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Jones M.L.,McGill University | Jones M.L.,Micropharma | Martoni C.J.,Micropharma | Ganopolsky J.G.,Micropharma | And 3 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2014

Introduction: Recent evidence indicates that the human gut microbiome plays a significant role in health and disease. Dysbiosis, defined as a pathological imbalance in a microbial community, is becoming increasingly appreciated as a 'central environmental factor' that is both associated with complex phenotypes and affected by host genetics, diet and antibiotic use. More recently, a link has been established between the dysmetabolism of bile acids (BAs) in the gut to dysbiosis. Areas covered: BAs, which are transformed by the gut microbiota, have been shown to regulate intestinal homeostasis and are recognized as signaling molecules in a wide range of metabolic processes. This review will examine the connection between BA metabolism as it relates to the gut microbiome and its implication in health and disease. Expert opinion: A disrupted gut microbiome, including a reduction of bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active bacteria, can significantly impair the metabolism of BAs and may result in an inability to maintain glucose homeostasis as well as normal cholesterol breakdown and excretion. To better understand the link between dysbiosis, BA dysmetabolism and chronic degenerative disease, large-scale metagenomic sequencing studies, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics should continue to catalog functional diversity in the gastrointestinal tract of both healthy and diseased populations. Further, BSH-active probiotics should continue to be explored as treatment options to help restore metabolic levels. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Sulemankhil I.,McGill University | Ganopolsky J.G.,Micropharma | Dieni C.A.,Micropharma | Dan A.F.,McGill University | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

The use of percutaneous medical devices often results in nosocomial infections. Attachment of microorganisms to the surfaces of these medical devices triggers biofilm formation, which presents significant complications to the health of a patient and may lead to septicemia, thromboembolism, or endocarditis if not correctly treated. Although several antimicrobials are commonly used for prevention of biofilm formation, they have limited efficacy against formed biofilms. In this study, we report the use of an enzymatic, gaseous nitric oxide (gNO)-releasing dressing for the prevention and treatment of Acinetobacter baumannii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Results show that the bactericidal activity against biofilms of the test strains was dependent on time and rate of gNO release from the dressing. Following 6 h of treatment, gNO-releasing dressings significantly inhibited the growth of test strains relative to vehicle control dressings, demonstrating eradication of bacterial concentrations of up to 105 CFU/cm2. Complete cell death was observed for both prevention of biofilm formation and treatment of 24-h-grown biofilms after 6 h of treatment with the gNO-releasing dressings. Further, gNO-releasing dressings were more efficient against formed biofilms than other antimicrobial agents currently used. These results demonstrate that the gNO-releasing dressing can produce sufficient levels of gNO over a therapeutically relevant duration for maximal bactericidal effects against virulent bacterial strains known to cause nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Jones M.L.,McGill University | Jones M.L.,Micropharma | Martoni C.J.,Micropharma | Prakash S.,McGill University | Prakash S.,Micropharma
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background/Objectives:The percentage of hypercholesterolemic individuals not reaching their LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal remains high and additional therapeutic strategies should be evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol-lowering efficacy and mechanism of action of bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 capsules in hypercholesterolemic adults.Subjects/Methods:A total of 127 subjects completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm, multicenter study. Subjects were randomized to consume L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 capsules or placebo capsules over a 9-week intervention period. The primary outcome was LDL-C relative to placebo at the study end point.Results:L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 capsules reduced LDL-C by 11.64% (P0.001), total cholesterol by 9.14%, (P0.001), non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) by 11.30% (P0.001) and apoB-100 by 8.41% (P0.002) relative to placebo. The ratios of LDL-C/HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoB-100/apoA-1 were reduced by 13.39% (P0.006) and 9.00% (P0.026), respectively, relative to placebo. Triglycerides and HDL-C were unchanged. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen were reduced by 1.05 mg/l (P0.005) and 14.25% (P0.004) relative to placebo, respectively. Mean plasma deconjugated bile acids were increased by 1.00 nmol/l (P0.025) relative to placebo, whereas plasma campesterol, sitosterol and stigmasterol were decreased by 41.5%, 34.2% and 40.7%, respectively.Conclusions:The present results suggest that the deconjugation of intraluminal bile acids results in reduced absorption of non-cholesterol sterols and indicate that L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 capsules may be useful as an adjunctive therapy for treating hypercholesterolemia. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Jones M.L.,Micropharma | Jones M.L.,McGill University | Tomaro-Duchesneau C.,McGill University | Martoni C.J.,Micropharma | And 2 more authors.
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of global mortality and morbidity. Current CVD treatment methods include dietary intervention, statins, fibrates, niacin, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, and bile acid sequestrants. These formulations have limitations and, thus, additional treatment modalities are needed. Probiotic bacteria, especially bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active probiotic bacteria, have demonstrated cholesterol-lowering efficacy in randomized controlled trials. Areas covered: This review describes the current treatments for CVD and the need for additional therapeutics. Gut microbiota etiology of CVD, cholesterol metabolism, and the role of probiotic formulations as therapeutics for the treatment and prevention of CVD are described. Specifically, we review studies using BSH-active bacteria as cholesterol-lowering agents with emphasis on their cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of action. Potential limitations and future directions are also highlighted. Expert opinion: Numerous clinical studies have concluded that BSH-active probiotic bacteria, or products containing them, are efficient in lowering total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the mechanisms of action of BSH-active probiotic bacteria need to be further supported. There is also the need for a meta-analysis to provide better information regarding the therapeutic use of BSH-active probiotic bacteria. The future of BSH-active probiotic bacteria most likely lies as a combination therapy with already existing treatment options. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.

