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Chen Y.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Gribik P.,Pacific Gas and Electric Company | Gardner J.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2014

This paper presents a new approach implemented in MISO day-ahead and real-time energy and ancillary service market clearing processes to address the reserve deliverability issue. In this approach, MISO enhanced the co-optimization process to incorporate post zonal reserve deployment transmission constraints. Reserves are procured within the co-optimization to meet both market-wide reserve requirements and ensure their deliverability on a zonal basis. As a result, zonal market clearing prices (MCPs) for reserves can properly reflect the effects of zonal reserve deployment on transmission constraints under consideration. © 1969-2012 IEEE.

Shi J.,Distributed Analytics and Security Institute | Abdelwahed S.,Mississippi State University | Zhu W.,Harbin Engineering University | Amgai R.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc.
2015 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, ESTS 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper presents a coordinated and automated approach to determine the system adjustment strategy for Shipboard Power Systems (SPS) to improve the transient performance and prevent potential voltage instability following a system contingency. In contrast with the conventional design schemes that heavily rely on the human operators and pre-specified rules/set points, this paper focuses on the development of the capability to automatically and efficiently detect and react to system state changes caused by disturbances and damages by incooperating different system components and component-level controllers to formulate an overall system-level solution. To achieve this objective, in this paper we proposed a performance-oriented, model-based predictive framework that can be applied to a variety of SPS applications to meet the stringent performance requirements under different operating conditions. Simulation results have proven the capability of the proposed framework to effectively and efficiently improve the dynamic system performance during the transient period with little or none human interventions. © 2015 IEEE.

Gu Y.,NRG Energy | Bakke J.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Zhou Z.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Osborn D.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | And 2 more authors.
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2014

This paper presents a novel methodology to simulate the economic performance of hydro storage systems in the day-ahead (DA) and real-time (RT) markets. A detailed hydro storage system model is proposed to capture the unique characteristics of hydro storage units. A unique RT market bidding method named Tiered Bidding is proposed to represent the RT market offers of hydro storage units. In order to accurately represent the way hydro storage systems participate in the RT market, four hydro system RT bidding strategies are proposed and evaluated. The proposed methodology is applied to the Eastern Interconnection system to evaluate the economic benefits of Manitoba Hydro's market participation in MISO's RT energy and ancillary services market. © 2014 IEEE.

Luo C.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Hou Y.,University of Hong Kong | Wen J.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Cheng S.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2014

This paper gives the background and role of the market flow in the interregional congestion management process for market-based operating entity and describes the market flow methodology. It proposes that the market flow method calculates the same impact result on a flowgate as the unit dispatch system (UDS) flow does and proves it mathematically. The equivalence of market flow and UDS flow shows that the UDS flow change on a constraint due to the UDS binding will have the same effect on the change in the market flow under the electricity market operations. In addition, it proves that, in an interconnected system, the sum of the market flows of all of the market entities, the generation-to-load impacts of nonmarket entities, and the total tagged transaction impact among the entities is equal to the dc flow for any constraint. The assessment of market flow methodology demonstrates the effectiveness of using the market flow in the congestion management process and coordinated management of transmission constraints. The proposed methodology can help identify the cause of loop flow problem in power systems. The numerical results on a 23-bus test system and a 7917-bus system are also illustrated. © 2014 IEEE.

Hou Y.,University of Hong Kong | Qin Z.,University of Hong Kong | Yan J.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2014

System restoration strategies are established and implemented based on the availabilities of components of a system. However, due to lack of accurate information, availabilities of some components may not be known during establishment of restoration strategies after a blackout. In this paper, a novel risk-based methodology is proposed for constructing restoration strategies with stochastic availability constraints for both individual components and restoration paths. Based on a stochastic model of the availability, a multistage stochastic optimization model is constructed. A bi-level method is used to solve the proposed model. The established restoration strategy is to achieve a reasonable restoration duration subjects to operating constraints and acceptable risk levels. The proposed risk constraints are introduced into the EPRI's System Restoration Navigator (SRN) with a little modification. Case studies demonstrate the proposed model and methods. © 2014 IEEE.

