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Pellinen T.,University of Helsinki | Sanchez S.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Sanchez S.,University of Concepción | Wang Y.,University of Helsinki | And 2 more authors.
Developmental Cell | Year: 2015

Nuclear membrane microdomains are proposed to act as platforms for regulation of nuclear function, but little is known about the mechanisms controlling their formation. Organization of the plasma membrane is regulated by actin polymerization, and the existence of an actin pool in the nucleus suggests that a similar mechanism might operate here. Weshow that nuclear membrane organization and morphology are regulated by the nuclear level of active Rac1 through actin polymerization-dependent mechanisms. Rac1 nuclear export is mediated by two internal nuclear export signals and through its interaction with nucleophosmin-1 (B23), which acts as a Rac1 chaperone inside the nucleus. Rac1 nuclear accumulation alters the balance between cytosolic Rac1 and Rho, increasing RhoA signaling in the cytoplasm and promoting a highly invasive phenotype. Nuclear Rac1 shuttling is a finely tuned mechanism for controlling nuclear shape and organization and cell invasiveness. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


Hellriegel C.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Beccari L.,Autonomous University of Madrid
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2011

Caveolae are relatively stable membrane invaginations that compartmentalize signaling, regulate lipid metabolism and mediate viral entry. Caveolae are closely associated with actin fibers and internalize in response to diverse stimuli. Loss of cell adhesion is known to induce rapid and robust caveolae internalization and trafficking toward a Rab11-positive recycling endosome; however, pathways governing this process are poorly understood. Here, we report that filamin A is required to maintain the F-actin-dependent linear distribution of caveolin-1. High spatiotemporal resolution particle tracking of caveolin-1-GFP vesicles by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that FLNa is required for the F-actin-dependent arrest of caveolin-1 vesicles in a confined area and their stable anchorage to the plasma membrane. The linear distribution and anchorage of caveolin-1 vesicles are both required for proper caveolin-1 inwards trafficking. De-adhesion-triggered caveolae inward trafficking towards a recycling endosome is impaired in FLNa-depleted HeLa and FLNa-deficient M2-melanoma cells. Inwards trafficking of caveolin-1 requires both the ability of FLNa to bind actin and cycling PKCα-dependent phosphorylation of FLNa on Ser2152 after cell detachment. © 2011. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.


Aguilar L.F.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Pino J.A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Soto-Arriaza M.A.,University of Santiago de Chile | Cuevas F.J.,Viña del Mar University | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Changes in the cholesterol (Chol) content of biological membranes are known to alter the physicochemical properties of the lipid lamella and consequently the function of membrane-associated enzymes. To characterize these changes, we used steady-state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and two photon-excitation microscopy techniques. The membrane systems were chosen according to the techniques that were used: large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) for cuvette and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) for microscopy measurements; they were prepared from dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) in mixtures that are well known to form lipid domains. Two fluorescent probes, which insert into different regions of the bilayer, were selected: 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) was located at the deep hydrophobic core of the acyl chain regions and 2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene (Laurdan) at the hydrophilic-hydrophobic membrane interface. Our spectroscopy results show that (i) the changes induced by cholesterol in the deep hydrophobic phospholipid acyl chain domain are different from the ones observed in the superficial region of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic interface, and these changes depend on the state of the lamella and (ii) the incorporation of cholesterol into the lamella induces an increase in the orientation dynamics in the deep region of the phospholipid acyl chains with a corresponding decrease in the orientation at the region close to the polar lipid headgroups. The microscopy data from DOPC/DPPC/Chol GUVs using Laurdan generalized polarization (Laurdan GP) suggest that a high cholesterol content in the bilayer weakens the stability of the water hydrogen bond network and hence the stability of the liquid-ordered phase (Lo). © 2012 Aguilar et al.


