Microbiology Institute

Piacenza, Italy

Microbiology Institute

Piacenza, Italy

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Sinico R.A.,Clinical Immunology Unit and Renal Unit | Di Toma L.,Renal Unit | Radice A.,Microbiology Institute
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2013

Renal involvement is a common and often severe complication of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides (AAV).With the exception of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), where kidney involvement is not a prominent feature, renal disease is present in about 70% of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis, now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and in almost 100% of patients with microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Kidney involvement is generally characterized by a pauci-immune necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis with a very rapid decline of renal function (rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis). Even though there are not qualitative differences in glomerular lesions in patients with GPA or with MPA, chronic damage is significantly higher in MPA (and/or P-ANCA positive patients) than in GPA (and/or C-ANCA positive patients). If untreated necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis has an unfavorable course leading in a few weeks or months to end stage renal disease. Serum creatinine at diagnosis, sclerotic lesions and the number of normal glomeruli at kidney biopsy are the best predictors of renal outcome. Corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (with the addition of plasma exchange in the most severe cases) are the cornerstone of induction treatment of ANCA-associated renal vasculitis, followed by azathioprine for maintenance. Rituximab is as effective as cyclophosphamide in inducing remission in AAV and probably superior to cyclophosphamide in patients with severe flare, and could be preferred in younger patients in order to preserve fertility and in patients with serious relapses. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Gaiarsa S.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Gaiarsa S.,University of Milan | Comandatore F.,University of Milan | Comandatore F.,University of Pavia | And 14 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Klebsiella pneumoniae is at the forefront of antimicrobial resistance for Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, as strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems are widely reported. The worldwide diffusion of these strains is of great concern due to the high morbidity and mortality often associated with K. pneumoniae infections in nosocomial environments. We sequenced the genomes of 89 K. pneumoniae strains isolated in six Italian hospitals. Strains were selected based on antibiotypes, regardless of multilocus sequence type, to obtain a picture of the epidemiology of K. pneumoniae in Italy. Thirty-one strains were carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, 29 were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, and 29 were susceptible to the aforementioned antibiotics. The genomes were compared to all of the sequences available in the databases, obtaining a data set of 319 genomes spanning the known diversity of K. pneumoniae worldwide. Bioinformatic analyses of this global data set allowed us to construct a whole-species phylogeny, to detect patterns of antibiotic resistance distribution, and to date the differentiation between specific clades of interest. Finally, we detected an ∼1.3-Mb recombination that characterizes all of the isolates of clonal complex 258, the most widespread carbapenem-resistant group of K. pneumoniae. The evolution of this complex was modeled, dating the newly detected and the previously reported recombination events. The present study contributes to the understanding of K. pneumoniae evolution, providing novel insights into its global genomic characteristics and drawing a dated epidemiological scenario for this pathogen in Italy. © 2015 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Jantsch J.,Microbiology Institute | Schmidt B.,Institute of Clinical and Molecular Virology | Bardutzky J.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Bogdan C.,Microbiology Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation | Year: 2011

Patients after solid organ transplantation are at increased risk of developing herpes zoster and are more likely to develop major complications such as cutaneous dissemination, post-herpetic neuralgia and visceral organ involvement. We report on a 68-year-old woman being varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-seropositive prior to transplantation, who developed fatal VZV meningoencephalitis after renal transplantation presenting with non-specific neurologic symptoms. The case illustrates that VZV reactivation may occur in renal transplant recipients in the absence of skin lesions. Approaches towards risk assessment pre-transplantation and prophylactic regimens for the prevention of VZV recurrence are needed. © 2010 The Author.

Sinico R.A.,Clinical Immunology and Renal Unit | Radice A.,Microbiology Institute
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2014

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are considered the diagnostic biomarker of some necrotising vasculitis such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and, to a lesser extent, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). According to the current recommendations, combining indirect immunofluorescence and proteinase 3 (PR3) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) antigen specific immunometric assays, in the proper clinical setting, assures the best diagnostic specificity. When such conditions are satisfied, ANCA are detected in up to 90% of patients with active generalised GPA and MPA and in about 40% of patients with EGPA. Cytoplasmic ANCA (C-ANCA) with specificity for PR3 are usually found in patients with GPA whereas perinuclear ANCA (P-ANCA) in patients with MPA and EGPA. However, ANCA antigen specificity is more closely associated with disease phenotype and prognosis than clinical diagnosis. The clinical value of serial ANCA testing in monitoring disease activity is still debated. Recently, new promising developments in methodology and techniques (computer- based image analysis of imunofluorescence patterns, novel generation of PR3-/MPO-ANCA immunometric assays and multiplex technology) have been proposed but studies comparing the performances of the different assays are scarce. © Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 2014.

