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Tontodonati M.,Infectious Disease Clinic | Ursini T.,Infectious Disease Clinic | Polilli E.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Vadini F.,Psycho Infectivology Unit | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of General Medicine

Background: In spite of the large body of evidence available in the literature, definition and treatment of Post-Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN) are still lacking a consistent and universally recognized standardization. Furthermore, many issues concerning diagnosis, prediction and prevention of PHN need to be clarified in view of recent contributions. Objectives: To assess whether PHN may be better defined, predicted, treated and prevented in light of recent data, and whether available alternative or adjunctive therapies may improve pain relief in treatment recalcitrant PHN. Methods: Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies and protocols were searched; the search sources included PubMed, Cochrane Library, NICE, and DARE. More than 130 papers were selected and evaluated. Results: Diagnosis of PHN is essentially clinical, but it can be improved by resorting to the many tools available, including some practical and accessible questionnaires. Prediction of PHN can be now much more accurate, taking into consideration a few well validated clinical and anamnestic variables. Treatment of PHN is presently based on a well characterized array of drugs and drug associations, including, among others, tricyclic antidepressants, gabapentinoids, opioids and many topical formulations. It is still unsatisfactory, however, in a substantial proportion of patients, especially those with many comorbidities and intense pain at herpes zoster (HZ) presentation, so that this frequent complication of HZ still strongly impacts on the quality of life of affected patients. Conclusion: Further efforts are needed to improve the management of PHN. Potentially relevant interventions may include early antiviral therapy of acute HZ, prevention of HZ by adult vaccination, as well as new therapeutic approaches for patients experiencing PHN. © 2012 Tontodonati et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source

Durante-Mangoni E.,University Of Naples Sun | Andini R.,University Of Naples Sun | Agrusta F.,University Of Naples Sun | Iossa D.,University Of Naples Sun | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Internal Medicine

Background Infective endocarditis (IE) due to gram-negative (GN) bacilli is uncommon. Although multi- and extensively-drug resistant (MDR/XDR) GN infections are emerging, very few data are available on IE due to these microrganisms. Methods In this study, we describe the clinical characteristics, course and outcome of five contemporary, definite, MDR/XDR GNIE cases seen at our centre. Results All patients had been admitted to a hospital during the 6 months before IE onset, 2 were on hemodialysis and 3 on intravenous medications. Three of the 5 cases were hospital-acquired. Intracardiac prosthetic devices were present in all cases (3 central venous lines, 2 prosthetic heart valves, 2 pacemakers). Mean Charlson comorbidity index was 5.8. Causative pathogens were XDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2 cases), XDR Acinetobacter baumannii, MDR Burkolderia cepacia and MDR Escherichia coli (1 case each). Concomitant pathogens with a MDR/XDR phenotype were isolated in 4 patients. Both valves and intracardiac devices and left and right sides of the heart were involved. The rate of complications was high. Antibiotic treatment hinged on the use of colistin, a carbapenem or both. Cardiovascular surgical procedures were performed in 3 patients. Despite aggressive therapeutic regimens, outcomes were poor. Clearance of bacteremia was obtained in 3 patients, in-hospital death occurred in 3 patients, only 1 patient survived during follow up. Conclusions MDR/XDR GN are emerging as a cause of IE in carriers of intracardiac prostheses with extensive healthcare contacts and multiple comorbidities. Resistant GNIE has a complicated course and shows a dismal prognosis. © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Source

Pollini S.,University of Siena | Maradei S.,University of Siena | Pecile P.,University of Florence | Olivo G.,University of Florence | And 4 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

