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Madrid, Spain

Villar J.M.,Intensive Care Unit | Velasco C.G.,Microbiology Service | Delgado J.D.J.,Intensive Care Unit
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Infections due to the yeast Rhodotorula are rare in humans. R. mucilaginosa is responsible for the majority of humancases, and immunocompromised individuals with central venous catheters are at greatest risk. There are few reports ofbloodstream infections due to R. mucilaginosa in immunocompetent patients. We present a case report of fungemia due to R.mucilaginosa in an immunocompetent, critically ill patient, with good evolution with catheter removal and fluconazoletherapy. We briefly review the spectrum of infections due to R. mucilaginosa and the management of bloodstream infections dueto this yeast. © 2011 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Source


Aubron C.,Monash University | Suzuki S.,Austin Hospital | Glassford N.J.,Monash University | Garcia-Alvarez M.,Austin Hospital | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2015

An observational study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of bacteriuria and candiduria in the intensive care unit (ICU), and the occurrence of blood stream infection (BSI) associated with ICU-acquired positive urine culture. Between 2006 and 2011, 444 episodes of either bacteriuria or candiduria defined by positive urine culture (microorganisms ≥105 c.f.u./ml) occurred in 406 patients. Three hundred and seventy-seven (85%) were hospital-acquired including 221 which were ICU-acquired (6.4 ± 0.8 episodes/1000 ICU days). Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria of both community-and ICU-acquired bacteriuria/candiduria (49.2% and 29%, respectively). Candida spp. represented 55% (129/236) of pathogens responsible for ICU-acquired positive urine cultures. Patients with ICU-acquired candiduria had greater illness severity at ICU admission than those with ICU-acquired bacteriuria (APACHE III score 79 ± 25 vs. 66 ±31, P = 0.0015). BSI associated with ICU-acquired positive urine culture occurred in 0.15/1000 ICU days and was more often due to Candida. In this study, Candida was the most common pathogen responsible for ICU-acquired positive urine cultures and illness severity was a risk factor for candiduria in the study population. © 2014 Cambridge University Press. Source


Renom F.,Respiratory Unit | Del Carmen Gallegos M.,Microbiology Service | Garau M.,Microbiology Service | Guerrero D.,Program of Epidemiology and Clinical Research | And 2 more authors.
BMC Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background: The genus Corynebacterium is composed of Gram-positive bacteria that are widely distributed throughout the environment; these bacteria are also part of the normal microbiota of human skin and mucous membranes. Multiple studies have shown that species of this genus, including C. striatum, become pathogenic to humans under special conditions. Our aim was to determine the characteristics of clinical multiresistant strains of C. striatum that were isolated in our geographical region, to determine their diversity, and to compare them with the type strain and with related species. We studied fifty-two strains of C. striatum isolated from different hospitals from Mallorca, Spain, mainly from the Hospital Joan March in Bunyola, Mallorca. Most of the strains were isolated from sputum cultures of respiratory samples from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. To gain further insight into the genetic diversity of the strains, we analysed several housekeeping genes and other genes associated with antibiotic resistance. Strains were also characterised phenotypically by their antibiotic resistance profiles and by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Results: The ITS1 region, gyrA and rpoB were chosen as the appropriate genes in the C. striatum genome to study the genetic diversity of C. striatum species and to discriminate between strains. After analysing these three genes, four sequence types (ST2, ST4, ST1 and ST11) were found to be the most abundant. Splits tree analysis of the strains demonstrated that these clinical isolates did not share any alleles with the type strain of the species. Recombination was detected within all of the C. striatum isolates, and different clonal populations were detected within the samples. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that the isolates were best identified using gene-based molecular methods; using these methods, the isolated strains were determined to be different from the type strain of C. striatum. The ITS1 region and the gyrA and rpoB genes were selected because of their variability and were the most useful tools for discriminating between strains. The phenotype and antibiotype characteristics of the strains did not seem suitable for typing purposes. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry can be a useful method for identifying and discriminating between C. striatum strains. © 2012 Gomila et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Manzur A.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge | De Gopegui E.R.,Universitari Son Dureta | Dominguez M.,Microbiology Service | Mariscal D.,Microbiology Service | And 4 more authors.
Epidemiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is highly prevalent in Spanish hospitals and community long-term-care facilities (LTCFs). This longitudinal study was performed in community LTCFs to determine whether MRSA colonization is associated with MRSA infections and overall mortality. Nasal and decubitus ulcer cultures were performed every 6 months for an 18-month period on 178 MRSA-colonized residents (86 490 patient-days) and 196 non-MRSA carriers (97 470 patient-days). Fourteen residents developed MRSA infections and 10 of these were skin and soft tissue infections. Two patients with respiratory infections required hospitalization. The incidence rate of MRSA infection was 0·12/1000 patient-days in MRSA carriers and 0·05/1000 patient-days in non-carriers (P=0·46). No difference in MRSA infection rate was found according to the duration of MRSA colonization (P=0·69). The mortality rate was 20·8% in colonized residents and 16·8% in non-carriers; four residents with MRSA infection died. Overall mortality was statistically similar in both cohorts. Our results suggest that despite a high prevalence of MRSA colonization in LTCFs, MRSA infections are neither frequent nor severe while colonized residents remain at the facility. The epidemiological impact of an MRSA reservoir is more relevant than the clinical impact of this colonization for an individual resident and supports current recommendations to control MRSA spread in community LTCFs. © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source


Gimenez E.,Microbiology Service | Solano C.,Hospital Clinico Universitario | Solano C.,University of Valencia | Azanza J.R.,University of Navarra | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

It is uncertain whether monitoring plasma ganciclovir (GCV) levels is useful in predicting cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia clearance in preemptively treated allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. In this observational study, including 13 episodes of CMV DNAemia treated with intravenous (i.v.) GCV or oral valganciclovir, we showed that monitoring trough plasma GCV levels does not reliably predict response to therapy. Rather, immunological monitoring (pp65 and immediate-early [IE]-1-specific gamma interferon [IFN-γ]-producing CD8+ T cells) appeared to perform better for this purpose. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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