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PubMed | MIDSR Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of natural science, biology, and medicine | Year: 2016

The assessment of micronuclei (MN) in exfoliated oral epithelial cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis.To detect MN in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms and also to detect frequency of MN in premalignant lesions and conditions (potentially malignant diseases [PMDs]) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). To correlate frequency of MN in oral exfoliated cells in clinically diagnosed cases of OSCC followed by a histopathological grading.A total of 90 subjects (30 smokeless tobacco users, 30 smokers and 30 nontobacco users) consisted of clinically diagnosed cases of PMDs and OSCC were selected for the study. Cytosmears from the groups were stained with rapid Papanicolaou stain. MN was identified according to the Tolbert et al. criteria.MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers. The frequency of MN was three to four times higher in patients with OSCC as compared to patients in PMDs (P < 0.0001). The frequency of MN correlated with the histopathological grade was statistically significant.MN index can be used as a biomarker/screening test among the high-risk groups particularly the smokeless tobacco users and PMDs. MN can be a candidate to serve as a biomarker for prediction of the grade of OSCC.


PubMed | MIDSR Dental College, JSS Dental College & Hospital, Senior Lecturer, Professor and HOD and Kalinga Institute of Dental science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2015

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth caused by specific microorganisms, resulting in destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Progressive loss of alveolar bone is the salient feature of periodontal disease. Accurate detection of periodontal disease with the use of radiographs helps in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.The present study aims to compare the efficacy of conventional intraoral periapical (IOPA) and direct digital radiographs (RVG) in detecting interdental alveolar bone loss using intrasurgical (IS) measurements as the gold standard.Thirty patients elected to undergo periodontal flap surgery with periodontitis computing to 60 interdental alveolar defects on mandibular first molars were considered. IOPA and RVG were captured using standardized techniques. Bone loss measurements in IOPA and RVG were compared to the IS measurements.Statistical analysis was carried out using student t test and ANOVA with the help of SPSS software and p-value <0.05 was considered as significant.Both IOPA and RVG underestimated the bone loss measurements when compared to IS measurements which was statistically significant (p<0.0001). Bone loss measurements in RVG were closer to IS measurements than IOPA.Both the radiographic techniques IOPA and RVG underestimated bone loss by 1.5-2.5 mm. RVG was superior to IOPA for the detection of interdental bone loss due to reduced time and radiation exposure to obtain the same diagnostic information.


PubMed | Sri Balaji Dental College & Hospital, SJM Dental College and Hospital, Private Practitioner, MIDSR Dental College and Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016

The present study was aimed to evaluate the resistance to deformation or fracture of brackets of various materials (ceramic, ceramic reinforced with metal slot, and stainless steel brackets) with archwires during application of torque.The sample size included 30 brackets of maxillary right central incisor with slot dimension of 0.022 0.028 and made of three materials (10 of each type): (1) Ceramic brackets (cer), (2) ceramic brackets reinforced with stainless steel slot (cer/ss), and (3) stainless steel brackets (metal). Thirty stainless steel archwire segments of 0.019 0.025 SS 5 cm in length were used. Elastomeric ties were also used in this study.Highest to lowest deformation or fracture torque found is as follows: Stainless steel brackets (5713.2 gfmm), metal ceramic reinforced with metal slot brackets (4080.8 gfmm), and ceramic brackets (3476 gfmm).Stainless steel brackets showed significantly higher values of torsional load than ceramic brackets reinforced with metal slot and ceramic brackets.Clinically orthodontic treatment is based on specific force applications to the dentition, the maxilla and the mandible. In order to obtain these forces, orthodontic brackets are attached to the teeth. Most commonly used brackets are metal (stainless steel), ceramic, and combination of metal reinforced ceramic brackets. For successful orthodontic treatment, it is necessary to maintain proper torque and avoid torque loss. Torque loss leads to deepening of bite. Torque loss occurs due to many reasons, one of them being bracket failure to withstand applied torque.


Nemane V.,Government Dental College | Akulwar R.,Midsr Dental College | Meshram S.,Swami Devi Dayal Hospital and Dental College
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2015

