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Ismail S.J.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Ismail S.J.,University of Alberta | Ismail S.J.,University of Calgary | Langley J.M.,Dalhousie University | And 4 more authors.

The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) provides medical, scientific, and public health advice on the use of vaccines in Canada. This article describes the structure and processes of NACI, as well as its approach to evidence-based decision-making. In a rapidly evolving and complex immunization environment, NACI has faced challenges in its endeavour to make thorough and timely evidence-based recommendations. Making population-level recommendations without formally considering the full spectrum of public health science (e.g. cost-effectiveness) presents difficulties in the implementation of NACI's recommendations. Although an improved and more transparent evidence-based NACI decision-making process is now in place, this is continuing to evolve with a current review of structures and processes underway to further improve effectiveness and efficiencies. Crown Copyright © 2010. Source

Graham J.R.,Royal Jubilee Hospital | Graham J.R.,University of Victoria | Mackie C.,Middlesex London Health Unit | Mackie C.,McMaster University
Journal of Public Health Management and Practice

Objective: Resource allocation in local public health (LPH) has been reported as a significant challenge for practitioners and a Public Health Services and Systems Research priority. Ensuring available resources have maximum impact on community health and maintaining public confidence in the resource allocation process are key challenges. A popular strategy in health care settings to address these challenges is Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA). This case study used PBMA in an LPH setting to examine its appropriateness and utility. Design: The criteria-based resource allocation process PBMA was implemented to guide the development of annual organizational budget in an attempt to maximize the impact of agency resources. Senior leaders and managers were surveyed postimplementation regarding process facilitators, challenges, and successes. Setting: Canada's largest autonomous LPH agency. Results: PBMA was used to shift 3.4% of the agency budget from lower-impact areas (through 34 specific disinvestments) to higher-impact areas (26 specific reinvestments). Senior leaders and managers validated the process as a useful approach for improving the public health impact of agency resources. However, they also reported the process may have decreased frontline staff confidence in senior leadership. Conclusions: In this case study, PBMA was used successfully to reallocate a sizable portion of an LPH agency's budget toward higher-impact activities. PBMA warrants further study as a tool to support optimal resource allocation in LPH settings. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

King G.,Bloorview Research Institute | Shaw L.,University of Western Ontario | Orchard C.A.,University of Western Ontario | Miller S.,Middlesex London Health Unit

Background: There is a need for tools by which to evaluate the beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes that underlie interprofessional socialization and collaborative practice in health care settings. Method: This paper introduces the Interprofessional Socialization and Valuing Scale (ISVS), a 24-item self-report measure based on concepts in the interprofessional literature concerning shifts in beliefs, behaviors, and attitudes that underlie interprofessional socialization. The ISVS was designed to measure the degree to which transformative learning takes place, as evidenced by changed assumptions and worldviews, enhanced knowledge and skills concerning interprofessional collaborative teamwork, and shifts in values and identities. The scales of the ISVS were determined using principal components analysis. Results: The principal components analysis revealed three scales accounting for approximately 49% of the variance in responses: (a) Self-Perceived Ability to Work with Others, (b) Value in Working with Others, and (c) Comfort in Working with Others. These empirically derived scales showed good fit with the conceptual basis of the measure. Conclusion: The ISVS provides insight into the abilities, values, and beliefs underlying socio-cultural aspects of collaborative and authentic interprofessional care in the workplace, and can be used to evaluate the impact of interprofessional education efforts, in house team training, and workshops. © 2010-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Tucker P.,University of Western Ontario | Van Zandvoort M.M.,Middlesex London Health Unit | Burke S.M.,University of Western Ontario | Irwin J.D.,University of Western Ontario
BMC Public Health

Background. Physical activity offers numerous physiological and psychological benefits for young children; however, many preschool-aged children are not engaging in sufficient activity. The home environment, inclusive of parent role modeling, has been identified as influencing preschoolers' physical activity. This study sought to examine childcare providers' perspectives of the importance of parents and the home environment for supporting the physical activity behaviours of preschool-aged children (aged 2.5-5 years) attending childcare. Methods. A heterogeneous sample of childcare providers (n = 84; response rate 39%) working at childcare facilities in London, Ontario participated. Thirteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted in London centres between February 2009 and February 2010. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and inductive content analysis was used to code and classify themes. A number of strategies were used to verify the trustworthiness of the data. Results. Childcare providers acknowledged their reliance on parents/guardians to create a home environment that complements the positive physical activity messaging children may receive in childcare. Moreover, childcare staff highlighted the need for positive parent role modeling and parent support to encourage active healthy lifestyles among young children. Conclusion. This study's findings highlight the need for increased parent-caregiver partnering in terms of communication and cooperation in service of promoting appropriate amounts of physical activity among London preschoolers. © 2011 Tucker et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Thomas H.M.,Middlesex London Health Unit | Thomas H.M.,University of Western Ontario | Irwin J.D.,University of Western Ontario
BMC Research Notes

Abstract. Background: In Canada, there are limited occasions for youth, and especially at-risk youth, to participate in cooking programs. The paucity of these programs creates an opportunity for youth-focused cooking programs to be developed, implemented, and evaluated with the goal of providing invaluable life skills and food literacy to this potentially vulnerable group. Thus, an 18-month community-based cooking program for at-risk youth was planned and implemented to improve the development and progression of cooking skills and food literacy. Findings. This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of a cooking skills intervention for at-risk youth. The manuscript provides information about the process of planning and implementing the intervention as well as the evaluation plan. Results of the intervention will be presented elsewhere. Objectives of the intervention included the provision of applied food literacy and cooking skills education taught by local chefs and a Registered Dietitian, and augmented with fieldtrips to community farms to foster an appreciation and understanding of food, from 'gate to plate'. Eight at-risk youth (five girls and three boys, mean age = 14.6) completed the intervention as of November 2010. Pre-test cooking skills assessments were completed for all participants and post-test cooking skills assessments were completed for five of eight participants. Post intervention, five of eight participants completed in-depth interviews about their experience. Discussion. The Cook It Up! program can provide an effective template for other agencies and researchers to utilize for enhancing existing programs or to create new applied cooking programs for relevant vulnerable populations. There is also a continued need for applied research in this area to reverse the erosion of cooking skills in Canadian society. © 2011 Thomas et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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