Hellriegel C.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Caiolfa V.R.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Caiolfa V.R.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | Corti V.,San Raffaele Scientific Institute | And 3 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2011

We studied the molecular forms of the GPI-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR-mEGFP) in the human embryo kidney (HEK293) cell membrane and demonstrated that the binding of the amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of urokinase plasminogen activator is sufficient to induce the dimerization of the receptor. We followed the association kinetics and determined precisely the dimeric stoichiometry of uPAR-mEGFP complexes by applying number and brightness (N&B) image analysis. N&B is a novel fluctuation-based approach for measuring the molecular brightness of fluorophores in an image time sequence in live cells. Because N&B is very sensitive to long-term temporal fluctuations and photobleaching, we have introduced a filtering protocol that corrects for these important sources of error. Critical experimental parameters in N&B analysis are illustrated and analyzed by simulation studies. Control experiments are based on mEGFP-GPI, mEGFP-mEGFP-GPI, and mCherry- GPI, expressed in HEK293. This work provides a first direct demonstration of the dimerization of uPAR in live cells. We also provide the first methodological guide on N&B to discern minor changes in molecular composition such as those due to dimerization events, which are involved in fundamental cell signaling mechanisms. © FASEB.


Mendez-Barbero N.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Esteban V.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Villahoz S.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | Escolano A.,CSIC - National Center for Metallurgical Research | And 11 more authors.
EMBO Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving extensive vascular vessel remodelling and migration of vascular cells. As RCAN1 is implicated in cell migration, we investigated its contribution to atherosclerosis. We show RCAN1 induction in atherosclerotic human and mouse tissues. Rcan1 was expressed in lesional macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells and was induced by treatment of these cells with oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs). Rcan1 regulates CD36 expression and its genetic inactivation reduced atherosclerosis extension and severity in Apoe-/- mice. This effect was mechanistically linked to diminished oxLDL uptake, resistance to oxLDL-mediated inhibition of macrophage migration and increased lesional IL-10 and mannose receptor expression. Moreover, Apoe-/-Rcan1-/- macrophages expressed higher-than-Apoe-/- levels of anti-inflammatory markers. We previously showed that Rcan1 mediates aneurysm development and that its expression is not required in haematopoietic cells for this process. However, transplantation of Apoe-/-Rcan1-/- bone-marrow (BM) cells into Apoe-/- recipients confers atherosclerosis resistance. Our data define a major role for haematopoietic Rcan1 in atherosclerosis and suggest that therapies aimed at inhibiting RCAN1 expression or function might significantly reduce atherosclerosis burden. © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.


Sanchez S.A.,University of California at Irvine | Sanchez S.A.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Gratton E.,University of California at Irvine | Zanocco A.L.,University of Chile | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

One of the several uses of sucrose detergents, as well as other micelle forming detergents, is the solubilization of different membrane proteins. Accurate knowledge of the micelle properties, including size and shape, are needed to optimize the surfactant conditions for protein purification and membrane characterization. We synthesized sucrose esters having different numbers of methylene subunits on the substituent to correlate the number of methylene groups with the size of the corresponding micelles. We used Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) and two photon excitation to determine the translational D of the micelles and calculate their corresponding hydrodynamic radius, R h. As a fluorescent probe we used LAURDAN (6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene), a dye highly fluorescent when integrated in the micelle and non-fluorescent in aqueous media. We found a linear correlation between the size of the tail and the hydrodynamic radius of the micelle for the series of detergents measured. © 2011 Sanchez et al.


