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Desē, Ethiopia

Jennings L.C.,Microbiology Unit | Jennings L.C.,University of Otago
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2013

This article provides an overview of some aspects of seasonal, pre-pandemic and pandemic influenza vaccines and initiatives aimed to increase influenza vaccine use within the Asia-Pacific region. Expanding the use of influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region faces many challenges. Despite the recent regional history for the emergence of novel viruses, SARS, the H5N1 and H7N9, and the generation of and global seeding of seasonal influenza viruses and initiatives by WHO and other organisations to expand influenza awareness, the use of seasonal influenza vaccines remains low. The improvement in current vaccine technologies with the licensing of quadrivalent, live-attenuated, cell culture-based, adjuvanted and the first recombinant influenza vaccine is an important step. The development of novel influenza vaccines able to provide improved protection and with improved manufacturing capacity is also advancing rapidly. However, of ongoing concern are seasonal influenza impact and the low use of seasonal influenza vaccines in the Asia-Pacific region. Improved influenza control strategies and their implementation in the region are needed. Initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO), and specifically the Western Pacific Regional Office of WHO, are focusing on consistent vaccine policies and guidelines in countries in the region. The Asian-Pacific Alliance for the Control of Influenza (APACI) is contributing through the coordination of influenza advocacy initiates.© 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Toccoa M.P.,Thoracic Surgery Unit | Ballardini M.,Microbiology Unit | Masala M.,Infectious Disease Unit | Perozzi A.,San Filippo Neri Hospital
European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery | Year: 2013

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate alternative strategies to the sternal resection in the treatment of post-sternotomy osteomyelitis. We report our experience in the treatment of chronic infection of median sternotomy following open heart surgery without sternal resection. METHODS: A 4-year retrospective study was performed, consisting of 70 patients affected by post-sternotomy sternocutaneous fistulas due to chronic osteomyelitis: 45 patients underwent only medical treatment and 25 underwent steel wire removal and surgical debridement (conservative surgery). Of the 25, 7 patients underwent an additional vacuum assisted closure (VAC) therapy due to widespread infected subcutaneous tissue. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis was supported via 3D CT scan images. RESULTS: Complete wound healing was achieved in 67 patients including a patient who achieved healing after being affected by a fistula for over 24 years before coming under our observation, another, affected by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis osteomyelitis, who needed antimicrobial treatment for a period of 30 months and 2 who were affected by Aspergillus infection and needed radical cartilage removal. Fistula relapses were observed in 6 patients of the total 70, possibly due to the too short-term antibiotic therapy used in the presence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) with multiple resistances and in the presence of Corynebacterium species. CONCLUSIONS: Post-sternotomy chronic osteomyelitis can be successfully treated mainly by systemic antimicrobial therapy alone, without mandatory surgical treatments, provided that accurate microbiological and radiological studies are performed. The presence of CoNS and Corynebacterium species seemed to be associated with a need for a prolonged combined antimicrobial therapy with a minimum of 6 months up to a maximum of 18 months. The CT scan and the 3D reconstruction of the sternum proved to be a good method to evaluate the status of the sternum and support the treatments. The VAC therapy was not useful in treating osteomyelitis, although, if used appropriately in the postoperative deep sternal wound infection with the sponge fitted between the sternal edges, it seems to be an effective method to eradicate the infection in the sternum and to prevent chronic osteomyelitis. © The Author 2012.Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. Source

Saeed N.K.,Microbiology Unit
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries | Year: 2016

In this case report we described a Bahraini male patient of twenty years of age, a smoker and diagnosed with stage IV B Hodgkin lymphoma. He presented with fever, nonproductive cough, upper back pain and shortness of breath due to right upper lobe pneumonia with right encysted pleural effusion. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis was isolated from the sputum. He was successfully treated with 2 weeks of ceftriaxone followed by 2 weeks of oral cefixime. This was the first case of encysted empyema caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis reported in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The different aspects of pulmonary Salmonella infections were discussed and the literature was reviewed. © 2016 Saeed. Source

Rezzonico F.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Vogel G.,Mabritec AG | Duffy B.,Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Tonolla M.,Microbiology Unit
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2010

Pantoea agglomerons is an ecologically diverse taxon that includes commercially important plant-beneficial strains and opportunistic clinical isolates. Standard biochemical identification methods in diagnostic laboratories were repeatedly shown to run into false-positive identifications of P. agglomerons, a fact which is also reflected by the high number of 16S rRNA gene sequences in public databases that are incorrectly assigned to this species. More reliable methods for rapid identification are required to ascertain the prevalence of this species in clinical samples and to evaluate the biosafety of beneficial isolates. Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) methods and reference spectra (SuperSpectrum) were developed for accurate identification of P. agglomerons and related bacteria and used to detect differences in the protein profile within variants of the same strain, including a ribosomal point mutation conferring streptomycin resistance. MALDI-TOF MS-based clustering was shown to generally agree with classification based on gyrB sequencing, allowing rapid and reliable identification at the species level. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Ab Rahman A.K.,Infectious Disease Clinic | Abdullah F.H.,Microbiology Unit
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection | Year: 2011

Malaria is endemic in Malaysia. Leishmaniasis is a protozoan infection rarely reported in Malaysia. Here, a 24-year-old Nepalese man who presented with prolonged fever and hepatosplenomegaly is reported. Blood film examination confirmed a Plasmodium vivax malaria infection. Despite being adequately treated for malaria, his fever persisted. Bone marrow examination showed presence of Leishman-Donovan complex. He was successfully treated with prolonged course of amphotericin B. The case highlights the importance of awareness among the treating physicians of this disease occurring in a foreign national from an endemic region when he presents with fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Coinfection with malaria can occur although it is rare. It can cause significant delay of the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. © 2011. Source

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