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Sartori E.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | Calistri A.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | Salata C.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | Del Vecchio C.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | And 2 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2011

Epidemiological and clinical data indicate that genital ulcer disease (GUD) pathogens are associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) acquisition and/or transmission. Among them, genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seems to play a relevant role. Indeed, the ability of HSV-2 to induce massive infiltration at the genital level of cells which are potential targets for HIV-1 infection may represent one of the mechanisms involved in this process. Here we show that infection of human primary macrophages (MDMs) by HSV-2 results in an increase of CCR5 expression levels on cell surface and allows higher efficiency of MDMs to support entry of R5 HIV-1 strains. This finding could strengthen, at the molecular level, the evidence linking HSV-2 infection to an increased susceptibility to HIV-1 acquisition. © 2011 Sartori et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Scarpa M.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | Piccinini R.,Hygiene and Health | Brun P.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | Grillo A.,Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Research | Year: 2010

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common aetiologic agent of contagious bovine mastitis. It is characterized by a wide array of virulence factors. The differences among strains jeopardize the development of effective vaccines against Staph. aureus mastitis. We tested the immunogenicity of a peptide subunit vaccine coding for three different adhesion factors, fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb), fibronectin-binding protein A (FnbpA) and clumping factor A (ClfA). Then we evaluated the influence of some virulence factors on the ability of specific anti-adhesin antibodies to react with sixteen Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Immunization with the recombinant adhesins stimulated a strong humoural (IgG and IgA) and mucosal IgA immune response in all animals tested. Hyperimmune serum recognized with diverse efficiency the sixteen Staph. aureus strains and this circumstance correlated well with the level of expression of adhesins. Among the different virulence factors considered to classify strains, spa gene polymorphisms showed the strongest influence on isolate reactions to hyperimmune serum. Our results indicate the importance of a disease- and environment-specific analysis of isolates. Thus, as opposed to other pathogens to obtain an effective vaccine we should characterize multiple strains and identify the prevalent virulence factors expressed. © 2009 Proprietors of Journal of Dairy Research.


PubMed | Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of dairy research | Year: 2010

Staphylococcus aureus is the most common aetiologic agent of contagious bovine mastitis. It is characterized by a wide array of virulence factors. The differences among strains jeopardize the development of effective vaccines against Staph. aureus mastitis. We tested the immunogenicity of a peptide subunit vaccine coding for three different adhesion factors, fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb), fibronectin-binding protein A (FnbpA) and clumping factor A (ClfA). Then we evaluated the influence of some virulence factors on the ability of specific anti-adhesin antibodies to react with sixteen Staph. aureus strains isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis. Immunization with the recombinant adhesins stimulated a strong humoural (IgG and IgA) and mucosal IgA immune response in all animals tested. Hyperimmune serum recognized with diverse efficiency the sixteen Staph. aureus strains and this circumstance correlated well with the level of expression of adhesins. Among the different virulence factors considered to classify strains, spa gene polymorphisms showed the strongest influence on isolate reactions to hyperimmune serum. Our results indicate the importance of a disease- and environment-specific analysis of isolates. Thus, as opposed to other pathogens to obtain an effective vaccine we should characterize multiple strains and identify the prevalent virulence factors expressed.


PubMed | Microbiology and Medical Biotechnologies.
Type: Comment | Journal: Molecular microbiology | Year: 2010

sigma(E), one of the best characterized mycobacterial extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, is involved in virulence, surface stress response and modulation of the inflammatory response during infection. The regulation of its activity is very complex and involves transcriptional, translational and post-translational control. Post-translational regulation is controlled by RseA, an anti-sigma factor belonging to the zinc-associated anti-sigma factor family. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Barik et al. demonstrate that RseA is a redox-sensing protein that is able to bind sigma(E) only in reducing environment. Importantly, they describe a novel positive feedback loop responsible for sigma(E) release and activation following surface stress, due to ClpC1P2-dependent proteolytic degradation of RseA, depending on its phosphorylation by the eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinase PknB.

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