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Fouque P.,A+ Network | Fouque P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Heyrovsky D.,Charles University | Dong S.,Microlensing Follow Up Network | And 155 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. Not only is gravitational microlensing a successful tool for discovering distant exoplanets, but it also enables characterization of the lens and source stars involved in the lensing event. Aims. In high-magnification events, the lens caustic may cross over the source disk, which allows determination of the angular size of the source and measurement of its limb darkening. Methods. When such extended-source effects appear close to maximum magnification, the resulting light curve differs from the characteristic Paczyński point-source curve. The exact shape of the light curve close to the peak depends on the limb darkening of the source. Dense photometric coverage permits measurement of the respective limb-darkening coefficients. Results. In the case of the microlensing event OGLE 2008-BLG-290, the K giant source star reached a peak magnification at about 100. Thirteen different telescopes have covered this event in eight different photometric bands. Subsequent light-curve analysis yielded measurements of linear limb-darkening coefficients of the source in six photometric bands. The best-measured coefficients lead to an estimate of the source effective temperature of about 4700$^{+100}-{-200}$ K. However, the photometric estimate from colour-magnitude diagrams favours a cooler temperature of 4200 ± 100 K. Conclusions. Because the limb-darkening measurements, at least in the CTIO/SMARTS2 Vs- and Is-bands, are among the most accurate obtained, the above disagreement needs to be understood. A solution is proposed, which may apply to previous events where such a discrepancy also appeared. © 2010 ESO. Source

Bachelet E.,A+ Network | Bachelet E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Fouque P.,A+ Network | Fouque P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 156 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. Caustic crossing is the clearest signature of binary lenses in microlensing. In the present context, this signature is diluted by the large source star but a detailed analysis has allowed the companion signal to be extracted. Aims. MOA 2009-BLG-411 was detected on August 5, 2009 by the MOA-Collaboration. Alerted as a high-magnification event, it was sensitive to planets. Suspected anomalies in the light curve were not confirmed by a real-time model, but further analysis revealed small deviations from a single lens extended source fit. Methods. Thanks to observations by all the collaborations, this event was well monitored. We first decided to characterize the source star properties by using a more refined method than the classical one: we measure the interstellar absorption along the line of sight in five different passbands (VIJHK). Secondly, we model the lightcurve by using the standard technique: make (s,q,α) grids to look for local minima and refine the results by using a downhill method (Markov chain Monte Carlo). Finally, we use a Galactic model to estimate the physical properties of the lens components. Results. We find that the source star is a giant G star with radius 9 R ·. The grid search gives two local minima, which correspond to the theoretical degeneracy s s-1. We find that the lens is composed of a brown dwarf secondary of mass MS = 0.05 M· orbiting a primary M-star of mass MP = 0.18 M·. We also reveal a new mass-ratio degeneracy for the central caustics of close binaries. Conclusions. As far as we are aware, this is the first detection using the microlensing technique of a binary system in our Galaxy composed of an M-star and a brown dwarf. © 2012 ESO. Source

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