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South Apopka, FL, United States

Day I.S.,Colorado State University | Golovkin M.,Colorado State University | Palusa S.G.,Colorado State University | Link A.,Colorado State University | And 6 more authors.
Plant Journal | Year: 2012

Summary SR45 is a serine/arginine-rich (SR)-like protein with two arginine/serine-rich (RS) domains. We have previously shown that SR45 regulates alternative splicing (AS) by differential selection of 5′ and 3′ splice sites. However, it is unknown how SR45 regulates AS. To gain mechanistic insights into the roles of SR45 in splicing, we screened a yeast two-hybrid library with SR45. This screening resulted in the isolation of two spliceosomal proteins, U1-70K and U2AF35b that are known to function in 5′ and 3′ splice site selection, respectively. This screen not only confirmed our prior observation that U1-70K and SR45 interact, but also helped to identify an additional interacting partner (U2AF35). In vitro and in vivo analyses revealed an interaction of SR45 with both paralogs of U2AF 35. Furthermore, we show that the RS1 and RS2 domains of SR45, and not the RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain, associate independently with both U2AF35 proteins. Interaction studies among U2AF35 paralogs and between U2AF35 and U1-70K revealed that U2AF35 can form homo- or heterodimers and that U2AF35 proteins can associate with U1-70K. Using RNA probes from SR30 intron 10, whose splicing is altered in the sr45 mutant, we show that SR45 and U2AF35b bind to different parts of the intron, with a binding site for SR45 in the 5' region and two binding regions, each ending with a known 3′ splice site, for U2AF 35b. These results suggest that SR45 recruits U1snRNP and U2AF to 5′ and 3′ splice sites, respectively, by interacting with pre-mRNA, U1-70K and U2AF35 and modulates AS. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Reinert J.A.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | Mackay W.,Mid Florida Research and Education Center | Engelke M.C.,Texas AgriLife Research Center | George S.W.,Texas AgriLife Research Center
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2011

The differential grasshopper, Melanoplus differentialis (Thomas) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), frequently migrates from highway rights-of-way, pastures, and harvested fields to feed in urban/suburban landscapes and retail/wholesale nurseries across the southern and southwestern U.S.A., as these areas dry down during hot dry summers. Nine selected turfgrasses and 15 species of landscape plants were evaluated for their susceptibility or resistance to this grasshopper. Grasshoppers were collected from stands of Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense, which was used as a standard host for comparison in both experiments. Based on feeding damage, number of grasshopper fecal pellets produced, and their dry weight, Zoysia matrella cv. 'Cavalier' was the least preferred grass followed by Buchloe dactyloides cv. 'Prairie' and Z. japonica cv. 'Meyer'. Festuca arundinacea was significantly the most preferred host and sustained the most feeding damage, followed by Poa pratensis × P. arachnifera cv. 'Reveille' and 2 Cynodon spp. cultivars, 'Tifway' and 'Common'. Among the landscape plants, Hibiscus moscheutos cv. 'Flare', Petunia violacea cv. 'VIP', Phlox paniculata cv. 'John Fanick', Tecoma stans cv. 'Gold Star', and Campsis grandiflora were the least damaged or most resistant. Plumbago auriculata cv. 'Hullabaloo', Glandularia hybrid cv. 'Blue Princess', Canna × generalis, Johnsongrass, and Cortaderia selloana cv. 'Pumila' sustained the most damage. Based on the number of fecal pellets produced and their weights, Canna × generalis and Glandularia hybrid cv. 'Blue Princess' were the most preferred landscape plants tested.

Kumar V.,University of Florida | Seal D.R.,University of Florida | Kakkar G.,University of Florida | McKenzie C.L.,Us Horticultural Research Laboratory | Osborne L.S.,Mid Florida Research and Education Center
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2012

During scouting and sampling various of plant species at different commercial nurseries in Miami- Dade County, Florida, 12 different crops were found to be economically affected by S. dorsalis in a commercial nursery. An open free choice host susceptibility test was conducted on 6 fruit hosts from the nursery. Canistel, mango, sapodilla and miracle fruit were found to be most affected among the fruit hosts with maximum damage ratings of 2.78, 2.67, 1.67 and 0.77 respectively. Since the host range of this pest is expanding, a careful monitoring and sampling protocols, especially of potted plants, should be diligently implemented to prevent and retard its distribution in different regions.

Fulcher A.,University of Tennessee at Knoxville | LeBude A.V.,Research Extension Center | Owen J.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | White S.A.,Clemson University | Beeson R.C.,Mid Florida Research and Education Center
HortTechnology | Year: 2016

Nursery and greenhouse producers, research and extension faculty, and representatives from allied fields collaborated to formulate a renewed vision to address water issues affecting growers over the next 10 years. The authors maintained the original container irrigation perspective published in “Strategic vision of container nursery irrigation in the next ten years,” yet broadened the perspective to include additional challenges that face nursery crop producers today and in the future. Water availability, quality, and related issues continue to garner widespread attention. Irrigation practices remain largely unchanged due to existing irrigation system infrastructure and minimal changes in state and federal regulations. Recent concerns over urbanization and population growth, increased climate variability, and advancements in state and federal regulations, including new groundwater withdrawal limitations, have provided an inducement for growers to adopt efficient and innovative practices. Information in support of the overarching issues and projected outcomes are discussed within. © 2016 by the American Society for Horticultural Science.

Cherry R.,University of Florida | Wright A.,University of Florida | Lu H.,University of Florida | Luo Y.,University of Florida | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Entomological Science | Year: 2013

The southern chinch bug, Blissus insularis Barber, is the most damaging insect pest of St. Augustinegrass, Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze. However, there is little understanding of the impact of the insect feeding on the plant biomass or nutrient flux in tissues. The objective of this study was to measure biomass and nutrient change in St. Augustinegrass caused by feeding of southern chinch bugs. Chinch bugs were collected by vacuuming infestations in commercial and residential lawns in southern Florida. After collection, chinch bugs were placed in buckets containing St. Augustinegrass potted plants whereas controls were plants with no chinch bugs. Nutrient concentrations were measured for nine elements (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) in leaf and stolon tissue. At the termination of the test, chinch bug treated buckets had >100 chinch bugs/bucket in them and controls had none. Stolons were 31% shorter in chinch bug exposed plants than controls with no chinch bugs. Above-ground dry matter was reduced by 37% by chinch bug feeding. Plant leaf color was also significantly changed by chinch bug feeding from dark green to yellow. In general, chinch bug feeding decreased all nutrient concentrations, suggesting that the damage was broad in scale and reduced the plant's ability to maintain nutrients.

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