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PubMed | Microbiology and Parasitology . and University of the Basque Country
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Critical reviews in microbiology | Year: 2016

There is currently increasing concern about the relation between microbial infections and cancer. More and more studies support the view that there is an association, above all, when the causal agents are bacteria or viruses. This review adds to this, summarizing evidence that the opportunistic fungus Candida albicans increases the risk of carcinogenesis and metastasis. Until recent years, Candida spp. had fundamentally been linked to cancerous processes as it is an opportunist pathogen that takes advantage of the immunosuppressed state of patients particularly due to chemotherapy. In contrast, the most recent findings demonstrate that C. albicans is capable of promoting cancer by several mechanisms, as described in the review: production of carcinogenic byproducts, triggering of inflammation, induction of Th17 response and molecular mimicry. We underline the need not only to control this type of infection during cancer treatment, especially given the major role of this yeast species in nosocomial infections, but also to find new therapeutic approaches to avoid the pro-tumor effect of this fungal species.

Njagi L.W.,Microbiology and Parasitology | Nyaga P.N.,Microbiology and Parasitology | Mbuthia P.G.,Microbiology and Parasitology | Bebora L.C.,Microbiology and Parasitology | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2010

It was hypothesized that the agro-ecological zone in which village indigenous chickens were farmed influenced the level of diseases occurrence. One hundred and forty four apparently healthy chickens (71 from lower highland 1, a cold zone and 73 from lower midland 5, a hot zone) were randomly sampled. Oro-pharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from each bird and processed for virus isolation in 10-12 day old embryonated chicken eggs. In addition, blood, without anticoagulant was obtained from each bird through wing venipuncture. Haemagglutination inhibition assay was performed for all sera samples. Prevalence of Newcastle disease (NDV) virus was significantly higher (17.8%) in the dry hot zone (lower midland 5) compared to the cool wet zone (lower highland 1) at 9.9% showing evidence for climate as a risk factor in the occurrence of NDV in village chicken. Female birds had higher mean Newcastle disease viral titers than their male counterparts. All Newcastle disease virus isolates recovered were from healthy appearing birds and were all velogenic. Sero-prevalence was significantly highest (p<0.05) in adult birds (10%) while growers had 5.1% and chicks 2.9%. Apparently healthy-appearing birds were reported to be reservoirs of velogenic Newcastle disease virus strains that could initiate endemicity NDV cycles in the village setting.

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