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Rozenblat A.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | Rozenblat A.,Tel Aviv University | Haimson S.,Tel Aviv University | Shacham-Diamand Y.,Tel Aviv University | Horvitz D.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd.
Applied Physics Letters | Year: 2012

This paper presents experimental results and a geometric model of the evolution of sheet resistance and surface morphology during the transition from nucleation to percolation of tungsten chemical vapor deposition over ultrathin polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN). We observed two mechanisms of reduction in sheet resistance. At deposition temperatures higher than 310°C, percolation effect is formed at ∼35 of surface coverage,θ, and characterized with a sharp drop in resistance. At temperature below 310°C, a reduction in resistance occurs in two steps. The first step occurs when θ =35 and the second step at θ = 85. We suggest a geometric model in which the electrical percolation pass is modulated by the thickness threshold of the islands at the instant of collision. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.


Malki M.,Tel Aviv University | Rozenblat-Raz A.,Tel Aviv University | Rozenblat-Raz A.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | Duhin A.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Surface and Coatings Technology | Year: 2014

In this work we present a study of the initial nucleation and growth of electroless cobalt-tungsten-phosphorous (Co(W,P)) film on titanium nitride. This cobalt alloy can be applied as barrier or capping layer for copper interconnects in integrated circuits, flexible printed circuit board, micro-mechanical devices and more. The Co(W,P) was deposited from a basic bath on TiN that had been functionalized by silane based self-assembled monolayer (SAM) activated by gold nano-particles (AuNPs). In this paper we report on the results of using two similar silane monomers: aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and N-(3trimethoxysilylpropyl) diethylenetriamine (TPDA); both use amine groups to attract the AuNPs, but differ in molecular conformity. A detailed study of the initial stages of the Co(W,P) layer growth using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showing the common and different nucleation densities, surface coverages, morphologies and electrical properties of the Co(W,P) layer induced by the two SAM layers is presented. With scaling behavior of the surface roughness evolution we show that Co(W,P) layers grow in 3D, regardless of the SAM type. This effect is probably due to the fact that the dominant mechanism affecting the nucleation and initial growth is the crystallographic misfit between the catalytic layer and the deposited Co(W,P). The 3D growth of Co(W,P) was observed on both SAMs; nevertheless, on APTMS it was controlled by lateral growth, while on TPDA by surface diffusion. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Pantzer A.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Pantzer A.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | Vakahy A.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | Eliyahou Z.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | And 3 more authors.
Ultramicroscopy | Year: 2014

Modern semiconductor devices function due to accurate dopant distribution. Off-Axis Electron Holography (OAEH) in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) can map quantitatively the electrostatic potential in semiconductors with high spatial resolution. For the microelectronics industry, ongoing reduction of device dimensions, 3D device geometry, and failure analysis of specific devices require preparation of thin TEM samples, under 70. nm thick, by focused ion beam (FIB). Such thicknesses, which are considerably thinner than the values reported to date in the literature, are challenging due to FIB induced damage and surface depletion effects.Here, we report on preparation of TEM samples of silicon PN junctions in the FIB completed by low-energy (5. keV) ion milling, which reduced amorphization of the silicon to 10. nm thick. Additional perpendicular FIB sectioning enabled a direct measurement of the TEM sample thickness in order to determine accurately the crystalline thickness of the sample. Consequently, we find that the low-energy milling also resulted in a negligible thickness of electrically inactive regions, approximately 4. nm thick. The influence of TEM sample thickness, FIB induced damage and doping concentrations on the accuracy of the OAEH measurements were examined by comparison to secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements as well as to 1D and 3D simulations of the electrostatic potentials. We conclude that for TEM samples down to 100. nm thick, OAEH measurements of Si-based PN junctions, for the doping levels examined here, resulted in quantitative mapping of potential variations, within ~0.1. V. For thinner TEM samples, down to 20. nm thick, mapping of potential variations is qualitative, due to a reduced accuracy of ~0.3. V. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Haimson S.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | Haimson S.,Tel Aviv University | Shacham-Diamand Y.,Tel Aviv University | Horvitz D.,Micron Semiconductors Israel Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2012

The growth of polycrystalline metallic thin films is widely investigated by diverse in situ and ex situ analytical techniques. Significant research is dedicated to developing methods for monitoring surface coverage and morphology changes during the early stages of growth and to studying growth-mode characteristics. In this work, we demonstrate use of the electrical four-point probes (FPP) technique to examine changes in resistivity during tungsten growth over titanium nitride (TiN) and before a full surface coverage are assembled by the new tungsten phase. Results suggest the formation of electrical percolation paths at ∼35% surface coverage of tungsten on TiN substrate. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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