Kido Y.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing |
Kayama M.,Tokyo International University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017
Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify consumer providers (CPs) subjective experiences as members of a psychiatric multidisciplinary outreach team that provided services to individuals with a mental illness living in the community. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study was conducted through semi-structured interviews. Participants were clients hired as CPs in the Japanese Outreach Model Project from September 2011 until March 2014. Of the seventeen CPs, nine participated in this study. We looked at the CPs' subjective experiences of fulfillment and difficulty. Results: In the process of providing services, CPs experienced both achievements and concerns. They had a sense of achievement by caring for their clients and they experienced that they themselves were recovering. They were also concerned about having inadequate knowledge and skills to provide psychiatric services to their clients. Further, there were concerns about their dual role on the multidisciplinary team and being support staff while they were still using mental health services themselves. Conclusion: The results show that the activities of CPs included fulfillment, recovery, and dilemmas. Clarifications will likely contribute to an increase in understanding and cooperation between CPs and other professionals with whom they work. Further studies are needed to investigate policies related to mental health consumers who are also providers of mental health services. © 2017 Kido, Kayama. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Notley S.R.,University of Wollongong |
Park J.,University of Wollongong |
Tagami K.,University of Wollongong |
Ohnishi N.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing |
Taylor N.A.S.,University of Wollongong
Experimental Physiology | Year: 2017
New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can sex-related differences in cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses be explained primarily by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass during compensable exercise that elicits equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes across participants? What is the main finding and its importance? Mass-specific surface area was a significant determinant of vasomotor and sudomotor responses in men and women, explaining 10-48% of the individual thermoeffector variance. Nonetheless, after accounting for changes in mean body temperature and morphological differences, sex explained only 5% of that inter-individual variability. It was concluded that sex differences in thermoeffector function are morphologically dependent, but not sex dependent. Sex is sometimes thought to be an independent modulator of cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, sex differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area). To evaluate that possibility, vasomotor and sudomotor functions were assessed in 60 individuals (36 men and 24 women) with widely varying (overlapping) specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 and 241.2-303.1 cm2 kg-1, respectively). Subjects completed two trials in compensable conditions (28°C, 36% relative humidity) involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at fixed, area-specific metabolic heat-production rates (light, ∼135 W m-2; moderate, ∼200 W m-2). Equivalent heat-loss requirements and mean body temperature changes were evoked across participants. Forearm blood flow and vascular conductance were positively related to specific surface area during light work in men (r = 0.67 and r = 0.66, respectively; both P < 0.05) and during both exercise intensities in women (light, r = 0.57 and r = 0.69; and moderate, r = 0.64 and r = 0.68; all P < 0.05). Whole-body and local sweat rates were negatively related to that ratio (correlation coefficient range, -0.33 to -0.62; all P < 0.05) during both work rates in men and women. Those relationships accounted for 10-48% of inter-individual thermoeffector variance (P < 0.05). Furthermore, after accounting for morphological differences, sex explained no more than 5% of that variability (P < 0.05). It was concluded that, when assessed during compensable exercise, sex differences in thermoeffector function were largely determined morphologically, rather than being sex dependent. © 2017 The Physiological Society.
Okamoto T.,Mie University |
Akita N.,Suzuka University of Medical Science |
Kawamoto E.,Mie University |
Hayashi T.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing |
And 2 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2014
The gap junction proteins connexin32 (Cx32), Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 are expressed in endothelial cells, and regulate vascular functions involving inflammation, vasculogenesis and vascular remodeling. Aberrant Cxs expression promotes the development of atherosclerosis which is modulated by angiogenesis; however the role played by endothelial Cxs in angiogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we determined the effects of endothelial Cxs, particularly Cx32, on angiogenesis. EA.hy926 cells that had been transfected to overexpress Cx32 significantly increased capillary length and the number on branches compared to Cx-transfectant cells over-expressing Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 or mock-treated cells. Treatment via intracellular transfer of anti-Cx32 antibody suppressed tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to controls. In vitro wound healing assays revealed that Cx32-transfectant cells significantly increased the repaired area while anti-Cx32 antibody-treated HUVECs reduced it. Ex vivo aorta ring assays and in vivo matrigel plaque assays showed that Cx32-deficient mice impaired both vascular sprouting from the aorta and cell migration into the implanted matrigel. Therefore endothelial Cx32 facilitates tube formation, wound healing, vascular sprouting, and cell migration. Our results suggest that endothelial Cx32 positively regulates angiogenesis by enhancing endothelial cell tube formation and cell migration. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Okamoto T.,Mie University |