Buonfrate D.,Sacro Cuore Hospital | Gobbi F.,Sacro Cuore Hospital | Angheben A.,Sacro Cuore Hospital | Marocco S.,Sacro Cuore Hospital | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infection involving cutaneous and subcutaneous tissues. It is endemic in tropical and subtropical areas, but sporadic cases have been reported also in countries of temperate climate. The purpose of this paper is to review the cases of mycetoma in European subjects (and presumably acquired in Europe), to give an insight in the main factors associated with this condition, and to describe two previously unpublished cases observed at our Centre. Methods and Findings: PubMed was systematically searched for case reports and case series of mycetoma in Europeans reported between 1980 and 2014, using specific search strategies. Two further cases diagnosed by the authors are described. Forty-two cases were collected. Eleven cases were caused by Scedosporium apiospermium, mainly in immunosuppressed patients from Bulgaria, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the United Kingdom. Excluding all patients with immunosuppression, 29 cases remain. Most of them were reported from Bulgaria and in Albanian patients (all diagnosed outside Albania). In the Bulgarian case series many different micro-organisms, both bacteria and fungi, were isolated, while all the 5 cases from Albania were caused by Actinomadura spp. Other countries reporting cases were Greece, Italy and Turkey. In general, Actinomadura spp is the most frequent causative agent isolated, followed by Nocardia spp and Madurella mycetomatis. The foot was the most reported site involved. Most patients were medically treated, but unfortunately a long-term follow up (at least one year) was available only in a few cases. Conclusions: Our review and our own cases suggest that Europeans without travel history can be affected by Madura foot. The lack of a surveillance system is likely to cause an underreporting of cases. Moreover, the unfamiliarity of Western doctors with this peculiar infection may cause a mismanagement, including unnecessary amputations. © 2014 Buonfrate et al.

Farina C.,Microbiology Institute | Marchesi G.,Intensive Care Unit | Passera M.,Microbiology Institute | Diliberto C.,Habilita Hospital Zingonia | And 2 more authors.
Medical Mycology | Year: 2012

Many case reports suggest that the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy associated with surgical and medical approaches may contribute to restricting the growth of zygomycetes in patient tissue. The primary aim of this study was to obtain data concerning the in vitro susceptibility of 22 zygomycetes to antifungals such as amphotericin B and posaconazole, and to compare the in vitro development of these fungi in aerobic normobaric versus hyperoxic normobaric and hyperbaric atmosphere. None of the zygomycetes grew after 24-hour and 72-hour incubation in a hyperoxic hyperbaric (2 or 3 ATA) atmosphere. However, when plates were maintained at room temperature in aerobic conditions, colonies were observed from 36-96 h after inoculation, while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values remained the same. This preliminary in vitro study focuses on the in vitro examination of combination therapies to potentiate antifungal activity. Both hyperoxic hyperbaric conditions and a single antifungal agent, as well as combinations of different antifungal drugs were used. Results suggest an impressive in vitro fungistatic activity of the hyperoxic hyperbaric atmosphere, even if the antifungal effect is strictly time-dependent using these incubation conditions. © 2012 ISHAM.

Farina C.,Microbiology Institute | Marchesi G.,Intensive Care Unit | Passera M.,Microbiology Institute | Diliberto C.,Habilita Hospital Zingonia | Russello G.,Microbiology Institute
Journal de Mycologie Medicale | Year: 2012

Introduction: Scedosporium spp. have been observed with increasing frequency over the last decade in immunocompromised patients and trauma patients. This mould is often multi-drug resistant and its mortality rate remains very high. Aim: The primary goal of this study was to obtain data concerning the . in vitro susceptibility of 13 . Scedosporium strains comparing the . in vitro incubation in aerobic . versus hyperbaric conditions. Materials and methods: Chemosensitivity of thirteen Scedosporium strains was evaluated after a 72h-incubation in a normoxic (21% O2) normobaric (1 ATA) atmosphere versus a hyperoxic (100% O2) hyperbaric (2-3 ATA), and after a re-incubation at room temperature for an additional 72h. Results: All . S. apiospermum and . S. prolificans strains showed no growth after incubation in hyperbaric hyperoxic atmosphere. However, when plates were then maintained at room temperature in aerobic conditions, growth was systematically observed from 36 to 96. h, and Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were the same obtained after incubation in aerobic conditions. Conclusions: These results suggest impressive . in vitro fungistatic activity of the hyperoxic hyperbaric atmosphere, even if its effect is strictly time-dependent. This preliminary . in vitro study has potential clinical relevance because it focuses on examining . in vitro combination therapy using hyperoxic hyperbaric conditions plus a single antifungal agent, rather than using combinations of different antifungal drugs, to potentially increase the antifungal activity. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