Dowds J.,University of Vermont | Hines P.,University of Vermont | Ryan T.,Carnegie Mellon University | Buchanan W.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | And 3 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Wind integration studies are an important tool for understanding the effects of increasing wind power deployment on grid reliability and system costs. This paper provides a detailed review of the statistical methods and results from 12 large-scale regional wind integration studies. In particular, we focus our review on the modeling methods and conclusions associated with estimating short-term balancing reserves (regulation and load-following). Several important observations proceed from this review. First, we found that many of the studies either explicitly or implicitly assume that wind power step-change data follow exponential probability distributions, such as the Gaussian distribution. To understand the importance of this issue we compared empirical wind power data to Gaussian data. The results illustrate that the Gaussian assumption significantly underestimates the frequency of very large changes in wind power, and thus may lead to an underestimation of undesirable reliability effects and of operating costs. Secondly, most of these studies make extensive use of wind speed data generated from mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. We compared the wind speed data from NWP models with empirical data and found that the NWP data have substantially less power spectral energy, a measure of variability, at higher frequencies relative to the empirical wind data. To the extent that this difference results in reduced high-frequency variability in the simulated wind power plants, studies using this approach could underestimate the need for fast ramping balancing resources. On the other hand, the magnitude of this potential underestimation is uncertain, largely because the methods used for estimating balancing reserve requirements depend on a number of heuristics, several of which are discussed in this review. Finally, we compared the power systems modeling methods used in the studies and suggest potential areas where research and development can reduce uncertainty in future wind integration studies. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Danandeh A.,University of South Florida | Zhao L.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Zhao L.,University of South Florida | Zeng B.,University of South Florida
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid | Year: 2014

In this paper, we consider a job scheduling problem with random local generation, in which some jobs must be scheduled ahead of time while the others can be scheduled in a real-time fashion. To capture the randomness of the locally distributed generation, we develop a two-stage robust optimization model by considering an uncertainty set without probability information. Given that the problem is challenging, a nested column-and-constraint generation algorithm is implemented to find an optimal solution. Some computational study, along with management insights, is presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed model in dealing with the worst case situations. © 2014 IEEE.

Misra R.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Paudyal S.,Michigan Technological University
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2015

Harmonic distortion on voltages and currents increases with the increased penetration of Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) loads in distribution systems. Wind Generators (WGs), which are source of harmonic currents, have some common harmonic profiles with PEVs. Thus, WGs can be utilized to subside the effect of PEVs on harmonic distortion. This paper studies the impact of PEVs on harmonic distortions and integration of WGs to reduce it. A harmonic decoupled power flow model is developed, where PEVs and WGs are represented by harmonic current loads and sources, respectively. The developed model is first used to solve harmonic power flow on IEEE 34-node distribution test feeder with low, moderate, and high penetrations of PEVs, then its impact on total harmonic distortions (THDs) is studied. Next, optimal size of WGs are calculated using Genetic Algorithm in the test feeder to reduce voltage and current THDs below the IEEE recommended values. © 2015 IEEE.

Luo C.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc. | Jiang L.,University of Liverpool | Wang Q.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc.
Proceedings of the IEEE Power Engineering Society Transmission and Distribution Conference | Year: 2014

Market flow is an important tool for electricity market entities to manage transmission congestion in real-time operations. It quantifies the impact of market operation on any constraint. The accuracy of market flow calculation is critical to ensure the efficient and equitable interregional congestion management including market-to-market coordination. In the paper, different market flow calculation logics are analyzed and compared. The mathematical proof is given to demonstrate the impact of logic changes on the market flow and loop flow. The numerical results on a 23-bus system are described to verify. © 2014 IEEE.

Brown N.A.,Iowa State University | Ajjarapu V.,Iowa State University | Navid N.,Midcontinent Independent System Operator Inc.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2014

Ramping products are planned or in effect in multiple power markets overseen by independent system operators (ISOs) in the United States (US). They are intended to provide flexibility in security-constrained economic dispatch, given higher uncertainty in net load (load minus non-dispatchable renewable power) due to higher wind penetration. When conventional generators respond to unforeseen wind ramps, transmission congestion can arise. In such situations, reserves may not be deliverable as power across the network. This paper presents an extension of the original Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) ramping capability formulation. The key characteristic of this proposed deliverable ramping capability formulation is that it recognizes the magnitude of net load uncertainty by location. An example is given in which the economic dispatch with deliverable ramping capability avoids congestion. © 2014 IEEE.

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