Akiyama M.,Mie University |
Takeda M.,Mie University |
Akita N.,Mie University |
And 4 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research | Year: 2011
Gap junctions (GJs) play an important role in vascular function, stability, and homeostasis in endothelial cells (ECs), and GJs are comprised of members of the connexin (Cx) family. GJs of vascular ECs are assembled from Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43, and we showed that ECs also express Cx32. In this study, we investigated a potential role for Cx32 during vascular inflammation. Expression of Cx32 mRNA and protein by human umbilical venous ECs (HUVECs) decreased following treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interleukin (IL)-1β did not affect Cx32 expression. Intracellular transfer of an inhibitory anti-Cx32 monoclonal antibody significantly enhanced TNF-α-induced monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and IL-6 expression, but overexpression of Cx32 abrogated TNF-α-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 expression. LPS treatment of Cx32 knock-out mice significantly increased the serum concentrations of TNF-α, interferon-γ, IL-6 and MCP-1, compared to wild-type littermate mice. These data suggest that Cx32 protects ECs from inflammation by regulating cytokine expression and plays an important role in the maintenance of vascular function. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Chiba R.,Jichi Medical University |
Miyamoto Y.,University of Tokyo |
Funakoshi A.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing
Journal of Mental Health | Year: 2014
Background: Benefit finding is defined as finding benefits through the struggle with adversity. Aim: This study explored benefit finding at different stages of recovery among people with severe mental illness in Japan. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey, which contained both open-ended questions regarding benefit finding and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS), was conducted. Of the responses received from 193 (61%) of 319 individuals with mental illness, responses about benefit finding from 94 questionnaires was analyzed using content analysis (males: 57%; females: 43%; average age: 45 years). Each response about benefit finding was classified into one of three groups according to the stages of recovery by their RAS score (i.e. low, middle or high). Results: The group with higher recovery scores provided more examples of benefit finding, although almost a quarter of examples of benefit finding were provided by the low-RAS group. Different benefit finding characteristics were found between groups of people at different stages of recovery. Conclusion: While individuals with higher recovery scores are likely to find a variety of benefits, even individuals with lower recovery scores are capable of benefit finding. © 2014 Informa UK Ltd.
Yamane M.,Aichi Mizuho College |
Ohnishi N.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing |
Matsumoto T.,Chukyo University
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
This study examined the effects of regular post-exercise cold application on muscular and vascular adaptations induced by moderate-intensity resistance training. 14 male subjects participated in resistance training: 5 sets of 8 wrist-flexion exercises at workload of 70-80% of the single repetition maximum, 3 times a week for 6 weeks. 7 subjects immersed their experimental forearms in cold water (10±1°C) for 20 min after wrist-flexion exercises (cooled group), and the other 7 served as control subjects (noncooled group). Measurements were taken before and after the training period; wrist-flexor thickness, brachial-artery diameter, maximal muscle strength, and local muscle endurance were measured in upper extremities. Wrist-flexor thicknesses of the experimental arms increased after training in both groups, but the extent of each increase was significantly less in the cooled group compared with the noncooled group. Maximal muscle strength and brachial-artery diameter did not increase in the cooled group, while they increased in the noncooled group. Local muscle endurance increased in both groups, but the increase in the cooled group tended to be lower compared to the noncooled group. Regular post-exercise cold application to muscles might attenuate muscular and vascular adaptations to resistance training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
Funakoshi A.,Mie Prefectural College of Nursing |
Miyamoto Y.,University of Tokyo
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences | Year: 2015
Aims Hikikomori is a new psychosociological phenomenon among youth, of almost complete withdrawal from social interaction, and it has received considerable attention in community mental health in Japan. The aims of the present study were to identify the influential factors of family difficulties of parents who use support services for children with hikikomori, and compare them between fathers and mothers. Methods Data were collected from 110 parents (55 couples) of children with hikikomori with regard to family difficulties, quality of life, and depression variables via self-report questionnaires. To assess the influential factors of Family Difficulties for parents with children with hikikomori, hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was carried out for gender. Results While 94.5% of mothers received some kind of family support, only 61.9% of fathers received it. For both genders, the number of services that the fathers received was significantly correlated with marital cooperation, and the number of services that the mothers received was significantly correlated with support resource utilization. Conclusions It is necessary for fathers to receive more support, and it is important for professionals to encourage parents to address their difficulties together. © 2014 The Authors.