PubMed | Microbiology Institute and Microbiology Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Le infezioni in medicina : rivista periodica di eziologia, epidemiologia, diagnostica, clinica e terapia delle patologie infettive | Year: 2016

The real time PCR Xpert MTB/RIF is fundamental for rapid diagnosis in paucibacillary respiratory samples and for the detection of multidrug-resistant TB cases. This paper aimed to determine its performance on different extrapulmonary samples. We determined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value on respiratory and non-respiratory samples collected from January 2010 to June 2014. The protocol for the Xpert MTB/RIF PCR suggested by Cepheid was strictly followed for all specimens. In 12257 respiratory samples we observed a sensitivity of 87.1% and a specificity of 99.9%. There were 2818 extrapulmonary specimens, of which 250 were followed by a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, whereas 72 samples were culture-negative: tuberculosis was clinically confirmed in 71 of them and was excluded for one sample. The sensitivity of the test on urine, pus and CSF samples was 88.2%, 95.6% and 100% respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of gastric aspirates and biopsies was 81.8% and 83.6% respectively, whereas results of total cavitary fluids were significantly worse than expected (53.7% sensitivity). Our experience shows that Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an accurate, sensitive, and specific test for the rapid detection of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB with the only exception of cavitary fluids.

PubMed | Microbiology Institute and Biomedical University of Rome
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Viridans Group Streptococci (VGS) species-level identification is fundamental for patients management. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been used for VGS identification but discrimination within the Mitis group resulted difficult. In this study, VGS identifications with two MALDI-TOF instruments, the Biotyper (Bruker) and the VITEK MS (bioMrieux) have been compared to those derived from tuf, soda and rpoB genes sequencing. VGS isolates were clustered and a dendrogram constructed using the Biotyper 3.0 software (Bruker). RpoB gene sequencing resulted the most sensitive and specific molecular method for S. pneumonia identification and was used as reference method. The sensitivity and the specificity of the VITEK MS in S. pneumonia identification were 100%, while the Biotyper resulted less specific (92.4%). In non pneumococcal VGS strains, the group-level correlation between rpoB and the Biotyper was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 61% after database upgrading (than 37% before upgrading). The group-level correlation between rpoB and the VITEK MS was 100%, while the species-level correlation was 36% and increases at 69% if isolates identified as S. mitis/S. oralis are included. The less accurate performance of the VITEK MS in VGS identification within the Mitis group was due to the inability to discriminate between S. mitis and S. oralis. Conversely, the Biotyper, after the release of the upgraded database, was able to discriminate between the two species. In the dendrogram, VGS strains from the same group were grouped into the same cluster and had a good correspondence with the gene-based clustering reported by other authors, thus confirming the validity of the upgraded version of the database. Data from this study demonstrated that MALDI-TOF technique can represent a rapid and cost saving method for VGS identification even within the Mitis group but improvements of spectra database are still recommended.

PubMed | District Health Center, Microbiology Institute, Clinical Laboratory Medicine and University of Bari
Type: | Journal: Respiratory medicine case reports | Year: 2016

Pulmonary nocardiosis (PN) is a rare but severe disease caused by Nocardia spp. Despite the traditional description as opportunistic infection, case reports and case series of pulmonary nocardiosis have recently been reported in immunocompetent patients too, in particular among people with chronic pulmonary diseases such as advanced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). PN is characterized by non-specific symptoms and radiological findings; bacteriological culture can be difficult. For the reasons above, diagnosis of PN is challenging, sometimes resulting in a misdiagnosis of tuberculosis. We report an interesting case of PN in a 75-year-old male with COPD. He complained a 3-months history of fatigue, evening rise in body temperature, night sweats, unexplained weight loss of 5kg, worsening dyspnea, cough and mucopurulent sputum. The chest X-ray showed multiple nodules with cavitations bilaterally in the apical and subclavian regions. Nocardia cyriacigeorgica with 100% identity was identified in three sputum samples. Since the patient has never undergone a systemic and/or inhaled steroid therapy, and has no respiratory failure and comorbidities entailing immunodepression, it is conceivable that, in this immunocompetent patient, the COPD could represent an isolated risk factor for PN. Risk factors, clinical presentations, radiographic findings, differential diagnosis and review of the literature of PN cases in COPD, pointing out the similarities and differences, are also described.

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