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Mahmoudi H.,University of Hassiba Ben Bouali Chlef | Spahis N.,University of Hassiba Ben Bouali Chlef | Goosen M.F.,Alfaisal University | Ghaffour N.,Middle East Desalination Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

The aim of this paper was to outline a proposed a new brackish water greenhouse desalination unit powered by geothermal energy for the development of arid and relatively cold regions, using Algeria as a case study. Countries which have abundant sea/brackish water resources and good geothermal conditions are ideal candidates for producing fresh water from sea/brackish water. The establishment of human habitats in these arid areas strongly depends on availability of fresh water. The main advantage of using geothermal energy to power brackish water greenhouse desalination units is that this renewable energy source can provide power 24 h a day. This resource is generally invariant with less intermittence problems compared to other renewable resources such as solar or wind energy. Geothermal resources can both be used to heat the greenhouses and to provide fresh water needed for irrigation of the crops cultivated inside the greenhouses. A review of the geothermal potential in the case study country is also outlined. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Abdul-Wahab S.A.,Sultan Qaboos University | Reddy K.V.,Middle East Desalination Research Center | Al-Weshahi M.A.,Muscat College | Al-Hatmi S.,Barka Power and Desalination Plant | Tajeldin Y.M.,Sultan Qaboos University
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2012

In this paper, a mathematical model for multistage flash (MSF) desalination plants was developed. The model was based on basic principles of physics and chemistry that describe the stages occurring in the desalination process. The input plant parameters that are known to affect the operation of the MSF desalination plant and its performance was taken into account in the construction of the model. These parameters included make-up flow, brine recycle flow, seawater flow, seawater temperature, seawater concentration, top brine temperature (TBT), steam temperature and the plant load. For each stage, the developed model was used for predicting the temperatures of the brine, distillate and cooling brine, and the flow rates of brine outlet and distillate production. The developed model was evaluated with the MSF plant vendor simulation results and its actual operating data. The evaluation indicated that model predictions matched well with the vendor simulation results and the plant operating data. The developed model is sufficiently accurate and model predictions can be relied upon. Therefore, it may be recommended for determining optimum set point of a running MSF desalination plant at different loads to maximize the water production or minimize energy consumption. It can also be used to calculate controller set points for different loads of the plant. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Ramdani A.,University Djilali Liabes | Taleb S.,University Djilali Liabes | Benghalem A.,University Djilali Liabes | Ghaffour N.,Middle East Desalination Research Center
Desalination | Year: 2010

Water supply for people in the Sahara region is mainly assured by poor quality ground water which has excessive minerals, hardness and high concentration of fluoride. This leads to many teeth and bones diseases such as fluorosis. The purpose of this study is to eliminate the excess of fluorides from the El Oued Souf City water supply located in the South East of the Algerian Sahara by retention process onto montmorillonite clay using potentiometric method. Two types of natural clays were tested. The first one contains a higher percentage of calcium (AC) and the second one without calcium (ANC). These adsorbents were activated chemically and thermally with temperatures ranging between 200 and 500 °C. Experimental results showed that chemical activation proved effective adsorption reaching up to 88% whereas the thermal activation is ineffective and reached only around 5%. Moreover, the acidity of the medium and the alkalinity affect the adsorption considerably. The retention predicted from the adsorption isotherms is in agreement with Langmuir's model. The kinetic analysis of the reactions indicates that reaction is slow with diffusional control. The low values obtained for the heat of adsorption mean that the adsorption is exothermic with no specific type. An ionic mechanism exchange for fluoride removal is proposed in this study. Crown Copyright © 2009. Source


Ghaffour N.,Middle East Desalination Research Center | Ghaffour N.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Reddy V.K.,Middle East Desalination Research Center | Abu-Arabi M.,Middle East Desalination Research Center | Abu-Arabi M.,Jordan University of Science and Technology
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011

Desalination has become one of the sources for water supply in several countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa region. There is a great potential to develop solar desalination technologies especially in this region where solar source is abundantly available. The success in implementing solar technologies in desalination at a commercial scale depends on the improvements to convert solar energy into electrical and/or thermal energies economically as desalination processes need these types of energies. Since desalination is energy intensive, the wider use of solar technologies in desalination will eventually increase the demand on these technologies, making it possible to go for mass production of photovoltaic (PV) cells, collectors and solar thermal power plants. This would ultimately lead to the reduction in the costs of these technologies. The energy consumed by desalination processes has been significantly reduced in the last decade meaning that, if solar technologies are to be used, less PV modules and area for collectors would be needed. The main aspects to be addressed to make solar desalination a viable option in remote location applications is to develop new materials or improve existing solar collectors and find the best combinations to couple the different desalination processes with appropriate solar collector. In the objective to promote solar desalination in MENA, the Middle East Desalination Research Center has concentrated on various aspects of solar desalination in the last twelve years by sponsoring 17 research projects on different technologies and Software packages development for coupling desalination and renewable energy systems to address the limitations of solar desalination and develop new desalination technologies and hybrid systems suitable for remote areas. A brief description of some of these projects is highlighted in this paper. The full details of all these projects are available the Centers website. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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