Microbiology Service

Marbella, Spain

Microbiology Service

Marbella, Spain
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De La Maria C.G.,University of Barcelona | Cervera C.,University of Barcelona | Pericas J.M.,University of Barcelona | Castaneda X.,University of Barcelona | And 35 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

This study describes coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CoNS) infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology at our institution, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, and the influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on patient outcomes. One hundred and three adults with definite IE admitted to an 850-bed tertiary care hospital in Barcelona from 1995-2008 were prospectively included in the cohort. We observed that CoNS IE was an important cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated IE; one-third of patients involved native valves. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequent species, methicillin-resistant in 52% of patients. CoNS frozen isolates were available in 88 patients. Vancomycin MICs of 2.0 μg/mL were common; almost all cases were found among S. epidermidis isolates and did not increase over time. Eighty-five patients were treated either with cloxacillin or vancomycin: 38 patients (Group 1) were treated with cloxacillin, and 47 received vancomycin; of these 47, 27 had CoNS isolates with a vancomycin MIC <2.0 μg/mL (Group 2), 20 had isolates with a vancomycin MIC ≥2.0 μg/mL (Group 3). One-year mortality was 21%, 48%, and 65% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively (P=0.003). After adjusting for confounders and taking Group 2 as a reference, methicillin-susceptibility was associated with lower 1-year mortality (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.02-0.55), and vancomycin MIC ≥2.0 μg/mL showed a trend to higher 1-year mortality (OR 3.7, 95% CI 0.9-15.2; P=0.069). Other independent variables associated with 1-year mortality were heart failure (OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.5-25.2) and pacemaker lead IE (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.02-0.51). In conclusion, methicillin-resistant S.epidermidis was the leading cause of CoNS IE, and patients receiving vancomycin had higher mortality rates than those receiving cloxacillin; mortality was higher among patients having isolates with vancomycin MICs ≥2.0 μg/mL. © 2015 García de la Mària et al.


Miro J.M.,University of Barcelona | Entenza J.M.,University of Lausanne | Del Rio A.,University of Barcelona | Velasco M.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 25 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

We describe 3 patients with left-sided staphylococcal endocarditis (1 with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus [MSSA] prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis and 2 with methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA] native-valve endocarditis) who were successfully treated with high-dose intravenous daptomycin (10 mg/kg/day) plus fosfomycin (2 g every 6 h) for 6 weeks. This combination was tested in vitro against 7 MSSA, 5 MRSA, and 2 intermediately glycopeptide-resistant S. aureus isolates and proved to be synergistic against 11 (79%) strains and bactericidal against 8 (57%) strains. This combination deserves further clinical study. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Del Rio A.,University of Barcelona | Garcia-de-la-Maria C.,University of Barcelona | Entenza J.M.,University of Lausanne | Gasch O.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 27 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2016

The urgent need of effective therapies for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infective endocarditis (IE) is a cause of concern. We aimed to ascertain the in vitro and in vivo activity of the older antibiotic fosfomycin combined with different beta-lactams against MRSA and glycopeptide-intermediate-resistant S. aureus (GISA) strains. Time-kill tests with 10 isolates showed that fosfomycin plus imipenem (FOF+IPM) was the most active evaluated combination. In an aortic valve IE model with two strains (MRSA-277H and GISA-ATCC 700788), the following intravenous regimens were compared: fosfomycin (2 g every 8 h [q8h]) plus imipenem (1 g q6h) or ceftriaxone (2 g q12h) (FOF+CRO) and vancomycin at a standard dose (VAN-SD) (1 g q12h) and a high dose (VAN-HD) (1 g q6h). Whereas a significant reduction of MRSA-227H load in the vegetations (veg) was observed with FOF+IPM compared with VAN-SD (0 [interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 1] versus 2 [IQR, 0 to 5.1] log CFU/g veg; P = 0.01), no statistical differences were found with VAN-HD. In addition, FOF+IPM sterilized more vegetations than VAN-SD (11/15 [73%] versus 5/16 [31%]; P = 0.02). The GISA-ATCC 700788 load in the vegetations was significantly lower after FOF+IPM or FOF+CRO treatment than with VAN-SD (2 [IQR, 0 to 2] and 0 [IQR, 0 to 2] versus 6.5 [IQR, 2 to 6.9] log CFU/g veg; P < 0.01). The number of sterilized vegetations after treatment with FOF+CRO was higher than after treatment with VAN-SD or VAN-HD (8/15 [53%] versus 4/20 [20%] or 4/20 [20%]; P = 0.03). To assess the effect of FOF+IPM on penicillin binding protein (PBP) synthesis, molecular studies were performed, with results showing that FOF+IPM treatment significantly decreased PBP1, PBP2 (but not PBP2a), and PBP3 synthesis. These results allow clinicians to consider the use of FOF+IPM or FOF+CRO to treat MRSA or GISA IE. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | Microbiology Service., Hospital Clinico Universitario, University of Valencia, Hospital Ramon y Cajal and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Background. Preemptive antiviral therapy for active cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (Allo-SCT) results in overtreatment and a high rate of recurrences. Monitoring of CMV-specific T-cell immunity may help to individualize treatments and minimize these problems. Methods. We conducted a prospective, multicenter, matched comparison-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel strategy that consisted of interrupting anti-CMV therapy upon CMV DNAemia clearance and concurrent detection of phosphoprotein 65/immediate-early-1-specific interferon--producing CD8(+) T cells at levels of >1 cell/L (within 30 days after the initiation of therapy). Immunological monitoring was performed on days +7, +14, +21, and +28 after treatment initiation. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of recurrent DNAemia within 2 months after treatment cessation. Secondary endpoints were the length of antiviral treatment courses and the incidence of hematological toxicity. Results. Sixty-one patients were enrolled in the study group. Fifty-six patients were included in the matched-control group. Eleven patients (18%) fulfilled the criteria for antiviral treatment interruption. The cumulative incidence of recurrent CMV DNAemia was significantly lower (P = .02) in these patients than in patients in the comparative groups. Likewise, the length of antiviral treatment courses was significantly shorter in these patients than that in patients in the matched-control group (P = .003). No significant differences in the incidence of hematological toxicity was observed between the comparative groups. Conclusions. Our data support the clinical utility of combining immunological and virological monitoring for the management of CMV infection in a subset of Allo-SCT recipients.


