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Alberton C.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto S.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Da Silva Azenha N.A.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Cadore E.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2015

The purpose of the present study was to analyze the electromyographic (EMG) signals of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST) and short head of the biceps femoris (BF) during the performance of stationary running at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. The sample consisted of 12 female volunteers who performed the stationary running exercise in aquatic and dry land environments at a submaximal cadence (80 beats·min-1 controlled by a metronome) and at maximal velocity, with EMG signal measurements from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles. The results showed a distinct pattern between environments for each muscle examined. For the submaximal cadence of 80 beats·min-1, there was a reduced magnitude of the EMG signal in the aquatic environment, except for the ST muscle, the pattern of which was similar in both environments. In contrast to the submaximal cadence, the pattern of the EMG signal from all of the muscles showed similar magnitudes for both environments and phases of movement at maximal velocity, except for the VL muscle. Therefore, the EMG signals from the RF, VL, ST and BF muscles of women during stationary running had different patterns of activation over the range of motion between aquatic and dry land environments for different intensities. Moreover, the neuromuscular responses of the lower limbs were optimized by an increase in intensity from submaximal cadence to maximal velocity. © by Cristine Lima Alberton 2016.


Alberton C.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Alberton C.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pinto S.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Pinto S.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014

The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiorespiratory responses of young women to exercise at the first ventilatory threshold (VT1), the second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and at maximum effort (MAX) between maximal incremental tests performed using water aerobic exercises and a treadmill on land (TL). Twenty women (24.0 ± 2.5 years; 163.3 ± 6.7 cm; 60.0 ± 6.7 kg) underwent 4 maximal tests in randomized order, with a 48-hour interval between tests. Three tests involved performing water aerobic exercises (stationary running, frontal kick, and cross-country skiing) and 1 TL. Oxygen uptake (V̇ O2), ventilation (VE), and heart rate were measured throughout the tests, and their values at the VT 1, VT2, and MAX intensities were determined by 3 independent, experienced physiologists. Repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests were used for comparisons between tests (α = 0.05). Heart rate was significantly higher in the TL condition compared with the water aerobic exercises at the VT1 (p = 0.001), VT2 (p < 0.001), and MAX (p < 0.001) intensities. V̇O2 and VE had similar values across the 4 protocols at the VT1 intensity, but significantly higher values were observed with TL (V̇O2: p < 0.001; VE: p < 0.001) at the VT2 intensity. At the MAX intensity, V̇O2 was significantly higher with TL compared with the 3 water aerobic exercises (p < 0.001), whereas no significant differences in VE between the 4 protocols were found. These results suggest that the prescription of water aerobics classes should be based on specific maximal tests for water aerobic exercises. Training intensities could be overestimated if they were based on maximal tests on dry land. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.


Alberton C.L.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tartaruga M.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tartaruga M.P.,Midwest State University of Parana | Pinto S.S.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2013

The aim of the present study was to compare the peak vertical ground reaction force (V-GRFpeak) and impulse of women performing water aerobic exercises at different intensities in aquatic and dry land environments. 15 young women performed 1 session in each environment consisting of 3 water aerobic exercises (stationary running, frontal kick and cross country skiing) performed at 3 cadences (first ventilatory threshold, second ventilatory threshold and maximum effort, as determined during exercise in water) in a randomized order. 2-way and 3-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze the impulse and V-GRFpeak, respectively. Significantly lower values of V-GRFpeak and impulse (p<0.001) were observed for the aquatic environment. Significant differences were observed among all cadences for V-GRFpeak and impulse (p<0.001) in both environments except for the V-GRFpeak between the cadences corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold and maximum effort in the aquatic environment. In addition, significantly lower V-GRFpeak values in the aquatic environment were found for cross country skiing compared to the other exercises (p<0.001). Thus, water exercises are safe for people that need to minimize vertical ground reaction force; however, an important issue to be considered during water aerobics training is the exercise and intensity to be prescribed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.


Alberton C.L.,Federal University of Pelotas | Finatto P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Pinto S.S.,Federal University of Pelotas | Antunes A.H.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2015

Abstract: The purpose was to analyse the vertical ground reaction forces (Fz) of head-out aquatic exercises [stationary running (SR), frontal kick (FK), cross-country skiing (CCS), jumping jacks (JJ), adductor hop (ADH) and abductor hop (ABH)] at two cadences in both aquatic and dry land environments. Twelve young women completed two sessions in each environment, each consisting of three exercises performed at two cadences (first and second ventilatory thresholds – C1 and C2, respectively). Two-way and three-way repeated measures analysis of variance were used to the statistical analysis. The results showed that the peak Fz and impulse were significantly lower in the aquatic environment, resulting in values from 28.2% to 58.5% and 60.4% to 72.8% from those obtained on dry land, respectively. In the aquatic environment, the peak Fz was lower and the impulse was higher at the C1 than at the C2. Furthermore, it was observed that SR and FK (0.9–1.1 BW) elicited a significantly higher peak Fz values compared to the ADH and JJ exercises (0.5–0.8 BW). It can be concluded that the aquatic environment reduces the Fz during head-out aquatic exercises. It should be noted that its magnitude is also dependent on the intensity and the identity of the exercise performed. © 2014, © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Tartaruga M.P.,Midwest State University of Parana | Tartaruga M.P.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Tartaruga M.P.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | Brisswalter J.,University of Nice Sophia Antipolis | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Human Kinetics | Year: 2013

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allometric scaling on the relationship between mechanical work and long-distance running performance in recreational runners. Fourteen recreational long-distance runners (male, mean ± SD - age: 29 ± 7 years; body mass: 70.0 ± 10.2 kg; body height: 1.71 ± 0.07 m; maximal oxygen uptake: VO 2max 52.0 ± 4.9 ml.kg-1.min-1) performed two tests: a continuous incremental test to volitional exhaustion in order to determine VO2max, and a 6-minute running submaximal test at 3.1 m.s-1, during which segments in the sagittal plane were recorded using a digital camera and the internal (Wint), external (Wext) and total (Wtot) mechanic work, in J.kg-1.m-1, was subsequently calculated. The results indicated a significant correlation between mechanical work and performance, however, the strongest correlations were observed when allometric exponents were used (respectively for Wint, Wext and Wtot; non allometric vs. allometric scaling defined by literature (0.75) or determined mathematically (0.49): r = 0.38 vs. r = 0.44 and r = 0.50; r = 0.80 vs. r = 0.83 and r = 0.82; r = 0.70 vs. r = 0.77 and r = 0.78). These results indicate that mechanical work could be used as a predictor of recreational long-distance performance and an allometric model may improve this prediction. © Editorial Committee of Journal of Human Kinetics.

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