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Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Baik S.-H.,Chonbuk National University
Journal of Food Science | Year: 2015

Flavor development in soy sauce is significantly related to the diversity of yeast species. Due to its unique fermentation with meju, the process of making Korean soy sauce gives rise to a specific yeast community and, therefore, flavor profile; however, no detailed analysis of the identifying these structure has been performed. Changes in yeast community structure during Korean soy sauce fermentation were examined using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods with simultaneous analysis of the changes in volatile compounds by GC-MS analysis. During fermentation, Candida, Pichia, and Rhodotorula sp. were the dominant species, whereas Debaryomyces, Torulaspora, and Zygosaccharomyces sp. were detected only at the early stage. In addition, Cryptococcus, Microbotryum, Tetrapisispora, and Wickerhamomyces were detected as minor strains. Among the 62 compounds identified in this study, alcohols, ketones, and pyrazines were present as the major groups during the initial stages, whereas the abundance of acids with aldehydes increased as the fermentation progressed. Finally, the impacts of 10 different yeast strains found to participate in fermentation on the formation of volatile compounds were evaluated under soy-based conditions. It was revealed that specific species produced different profiles of volatile compounds, some of which were significant flavor contributors, especially volatile alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and ketones. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®. Source

Kim H.-I.,Korea University | Kim J.-A.,Korea University | Choi E.-J.,Korea University | Harris J.B.,Massachusetts General Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

In this study, we investigated antibacterial activities of 20 plant-derived natural compounds against Gram-negative enteric pathogens. We found that both flavonoids and non-flavonoids, including honokiol and magnolol, possess specific antibacterial activities against V. cholerae, but not against other species of Gram-negative bacterium which we tested. Using various antibacterial assays, we determined that there was a dose-dependent bactericidal and biofilm inhibitory activity of honokiol and magnolol against Vibrio cholerae. In addition to antibacterial activities, these molecules also induced an attenuating effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and pro-inflammatory responses generated by macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Additionally, Caenorhabditis elegans lethality assay revealed that honokiol and magnolol have an ability to extend a lifespan of V. cholerae-infected worms, contributing to prolonged survival of worms after lethal infection. Altogether, our data show for the first time that honokiol and magnolol may be considered as attractive protective or preventive food adjuncts for cholera. © 2014 Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. Source

Heo J.,Chonbuk National University | Lee C.-M.,Chonbuk National University | Park M.K.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Uhm T.-B.,Chonbuk National University
Korean Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2015

The malolactic fermentation (MLF), which is widely used in winemaking, is the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid conducted by the malolactic enzyme (Mle) of lactic acid bacteria. In order to select the strains with MLF among 54 lactic acid bacteria isolated from the traditionally fermented foods, we designed a primer set that specifically targets the conserved regions of the mle gene and then selected four strains that harbor the mle gene of Lactobacillus plantarum. All strains were identified as L. plantarum by analyzing the 16S rRNA sequences, biochemical properties, and the PCR products of the recA gene. From comparison of the mle gene sequences consisting of 1,644 bp, the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of strain JBE60 correspond to 96.7% and 99.5% with those of other three strains, respectively. The strain JBE60 showed the highest resistant against 10% (v/v) ethanol among the strains. The strains lowered the concentration of malic acid to average 43%. Considering the ethanol resistance and conversion of malic acid, the strain JBE60 is considered as a potential starter for the malolactic fermentation. © 2015, The Microbiological Society of Korea. Source

Heo J.,Chonbuk National University | Ryu M.,Chonbuk National University | Jeon S.,Chonbuk National University | Oh H.,Chonbuk National University | And 2 more authors.
Korean Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

For the collection of starters suitable for the brewing of traditional liquor, an alcohol-resistant strain of lactic acid bacteria with low level of acid production was isolated from traditional fermented soybean lumps. The strain named as JBE 30 was identified as Lactobacillus brevis by 16S rRNA sequence analysis and additional biochemical tests. The strain could grow well at a MRS medium containing 8% (v/v) ethanol for 96 h of cultivation at 30°C. The final pH after cultivation was 4.5. It also inhibited the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These results showed that Lactobacillus brevis JBE 30 could be used as a promising starter in brewing process of traditional liquor. © 2014, The Microbiological Society of Korea. Source

Song Y.-R.,Chonbuk National University | Jeong D.-Y.,Microbial Institute for Fermentation Industry MIFI | Baik S.-H.,Chonbuk National University
Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

This study deals with understanding the effects of salt reduction on both the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soy sauce fermentation and also the application of indigenous yeast starters to compensate for undesirable changes occurring in salt-reduced processes. Fermentation was tested in situ at a Korean commercial soy sauce processing unit. Salt reduction resulted in higher acidity as well as lower pH and contents of residual sugar and ethanol. Moreover, undesired flavor characteristics, due to a lack of distinctive compounds, was observed. In addition, putrefactive Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. were present only during salt-reduced fermentation. To control these adverse effects, a single or mixed culture of two indigenous yeasts, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Pichia guilliermondii, producing high ethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol, respectively, were tested. Overall, all types of yeast applications inhibited undesirable bacterial growth despite salt reduction. Of the starter cultures tested, the mixed culture resulted in a balance of more complex and richer flavors with an identical flavor profile pattern to that obtained from high salt soy sauce. Hence, this strategy using functional yeast cultures offers a technological option to manufacture salt-reduced soy sauce while preserving its typical sensory characteristics without affecting safety. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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