Sanchez S.A.,University of California at Irvine | Sanchez S.A.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Gunther G.,University of Chile | Tricerri M.A.,National University of La Plata | Gratton E.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of Membrane Biology | Year: 2011

Methyl-β-cyclodextrins (MβCDs) are molecules that are extensively used to remove and to load cholesterol (Chol) from artificial and natural membranes; however, the mechanism of Chol extraction by MβCD from pure lipids or from complex mixtures is not fully understood. One of the outstanding questions in this field is the capability of MβCD to remove Chol from lipid domains having different packing. Here, we investigated the specificity of MβCD to remove Chol from coexisting macrodomains with different lipid packing. We used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) made of 1,2- dioleoylphosphatidylcholine:1,2-dipalmitoylphatidylcholine:free cholesterol, 1:1:1 molar ratio at 27°C. Under these conditions, individual GUVs present Chol distributed into l o and l d phases. The two phases can be distinguished and visualized using Laurdan generalized polarization and two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy. Our data indicate that MβCD removes Chol preferentially from the more disordered phase. The process of selective Chol removal is dependent on the MβCD concentration. At high concentrations, MβCD also removes phospholipids. © 2011 The Author(s).


PubMed | Immunobiology of inflammation, Proteomic Unit, University of Zaragoza, Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cell science | Year: 2016

HDAC6 is a tubulin deacetylase involved in many cellular functions related to cytoskeleton dynamics, including cell migration and autophagy. In addition, HDAC6 affects antigen-dependent CD4(+)T cell activation. In this study, we show that HDAC6 contributes to the cytotoxic function of CD8(+)T cells. Immunization studies revealed defective cytotoxic activity in vivo in the absence of HDAC6. Adoptive transfer of wild-type or Hdac6(-/-)CD8(+)T cells to Rag1(-/-)mice demonstrated specific impairment in CD8(+)T cell responses against vaccinia infection. Mechanistically, HDAC6-deficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) showed defective in vitro cytolytic activity related to altered dynamics of lytic granules, inhibited kinesin-1-dynactin-mediated terminal transport of lytic granules to the immune synapse and deficient exocytosis, but not to target cell recognition, T cell receptor (TCR) activation or interferon (IFN) production. Our results establish HDAC6 as an effector of the immune cytotoxic response that acts by affecting the dynamics, transport and secretion of lytic granules by CTLs.


Caracciolo G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Pozzi D.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Capriotti A.L.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Marianecci C.,University of Rome La Sapienza | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2011

The utility of using a protammine/DNA complex coated with a lipid envelope made of cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP) for transfecting CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cells), HEK293 (human embryonic kidney cells), NIH 3T3 (mouse embryonal cells), and A17 (murine cancer cells) cells was examined. The widely used DOTAP/DNA lipoplex was employed as a reference. In all the tested cell lines lipid/protamine/DNA (LPD) nanoparticles were more efficient in transfecting cells than lipoplexes even though the lipid composition of the lipid envelope was the same in both devices. Physical-chemical properties were found to control the ability of nanocarriers to release DNA upon interaction with cellular membranes. LPD complexes easily release their DNA payload, while lipoplexes remain largely intact and accumulate at the cell nucleus. Collectively, these data explain why LPD nanoparticles often exhibit superior performances compared to lipoplexes in trasfecting cells and represent a promising class of nanocarriers for gene delivery. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Chen B.,University of California at Irvine | Estrada L.C.,University of California at Irvine | Hellriegel C.,University of California at Irvine | Hellriegel C.,Microscopy and Dynamic Imaging Unit | Gratton E.,University of California at Irvine
Biomedical Optics Express | Year: 2011

We describe 3D single particle tracking of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) moving along collagen fibers in aqueous environment with two-photon excitation conditions. The photoacoustic effect at the collagen fiber caused by the irradiation with ultrashort, near-infrared laser pulses propels the particles adsorbed to the surface of the collagen fibers. We report the tracking of individual AuNPs in three dimensions with high spatial and temporal resolution, of few nanometers and milliseconds, respectively. Due to the emission signal caused by the interaction between the AuNPs and the weak chromophores in the collagen fiber, the trajectories of individual AuNPs reveal the fiber topography with nanometric resolution. The intensity along the trajectory shows that we are sensitive to the distribution of the weak chromophores on the fiber. © 2011 Optical Society of America.

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