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Song D.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Song B.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Hu H.,Northwestern Polytechnical University | Du X.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | Ma Z.,Northwestern Polytechnical University
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

Wetting states of droplets on partially micro-grooved surfaces were investigated. Grooves were fabricated using soft lithography and the width of the grooves was smaller than the droplet diameter. On the partially micro-grooved surfaces, the apparent contact angle parallel to the grooves is larger than the one on the smooth surface, while the microstructures have little effect on the contact angle perpendicular to the grooves. Increasing the fraction of the grooved area and the surface energy of the surface will result in a more anisotropic droplet. When a droplet impinged upon these partially grooved surfaces, the spreading process was similar to that on a smooth surface. However, the recoiling process was found to be quite anisotropic. The grooves enhanced the recoiling velocity in the direction parallel to the grooves while hindering the recoiling process in the perpendicular direction. The recoiling process will become more anisotropic by increasing the fraction of the grooved area. The effect of the grooves on both the contact angle and the impinging process is independent of the groove width scale and is only dependent on the fraction of the grooved area in the Cassie state. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhu Y.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Jones S.B.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Biddy M.J.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Dagle R.A.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2012

This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ramprasad S.,Pacific Northwest National Laboratory | Ramsing P.E.,WaferTech | Miller R.T.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | Rundel J.T.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology | Year: 2011

Transition of batchwise nanoparticle production routes to large-scale manufacturing processes is vital for commercialization of such materials. This paper reports the comparison studies from batch and continuous mode for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles by the polyol method. The copper nanoparticles synthesized in continuous mode utilizing a novel microchannel mixer were found to be comparable to the nanoparticles developed in batch mode. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) techniques were used for characterization of the copper nanoparticles produced. © 2011 IEEE. Source


Kim K.-J.,Oregon State University | Kim K.-J.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | Li Y.J.,Oregon State University | Li Y.J.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | And 6 more authors.
Chemical Communications | Year: 2013

The reaction conditions for the synthesis of Cu-BTC (BTC = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) were elucidated using a continuous-flow microreactor-assisted solvothermal system to achieve crystal size and phase control. A high-rate synthesis of Cu-BTC metal-organic frameworks with a BET surface area of more than 1600 m2 g-1 (Langmuir surface area of more than 2000 m2 g-1) and with a 97% production yield could be achieved with a total reaction time of 5 minutes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Han S.-Y.,Oregon State University | Han S.-Y.,Microproducts Breakthrough Institute | Han S.-Y.,CSD Nano | Pan C.,Oregon State University | And 7 more authors.
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

A simple, low-cost and lowerature curable silica-based antireflective coating (ARC) deposited by a solution-based process has been investigated for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for the first time. Thin-layer nanostructured ARCs featuring 20-30 nm SiO2 NPs were fabricated from a simple, low-cost chemical solution. The silica-based nanostructured ARCs were deposited on a glass substrate and on CIGS solar cells. The nanostructured ARCs on glass could increase the transmittance by 3.9%. The nanostructured ARCs could reduce the reflectance of CIGS solar cells by 4.96%. The nanostructured ARCs on CIGS solar cells resulted in an enhancement of solar energy conversion efficiency from 16.0% to 17.2%. These enhancements confirm the utility of these simple nanostructured ARCs as a cost-effective solution for photon management in thin film CIGS solar cells. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

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