Acquired metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) are resistance determinants of increasing clinical importance in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, which confer a broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance, including carbapenems. Several such enzymes have been described since the 1990s. In the present study, a novel acquired MBL, named FIM-1, was identified and characterized. The bla FIM-1gene was cloned from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate (FI-14/157) cultured from a patient with a vascular graft infection in Florence, Italy. The isolate belonged in the sequence type 235 epidemic clonal lineage. The FIM-1 enzyme is a member of subclass B1 and, among acquired MBLs, exhibited the highest similarity (ca. 40% amino acid identity) with NDM-type enzymes. In P. aeruginosa FI-14/157, the bla FIM-1 gene was apparently inserted into the chromosome and associated with ISCR19-like elements that were likely involved in the capture and mobilization of this MBL gene. Transfer experiments of the blaFIM-1 gene to an Escherichia coli strain or another P. aeruginosa strain by conjugation or electrotransformation were not successful. The FIM-1 protein was produced in E. coli and purified by two chromatography steps. Analysis of the kinetic parameters, carried out with the purified enzyme, revealed that FIM-1 has a broad substrate specificity, with a preference for penicillins (except the 6α-methoxy derivative temocillin) and carbapenems. Aztreonam was not hydrolyzed. Detection of this novel type of acquired MBL in a P. aeruginosa clinical isolate underscores the increasing diversity of such enzymes that can be encountered in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Giani T.,University of Siena | Pini B.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Arena F.,University of Siena | Conte V.,University of Siena | And 7 more authors.

Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are emerging as a public health problem in various settings. In Italy, a rapid and remarkable increase of carbapenem-non-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae has been reported since 2010. Here we report on the results of a countrywide cross-sectional survey, carried out from 15 May to 30June 2011 to investigate the diffusion of CRE in Italy and to characterise the most prevalent resistance mechanisms and their dissemination patterns. CRE were reported from most (23 of 25) participating laboratories, with an overall proportion of 3.5% and 0.3% among consecutive non-duplicate clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from inpatients (n=7,154) and outpatients (n=6,595), respectively. K. pneumoniae was the most frequent species (proportion of carbapenem-non-susceptible isolates: 11.9%), while a minority of CRE of other species were detected. Carbapenemase production was detected in the majority (85%) of CRE. KPC-type enzymes were by far the most common (89.5% of carbapenemase producers), followed by VIM-1 (9.2%) and OXA-48 (1.3%). KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-KP) were detected in most centres and contributed majorly to the epidemic dissemination of CRE recently observed in our country. Dissemination of KPC-KP was mostly sustained by strains of clonal complex 258 (ST-258 producing KPC-2 or KPC-3, and ST-512 producing KPC-3), while a minority belonged to ST-101. Source

Costa C.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Balloco C.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Sidoti F.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | Mantovani S.,Microbiology and Virology Unit | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Virology

Background: Immunological monitoring for CMV can be useful in transplant patients; however, few centers perform it on a routine basis. Objectives: In this study, CMV-specific cellular response was evaluated in a population of kidney transplant recipients and related to viral infection/reactivation and other demographic and clinical features. Study design: Three hundred and twenty-eight patients were studied by EliSPOT assay: 201 prospectively monitored in the first year posttransplantation, 127 with a single determination at >1 year. Clinical features, including occurrence of CMV-DNAemia, CMV serostatus, anti-viral strategies and immunosuppressive protocols, were evaluated. Results: Overall, 66.5% of patients were CMV-responders at EliSPOT assay. No episode of infection occurred at follow-up (mean 24.5 months) in 73.4% responders versus 55.5% non-responders (p<0.005); CMV-free period was significantly longer in responders (p<0.001). Although no significant difference of peak viral load was found, prevalence of CMV-DNAemia values >105copies/mL was significantly higher in non-responders versus responders (8.2% and 2.3%, p<0.05). Non-responder status was significantly associated to CMV-seronegativity (p<0.0001), anti-viral prophylaxis use (p<0.0001), and immunosuppression induction with basiliximab (p<0.005). No significant association was found for other clinical features and immunosuppressive protocols. Conclusions: Immunological data for CMV could be used in the clinical evaluation and decision-making process, in combination with virological monitoring, in kidney transplant recipients. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

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