Background: The marginal fit of crowns is of clinical importance. It is found that marginal and occlusal discrepancies are commonly increased following cementation. The resistance of cementing materials is a factor that prevents cast restorations from being correctly seated. Different finish lines behave differently in facilitating the escape of the cement. When the escape path of the cement decreases, the crown fails to seat further. Materials and Methods: This study was planned with an aim to evaluate the effect of various finish lines on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. Six stainless steel metal dies were machined to simulate molar crown preparations. The diameter was 10 mm and height was 6mm. The occlusal surface was kept flat and a small circular dimple was machined for reorientation of the wax pattern and metal copings, margins of various designs were machined accurately. The margins prepared were Group A- 900C shoulder, Group B- Rounded shoulder, Group C- 45 degree sloped shoulder, Group D- Chamfer, Group E- Long chamfer, Group F- Feather edge. Full cast metal crowns of base metal alloy were fabricated over the metal dies. Zinc phosphate luting cement was used for the cementation. After twenty four hours, the cemented crown and die assembly were embedded in clear acrylic resin so as to hold the assembly together while sectioning. Twenty four hours later, all the samples were sectioned sagitally. The sectioned halves were focused under a stereomicroscope and the cement spaces were measured to the nearest micron. The cement thickness was measured at two points on the occlusal surface and one at each margin. Results: Significant differences were observed in the occlusal seat and marginal seal of all the finish line configurations. The rounded shoulder had the best occlusal seat, followed by 900C shoulder. The occlusal seat and marginal seal afforded by the shoulder finish lines were similar whereas there was a vast difference in the seating and sealing of long chamfer and feather edged preparations. They showed the worst occlusal seat. Conclusion: It was found that the finish lines like shoulder preparations which exhibit poor sealing prior to complete cementation allow good seating whereas margins which seal earlier do not allow escape of cement and hence do not seat completely. © Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights Reserved.


PubMed | Swami Devi Dayal Hospital and Dental College, Midsr Dental College and Government Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2015

The marginal fit of crowns is of clinical importance. It is found that marginal and occlusal discrepancies are commonly increased following cementation. The resistance of cementing materials is a factor that prevents cast restorations from being correctly seated. Different finish lines behave differently in facilitating the escape of the cement. When the escape path of the cement decreases, the crown fails to seat further.This study was planned with an aim to evaluate the effect of various finish lines on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations. Six stainless steel metal dies were machined to simulate molar crown preparations. The diameter was 10 mm and height was 6mm. The occlusal surface was kept flat and a small circular dimple was machined for reorientation of the wax pattern and metal copings, margins of various designs were machined accurately. The margins prepared were Group A- 90(0)C shoulder, Group B- Rounded shoulder, Group C- 45 degree sloped shoulder, Group D- Chamfer, Group E- Long chamfer, Group F- Feather edge. Full cast metal crowns of base metal alloy were fabricated over the metal dies. Zinc phosphate luting cement was used for the cementation. After twenty four hours, the cemented crown and die assembly were embedded in clear acrylic resin so as to hold the assembly together while sectioning. Twenty four hours later, all the samples were sectioned sagitally. The sectioned halves were focused under a stereomicroscope and the cement spaces were measured to the nearest micron. The cement thickness was measured at two points on the occlusal surface and one at each margin.Significant differences were observed in the occlusal seat and marginal seal of all the finish line configurations. The rounded shoulder had the best occlusal seat, followed by 90(0)C shoulder. The occlusal seat and marginal seal afforded by the shoulder finish lines were similar whereas there was a vast difference in the seating and sealing of long chamfer and feather edged preparations. They showed the worst occlusal seat.It was found that the finish lines like shoulder preparations which exhibit poor sealing prior to complete cementation allow good seating whereas margins which seal earlier do not allow escape of cement and hence do not seat completely.


PubMed | KMCT Dental College, MIDSR Dental College and Government Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2014

Early detection of tuberculosis is important for reducing its morbidity and mortality especially in the patients with non-productive cough. To overcome the cumbersome process involved in collection and processing of the sputum specimen, the time consumed for reporting of sputum by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) method and to introduce a routine screening test in suspected, symptomless tuberculosis patients, the present study was designed using saliva as diagnostic medium and Auramine Rhodamine (AR) as staining method. On review of literature, there was no study which has tried diagnosing tuberculosis using saliva with flurochrome stain; hence the present study was designed.To introduce a routine screening test for tuberculosis patient using saliva and to determine the diagnostic efficacy of routine ZN staining method and AR fluorescent staining method in sputum and saliva smears of pulmonary tuberculosis patients.Laboratory settings and Experimental design.Fifty smears samples of sputum and saliva of known cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with routine ZN stain and other with AR fluorescent stain. All the specimens were inoculated into Lowenstein-Jensen culture media. The smears were subjected for scanning of Mycobacterium tuberculous bacilli under X 1000 magnification for ZN stain and X 400 magnification for AR stain by grid pattern proposed by National tuberculosis institute and graded by RNTCP grading system.All 50 sputum samples showed 100% positivity by ZN and AR stain while only 76% positivity was seen by culture. Of the 50 saliva samples 10% cases were positive by ZN, 76% were positive by AR & 70% by culture method. Statistical analysis using chi square test was done, and the value was found to be statistically highly significant for AR staining technique. (p<0.001) CONCLUSION: Saliva can prove to be an important tool for the diagnosis as well as screening of the patients with pulmonary tuberculosis when aided with flurochrome staining method.