Navarro-Jarabo J.M.,Unit of Digestive Disease | Fernandez-Sanchez F.,Microbiology Service | Fernandez-Moreno N.,Unit of Digestive Disease | Hervas-Molina A.J.,Hospital Regional Universitario Reina Sofia | And 9 more authors.
Digestion | Year: 2015

Background: The eradication of Helicobacter pylori (HP) using clarithromycin (CLA)-based triple therapy depends on the resistance of HP to antibiotics. The Maastricht III conference recommends the implementation of locoregional surveillance programmes for primary resistance of HP to CLA. In Andalusia, there are no previous data in this respect. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the primary resistance of HP to CLA and levofloxacin (LF) in southern Spain. Methods: Multicentre cross sectional study was carried out in 6 hospitals in Andalusia. Patients of both sexes numbering 401 were included (male 48%), aged 18-80 years and naïve to HP eradication. Resistance of HP to CLA (CLAr) and LF (LFr) was assessed by determining mutations by PCR: mutations of the 23S rRNA gene define CLAr and mutations of the gene gyrA define LFr. Four hundred one gastric samples were collected. CLAr was detected in 72 patients (17.9%) and LFr was detected in 56 patients (13.9%). Heteroresistance was detected for both antibiotics: CLA 37/72 (51.3%) and LF 28/56 (50%). Variability for CLAr was detected among the centres, ranging from 11.5% to 24.7% without statistical significance (p = 0.12). Female sex was related to CLAr. Conclusions: In Andalusia, there is a high rate of primary CLAr and LFr. CLA-based triple therapy should be avoided as the primary eradication regimen in this region. There is a wide variability in the rate of CLAr among centres. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Gimenez E.,Microbiology Service | Solano C.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Solano C.,University of Valencia | Azanza J.R.,University of Navarra | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

It is uncertain whether monitoring plasma ganciclovir (GCV) levels is useful in predicting cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia clearance in preemptively treated allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. In this observational study, including 13 episodes of CMV DNAemia treated with intravenous (i.v.) GCV or oral valganciclovir, we showed that monitoring trough plasma GCV levels does not reliably predict response to therapy. Rather, immunological monitoring (pp65 and immediate-early [IE]-1-specific gamma interferon [IFN-γ]-producing CD8+ T cells) appeared to perform better for this purpose. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Manzur A.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | De Gopegui E.R.,Universitari Son Dureta | Dominguez M.,Microbiology Service | Mariscal D.,Microbiology Service | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent in Spanish hospitals and community long-term-care facilities (LTCFs). This longitudinal study was performed in community LTCFs to determine whether MRSA colonization is associated with MRSA infections and overall mortality. Nasal and decubitus ulcer cultures were performed every 6 months for an 18-month period on 178 MRSA-colonized residents (86 490 patient-days) and 196 non-MRSA carriers (97 470 patient-days). Fourteen residents developed MRSA infections and 10 of these were skin and soft tissue infections. Two patients with respiratory infections required hospitalization. The incidence rate of MRSA infection was 0·12/1000 patient-days in MRSA carriers and 0·05/1000 patient-days in non-carriers (P=0·46). No difference in MRSA infection rate was found according to the duration of MRSA colonization (P=0·69). The mortality rate was 20·8% in colonized residents and 16·8% in non-carriers; four residents with MRSA infection died. Overall mortality was statistically similar in both cohorts. Our results suggest that despite a high prevalence of MRSA colonization in LTCFs, MRSA infections are neither frequent nor severe while colonized residents remain at the facility. The epidemiological impact of an MRSA reservoir is more relevant than the clinical impact of this colonization for an individual resident and supports current recommendations to control MRSA spread in community LTCFs. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.


Manzur A.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Dominguez M.A.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | Ruiz de Gopegui E.,Hospital Universitari Son Dureta | Mariscal D.,Microbiology Service | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2010

The spread of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem for both acute care hospitals and among residents in long term care facilities (LTCFs). We performed a cohort study to assess the natural history of MRSA colonisation in LTCF residents. Two cohorts of residents (231 MRSA carriers and 196 non-carriers) were followed up for an 18 month period, with cultures of nasal and decubitus ulcers performed every six months. In the MRSA carrier cohort, 110 (47.8%) residents had persistent MRSA colonisation for six months or longer, 44 (19.0%) had transient colonisation and nine (3.9%) were intermittently colonised. No risk factors for persistent MRSA colonisation could be determined. The annual incidence of MRSA acquisition was around 20% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14.3-25.5]. Antibiotic treatment was independently associated with MRSA acquisition (odds ratio: 2.27; 95% CI: 1.05-4.88; P=0.03). Just two clones were distinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing: CC5-MRSA IV, which is widely disseminated in Spanish hospitals, and ST22-MRSA IV. This study adds to the knowledge of the epidemiology of MRSA in community LTCFs, which are important components of long term care in Spain. © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society.

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