Jones M.L.,McGill University | Jones M.L.,Micropharma | Martoni C.J.,Micropharma | Prakash S.,McGill University | Prakash S.,Micropharma
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is a risk factor for osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Disruption of noncholesterol sterol absorption due to cholesterol-lowering therapies may result in reduced fat-soluble vitamin absorption. Objective: We have previously reported on the cholesterol-lowering efficacy and reduced sterol absorption of probiotic bile salt hydrolase active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242; however, the effects on fat-soluble vitamins was previously unknown and the objective of the present study. Design, Settings, Patients, and Intervention: The study was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-arm, multicenter lasting 13 weeks. A total of 127 otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol >3.4 mmol/L, triglycerides <4.0 mmol/L, and body mass index of 22 to 32 kg/m2were included. Subjects were recruited from 6 private practices in Prague, Czech Republic, and randomized to consume L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 or placebo capsules over a 9-week intervention period. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the change in serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol over the 9-week intervention. Analysis of fat-soluble vitamins at weeks 0 and 9 were performed post hoc. Results: There werenosignificant differences between L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 and placebo capsule groups in serum vitamin A, vitamin E, or β-carotene or dietary intake over the intervention period (P > .05). L. reuteri NCIMB 30242 increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D by 14.9 nmol/L, or 25.5%, over the intervention period, which was a significant mean change relative to placebo of 17.1 nmol/L, or 22.4%, respectively (P = .003). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in response to oral probiotic supplementation. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.

Micropharma | Date: 2014-08-15

Various embodiments are described herein for a device and method for an ingestible medical device with a rotatable element. In some described embodiments, the ingestible medical device includes a storage sub-unit with multiple chambers each having an opening for collecting or dispensing substances from the GI tract. The device further comprises a chamber enclosure with an access port. One of the chamber enclosure and the storage sub-unit are rotatable to allow for aligning the access port with a chamber opening. The ingestible medical device includes a sensor for positioning the access port of the chamber enclosure or the storage sub-unit as one of these elements rotates.

Micropharma | Date: 2013-06-27

Medical food products and nutritional supplements for cardiovascular health and cardiovascular health risk factors, bone health and bone health risk factors, and gastrointestinal health and gastrointestinal health risk factors.

Micropharma | Date: 2013-12-16

Probiotic compositions, namely, probiotic bacteria and probiotic bacterial cultures for use in foods and beverages and for use as ingredients for food and beverages; medicinal and non-medicinal compositions, namely, bacteria used in the manufacture of nutritional supplements. Dietary supplements; nutritional supplements; nutraceuticals for use as a dietary supplement; food supplements; prescription and non-prescription medicines, namely, pills and capsules for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, hyperlipidemia, lipid disorders, gas, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, cramps, abdominal discomfort, inflammation, cholesterol, digestive problems, gastrointestinal problems.

Micropharma | Date: 2013-09-20

Dietary supplements, nutritional supplements, nutraceuticals for use as a dietary supplement, food supplements, over the counter formulations and prescription medicine, namely, pills, tablets, capsules, caplets, liquid drops, sachets and pharmaceutical preparations, all for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, lipid disorders, obesity, liver disease, arthritis, psoriasis, lactose intolerance, gas, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, cramps, abdominal discomfort, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, crohns disease, skin disorders, inflammation, bone and joint problems, osteoporosis, osteopenia, pain, cholesterol, diabetes, digestive problems, gastrointestinal problems, acid reflux/GERD, colds, flu, fever, cough, bronchial problems, sore throat, allergies, hay fever, sinus problems, menopause, migraines, stress, sleeping disorders, chronic fatigue, hormonal imbalance, acne, and for boosting the immune system; medicinal and non-medicinal ingredient, namely bacteria used in the manufacture of foods, beverages and nutritional supplements.

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