PubMed | Oxford Dental College, MIMSR Medical College, MIDSR Dental College and Al Ameen Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Annals of maxillofacial surgery | Year: 2016

Various techniques have been employed from time to time to achieve maxillomamdibular fixation. Although arch bars provide an effective and versatile means of maxillomandibular fixation, their use is not without shortcomings. However the introduction of intermaxillary fixation screws (IMF) has eliminated many of these issues of arch bars. The aim of the present study was to compare the advantages and disadvantages of intermaxillary fixation screws over the Erich arch bars in mandibular fractures.Sixty dentulous patients who reported to Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Al-Ameen Dental College and Hospital, Bijapur with mandibular fractures and required intermaxillary fixation as a part of treatment plan followd by open reduction and internal fixation under GA were selected and randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each that is Group A and Group B. Group A included patients who received intermaxillary fixation with Erich arch bars. Group B includes patients who received intermaxillary fixation with IMF Screws. The parameters compared in both the groups included, surgical time taken, gloves perforation, post-operative occlusion, IMF stability, oral hygiene, patient acceptance and comfort and non-vitality characteristics.The average surgical time taken and gloves perforations were more in Group A,the patient acceptance and oral hygiene was better in Group B, there was not much statistically significant difference in postoperative occlusion and IMF stability in both groups. Accidental root perforation was the only limitation of IMF screws.Intermaxillary fixation with IMF screws is more efficacious compared to Erich arch bars in the treatment of mandibular fractures.


PubMed | MGVKBH Dental College and Hospital and Midsr Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2015

Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers.To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic).Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink II(TM)). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink II(TM)). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated.Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test.Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value.Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades.


PubMed | SMBT Dental College, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental School, Midsr Dental College and MGVs KBH Dental College and Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry | Year: 2015

Dental caries is a multifactorial disease which requires a susceptible host, a cariogenic microflora, and a suitable substrate that must be present for a sufficient length of time. Tea is prepared by the infusion of dried leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which contains bioactive compounds like polyphenols, flavonoids, and catechins that are thought to be responsible for the health benefits that have traditionally been attributed to tea. These compounds have multidimensional effects such as antibacterial action, inhibitory action on the bacterial and salivary amylase, and inhibition of acid production.The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of 0.5% C. sinensis extract, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in children.A randomized blinded controlled trial with 60 healthy children of age group 9-14 years was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups, i.e. group A - 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, group B - 0.05% sodium fluoride, and group C - 0.5% C. sinensis extract, with 20 subjects per group. Plaque accumulation and gingival condition were recorded using plaque index and gingival index. Oral hygiene was assessed by simplified oral hygiene index (OHIS). Salivary pH was assessed using indikrom pH strips. Plaque, gingival, and simplified OHI scores as well as salivary pH were recorded at baseline, immediately after first rinse, after 1 week, and in the 2(nd) week.The data were analyzed using a computer software program (SPSS version 17). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were used to identify significant differences between the means of the study groups. Finally, paired t-tests were used to assess the significance of changes within each group between time periods. Critical P values of significance were set at 0.05 and the confidence level set at 95%.Mean plaque and gingival scores were reduced over the 2-week trial period in the experimental groups. Antiplaque effectiveness was observed in all groups, the highest being in group C (P < 0.05). Chlorhexidine gluconate and tea showed comparative effectiveness on gingiva better than sodium fluoride (P < 0.05). The salivary pH increase was sustained and significant in groups B and C compared to group A. Oral hygiene improvement was better appreciated in groups A and C.The effectiveness of 0.5% C. sinensis extract was more compared to 0.05% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouth rinses. It should be explored as a cost-effective and safe long-term adjunct to oral self-care of patients as it has prophylactic benefits with minimum side effects.


PubMed | MIDSR Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016

Parapharyngeal space tumours are rare. Pleomorphic adenoma is the commonest salivary gland tumour that is found in this space. This tumour may arise in the deep lobe of parotid gland and extend into the parapharyngeal space or may arise de novo from the aberrant minor salivary glands in parapharyngeal space. The latter entity is an extremely rare finding. CT scan and fine-needle aspiration cytology form the important diagnostic tools in case of these tumours. Surgery is the mainstay for the treatment of these tumours. The strategic location and also the extension of these tumours may at times demand to alter the surgical procedure for their excision. This article presents a case of a 27-year-old female, who presented with a mass in the right submandibular region that was excised successfully using transcervical approach in conjunction with transoral approach without mandibulotomy. The biopsy report suggested it to be pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary gland.

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