Gardanne, France
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Ramuz M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Margita K.,Newberry College | Hama A.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Leleux P.,Microvitae Technologies | And 3 more authors.
ChemPhysChem | Year: 2015

The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT) is a unique device that shows great promise for sensing in biomedical applications such as monitoring of the integrity of epithelial tissue. It is a label-free sensor that is amenable to low-cost production by roll-to-roll or other printing technologies. Herein, the optimization of a planar OECT for the characterization of barrier tissue is presented. Evaluation of surface coating, gate biocompatibility and performance, and optimization of the geometry of the transistor are highlighted. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate), which is used as the active material in the transistor, has the added advantage of allowing significant light transmission compared to traditional electrode materials and thus permits high-quality optical microscopy. The combination of optical and electronic monitoring of cells shown herein provides the opportunity to couple two very complementary techniques to yield a low-cost method for in vitro cell sensing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Gurfinkel M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Stavrinidou E.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Leleux P.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | And 4 more authors.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2011

A generic lithographic process is presented that allows the fabrication of high density organic electrochemical transistor arrays meant to interface with aqueous electrolytes. The channels of the transistors, which were 6 m long, were made of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) and were in direct contact with phosphate buffered saline. Source and drain electrodes and interconnects were insulated by parylene C, a biocompatible material. The transistors operated at low voltages and showed a response time of the order of 100 s. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.


Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Doublet T.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Doublet T.,Aix - Marseille University | Doublet T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Roberts T.,Aix - Marseille University | De Graaf J.B.,Aix - Marseille University | Nicol C.,Aix - Marseille University | Herve T.,Microvitae Technologies | And 2 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2016

Flexible Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conductive-polymer multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are fabricated without etching or aggressive lift-off processes, only by additive solution processes. Inkjet printing technology has several advantages, such as a customized design and a rapid realization time, adaptability to different patients and to different applications. In particular, inkjet printing technology, as additive and “contactless” technology, can be easily inserted into various technological fabrication steps on different substrates at low cost. In vivo electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show the time stability of such MEAs. An equivalent circuit model is established for such flexible cutaneous MEAs. It is shown that the charge transfer resistance remains the same, even two months after fabrication. Surface electromyography and electrocardiography measurements show that the PEDOT:PSS MEAs record electrophysiological activity signals that are comparable to those obtained with unitary Ag/AgCl commercial electrodes. Additionally, such MEAs offer parallel and simultaneous recordings on multiple locations at high surface density. It also proves its suitability to reconstruct an innervation zone map and opens new perspectives for a better control of amputee's myoelectric prostheses. The employment of additive technologies such as inkjet printing suggests that the integration of multifunctional sensors can improve the performances of ultraflexible brain-computer interfaces. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim


Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Doublet T.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Doublet T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Gurfinkel M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | And 7 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2011

A photolithographic process was used to integrate the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) with parylene C, yielding highly conformable electrode arrays that were only four micrometers thick (shown here to conform to the midrib of a small leaf). The arrays were sufficiently self-supporting to allow in vivo evaluation in rats, yielding high-quality electrocorticography recordings. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Rivnay J.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Sessolo M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Gurfinkel M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | And 8 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1 kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Leleux P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Leleux P.,Aix - Marseille University | Leleux P.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Badier J.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 8 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2014

Conducting polymer electrodes are developed on a flexible substrate for electroencephalography applications. These electrodes yield higher quality recordings than dry electrodes made from metal. Their performance is equivalent to commercial gel-assisted electrodes, paving the way for non-invasive, long-term monitoring of the human brain. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Rivnay J.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Leleux P.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Sessolo M.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | Khodagholy D.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Materials | Year: 2013

By varying device geometry we have engineered organic electrochemical transistors that exhibit their maximum transconductance at zero gate bias. This enables the design of a simplified amplifying transducer, allowing for improved integration with biomedical systems where prolonged gate bias can be detrimental. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


PubMed | Microvitae Technologies, Aix - Marseille University and Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Advanced healthcare materials | Year: 2016

Flexible Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) conductive-polymer multielectrode arrays (MEAs) are fabricated without etching or aggressive lift-off processes, only by additive solution processes. Inkjet printing technology has several advantages, such as a customized design and a rapid realization time, adaptability to different patients and to different applications. In particular, inkjet printing technology, as additive and contactless technology, can be easily inserted into various technological fabrication steps on different substrates at low cost. In vivo electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show the time stability of such MEAs. An equivalent circuit model is established for such flexible cutaneous MEAs. It is shown that the charge transfer resistance remains the same, even two months after fabrication. Surface electromyography and electrocardiography measurements show that thePSS MEAs record electrophysiological activity signals that are comparable to those obtained with unitary Ag/AgCl commercial electrodes. Additionally, such MEAs offer parallel and simultaneous recordings on multiple locations at high surface density. It also proves its suitability to reconstruct an innervation zone map and opens new perspectives for a better control of amputees myoelectric prostheses. The employment of additive technologies such as inkjet printing suggests that the integration of multifunctional sensors can improve the performances of ultraflexible brain-computer interfaces.


PubMed | Microvitae Technologies, Aix - Marseille University and Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP
Type: | Journal: Advanced healthcare materials | Year: 2017

Inkjet-printed PEDOT:PSS electrodes are shown to record cutaneous electrophysiological signals such as electrocardiograms via a simple finger-to-electrode contact. The recordings are of high quality and show no deterioration over a 3 month period, paving the way for the development of the next generation of low-cost, convenient-to-use healthcare monitoring devices.

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