Notley S.R.,University of Wollongong |
Park J.,University of Wollongong |
Tagami K.,University of Wollongong |
Ohnishi N.,University of Wollongong |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2016
Human heat loss is thought, in part, to be morphologically related. It was therefore hypothesized that when heat-loss requirements and body temperatures were matched, that the mass-specific surface area alone could significantly explain both cutaneous vascular and sudomotor responses during compensable exercise. These thermoeffector responses were examined in 36 men with widely varying mass-specific surface areas (range, 232.3-292.7 cm2/kg), but of similar age, aerobic fitness, and adiposity. Subjects completed two trials under compensable conditions (28.1C, 36.8% relative humidity), each involving rest (20 min) and steady-state cycling (45 min) at two matched metabolic heatproduction rates (light, 135 W/m2; moderate, 200 W/m2). Following equivalent mean body temperature changes, forearm blood flow and vascular conductance (r 0.63 and r 0.65) shared significant, positive associations with the mass-specific surface area during light work (P<0.05), explaining 45% of the vasomotor variation. Conversely, during light and moderate work, whole body sweat rate, as well as local sweat rate and sudomotor sensitivity at three of four measured sites, revealed moderate, negative relationships with the mass-specific surface area (correlation coefficient range 0.37 to 0.73, P < 0.05). Moreover, those relationships could uniquely account for between 10 and 53% of those sweating responses (P < 0.05). Therefore, both thermoeffector responses displayed a significant morphological dependency in the presence of equivalent thermoafferent drive. Indeed, up to half of the interindividual variation in these effector responses could now be explained through morphological differences and the first principles governing heat transfer. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
News Article | February 26, 2017
Sweating depends on body size, and not gender, which means that people who weigh more also sweat more, regardless of their gender. The research stating this examined people during cycle exercises in warm and tolerable conditions. The study, published in the journal Experimental Physiology, was conducted by researchers from the University of Wollongong in Australia and Mie Prefectural College of Nursing in Japan. There are two different ways through which the human body cools down: one is through sweating and the other one is through increased circulation on the surface of the skin. However, body shape has an important role when it comes which of these two ways of heat loss is employed. According to the results of the paper, smaller individual, both females and males, who have more surface area per kilogram of body mass usually cool down through increasing circulation on the surface of the skin, using less sweating in this process. The research sheds new light on the way sweating is perceived, disproving the common belief that the gender of an individual is the one responsible for using sweating instead of increased circulation. "Gender is sometimes thought to independently modulate cutaneous vasomotor and sudomotor function during heat exposure. Nevertheless, it was hypothesized that, when assessed during compensable exercise that evoked equal heat-loss requirements across participants, gender differences in those thermoeffectors would be explained by variations in the ratio between body surface area and mass (specific surface area)," noted the research paper. In order to assess the mechanisms of heat loss, the researchers analyzed skin blood flow, as well as sweating, in 24 women and 36 men, who were subjected to tests. The individuals were asked to perform two tasks, consisting of light and moderate exercise, at a temperature of 28 degress Celsius (82.4 degrees Fahrenheit), at 36 percent humidity. The levels of temperature and humidity used in the study are normal conditions under which the human body either sweats or increases blood flow to the skin, as a way to prevent rises in the body temperature. All subjects recorded the same changes in body temperature during both trials, regardless of gender. "[...] Furthermore, after accounting for morphological differences, gender explained no more than 5% of that variability. It was concluded that, when assessed during compensable exercise, gender differences in thermoeffector function were largely morphologically determined, rather than being gender dependent," concluded the paper. However, a previous study published in the same journal argued that men are better at sweating than women, especially when it comes to hot conditions. Gender differences were widely believed to be the reasons behind sweating more or less, and findings of recent research supported this hypothesis. "The main finding of the present study is that the effects of training history on the sweating response were smaller in females than males, and this sex difference became more pronounced with increased exercise intensity. These findings support our hypothesis that increases in the sweat gland response to physical training would be smaller in the TF [trained females] group than in the TM [trained males] group", noted that study. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.
News Article | February 24, 2017
Sex differences in heat loss responses are dependent on body size and not sex, meaning that larger individuals sweat more than smaller ones during cycle exercise in warm and tolerable conditions. That's what research published today in Experimental Physiology shows. The body cools itself down in two main ways: sweating and increasing circulation to the skin's surface. Body shape and size dictates which of these two is relied upon for heat loss. The study found that smaller males and females with more surface area per kilogram of body mass are more dependent on heat loss through increasing circulation and less dependent upon sweating. These findings by scientists from the University of Wollongong in Australia and Mie Prefectural College of Nursing in Japan call into question the conventional belief that women and men always respond differently to heat stress. The scientists looked at skin blood flow and sweating responses in 36 men and 24 women. They performed two trials (one of light exercise and the other of moderate) at 28 degrees Celsius and 36% humidity. These are conditions where the body is able to mitigate the additional heat produced during exercise and prevent further rises in body temperature by increasing sweating and blood flow to the skin. The same body temperature changes were observed in all participants within each trial regardless of sex. 'Gender has long been thought to influence sweating and skin blood flow during heat stress. We found that these heat loss responses are, in fact, gender independent during exercise in conditions where the body can successfully regulate its temperature.' 1. Full paper title: Variations in body morphology explain gender differences in thermoeffector function during compensable heat stress. DOI: 10.1113/EP086112 Link to paper http://onlinelibrary. (link will only work after the embargo date. Before then please email the press office for a copy of the paper) 2. Experimental Physiology publishes translation and integration of research, specifically manuscripts that deal with both physiological and pathophysiological questions that investigate gene/protein function using molecular, cellular and whole animal approaches. http://ep. 3. The Physiological Society brings together over 3,500 scientists from over 60 countries. The Society promotes physiology with the public and parliament alike. It supports physiologists by organising world-class conferences and offering grants for research and also publishes the latest developments in the field in its three leading scientific journals, The Journal of Physiology, Experimental Physiology and Physiological Reports. http://www.