and to assist genome-wide analysis of F. × ananassa, we constructed an integrated linkage map by organizing a total of 4474 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers collected from published Fragaria sequences, including 3746 SSR markers [Fragaria vesca expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived SSR markers] derived from F. vesca ESTs, 603 markers (F. × ananassa EST-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa ESTs, and 125 markers (F. × ananassa transcriptome-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa transcripts. Along with the previously published SSR markers, these markers were mapped onto five parent-specific linkage maps derived from three mapping populations, which were then assembled into an integrated linkage map. The constructed map consists of 1856 loci in 28 linkage groups (LGs) that total 2364.1 cM in length. Macrosynteny at the chromosome level was observed between the LGs of F. × ananassa and the genome of F. vesca. Variety distinction on 129 F. × ananassa lines was demonstrated using 45 selected SSR markers. © 2012 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.
Kameoka T.,Mie University |
Tanida W.,Mie University |
Kimura Y.,Mie University |
Hashimoto A.,Mie University |
Kondo H.,Mie Prefecture Agricultural Research Institute
2015 54th Annual Conference of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers of Japan, SICE 2015 | Year: 2015
We aimed at making the color chart of new yellowish green grape cultivar 'Shine Muscat' by using original color that was a useful and quantitative evaluation index of the appearance. The relationship between the ingredient changes and the color development of grape berries of 'Shine Muscat' was also clarified. Accurate color information was obtained from the acquired berry image since the reflected glare of the optical diffusion body was suppressed on the surface of the fruit berry. Moreover, it was confirmed that color chart is a very useful tool to evaluate the introspectiveness quality of grape berry. The adoption of HSV color space that covers the human perceived color approximately and the color matching between monitor and printer enabled us to make the color chart with convenience and utility. © 2015 The Society of Instrument and Control Engineers-SICE.