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Borstel-Hohenraden, Germany

Holscher C.,Research Center Borstel | Holscher C.,German Center for Infection Research | Heitmann L.,Research Center Borstel | Owusu-Dabo E.,Kwame Nkrumah University Of Science And Technology | And 9 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2016

The contribution of interleukin- (IL-) 4 receptor-alpha- (Rα-) dependent events in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) is controversial. We have recently shown IL-13 overexpression in mice to cause recrudescent Mtb replication and centrally necrotizing granulomas strongly resembling pathology of human TB. A deletion of IL-4Rα completely abrogates TB tissue pathology in these mice. To validate our results in human TB patients, we here determined the association of distinct variants of the IL4, IL13, IL4RA, IL13RA1, and IL13RA2 genes with cavity formation in a large Ghanaian cohort of HIV-negative individuals with newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. In fact, the structural variant of the IL4RA I50V, previously shown to result in enhanced signal transduction, was significantly associated with greater cavity size, and a variant of IL13RA2 was associated with disease in females. To evaluate whether the human-like TB pathology in IL-13-overexpressing mice is specifically mediated through the IL-4Rα subunit, we analyzed IL-13 transgenic mice with a genetic ablation of the IL-4Rα. In these mice, the IL-13-mediated increased susceptibility, human-like pathology of collagen deposition around centrally necrotizing granulomas, and alternative macrophage activation were abolished. Together, our genetic association study in human TB patients further supports the assumption that IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent mechanisms are involved in mediating tissue pathology of human TB. Copyright © 2016 Christoph Hölscher et al. Source


Heitmann L.,Research Center Borstel | Schoenen H.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Ehlers S.,Microbial Inflammation Research | Ehlers S.,University of Kiel | And 2 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2013

Individually and combined, Toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, -4, -9, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 2 and NALP3 contribute to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-induced innate immune response only to a limited extent, particularly in terms of inducing antibacterial protection and granuloma formation in vivo. A singular essential sensory component of this initial response has not been discovered yet. Trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), a well known mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid, is believed to be involved in these early inflammatory processes after Mtb infection. Only recently the macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) was demonstrated as an essential receptor for TDM. However, not much is known about the sensing capacity of Mincle during infection with live mycobacteria. To determine the significance of Mincle during tuberculosis (TB), we analyzed the outcome of Mtb infection in Mincle-deficient mice. Whereas in the absence of Mincle macrophages did not respond to TDM, Mincle-deficient mice were capable of mounting an efficient granulomatous and protective immune response after low and high dose infections with Mtb. Mutant mice generated a normal T helper (TH) 1 and TH17 immune response followed by the induction of efficient macrophage effector mechanisms and control of mycobacterial growth identical to wildtype mice. From our results we conclude that absence of the innate receptor Mincle can be fully compensated for in vivo in terms of sensing Mtb and mounting a protective inflammatory immune response. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. Source


Behrends J.,Research Center Borstel | Renauld J.-C.,Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research | Ehlers S.,Microbial Inflammation Research | Ehlers S.,University of Kiel | Holscher C.,Research Center Borstel
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Anti-inflammatory treatment of autoimmune diseases is associated with an increased risk of reactivation tuberculosis (TB). Besides interleukin (IL-17)A, IL-22 represents a classical T helper (TH)17 cytokine and shares similar pathological effects in inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis or arthritis. Whereas IL-17A supports protective immune responses during mycobacterial infections, the role of IL-22 after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is yet poorly characterized. Therefore, we here characterize the cell types producing IL-22 and the protective function of this cytokine during experimental TB in mice. Like IL-17A, IL-22 is expressed early after infection with Mtb in an IL-23-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the majority of IL-22-producing cells are not positive for IL-17A but have rather functional characteristics of interferon-gamma-producing TH1 cells. Although we found minor differences in the number of naive and central memory T cells as well as in the frequency of TH1 and polyfunctional T cells in mice deficient for IL-22, the absence of IL-22 does not affect the outcome of Mtb infection. Our study revealed that although produced by TH1 cells, IL-22 is dispensable for protective immune responses during TB. Therefore, targeting of IL-22 in inflammatory disease may represent a therapeutic approach that does not incur the danger of reactivation TB. © 2013 Behrends et al. Source


Neumann J.,Research Center Borstel | Schaale K.,Research Center Borstel | Farhat K.,Research Center Borstel | Farhat K.,University of Gottingen | And 6 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2010

Wnt/Frizzled signaling, essential for embryonic development, has also recently been implicated in the modulation of inflammatory processes. In the current study, we observed a reciprocal regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway after aerosol infection of mice with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: whereas proinflammatory mediators were substantially increased, β-catenin signaling was significantly reduced. A systematic screen of Fzd homologs in infected mice identified Fzd1 mRNA to be significantly up-regulated during the course of infection. In vitro infection of murine macrophages led to a strong induction of Fzd1 that was dependent on TLRs, the myeloid differentiation response gene 88 (MyD88), and a functional NF-κB pathway. Flow cytometry demonstrated an elevated Fzd1 expression on macrophages in response to M. tuberculosis that was synergistically enhanced in the presence of IFN-γ. Addition of the Fzd1 ligand Wnt3a induced Wnt/βcatenin signaling in murine macrophages that was inhibited in the presence of a soluble Fzd1/Fc fusion protein. Furthermore, Wnt3a reduced TNF release, suggesting that Wnt3a promotes antiinflammatory functions in murine macrophages. The current data support the notion that evolutionarily conserved Wnt/Fzd signaling is involved in balancing the inflammatory response to microbial stimulation of innate immune cells of vertebrate origin. © FASEB. Source


Sodenkamp J.,Research Center Borstel | Behrends J.,Research Center Borstel | Forster I.,Heinrich Heine University Dusseldorf | Muller W.,University of Manchester | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Cell Biology | Year: 2011

gp130 is a common receptor chain for cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-27 and IL-6. During experimental tuberculosis (TB), IL-27 prevents optimal antimycobacterial protection and limits the pathological sequelae of chronic inflammation. The anti-inflammatory properties of IL-27 have been attributed mainly to its suppressive effect on T helper (TH) cells. However, because gp130 cytokines also suppress the inflammatory immune response of macrophages, IL-27 may also regulate inflammation by limiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To specifically address the role of gp130 cytokines on macrophages, the outcome of experimental TB was analysed in macrophage/neutrophil-specific gp130-deficient (LysMcre gp130loxP/loxP) mice. In these mice, the enhanced induction of inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and LRG47 was linked to a greatly augmented TH17 immune response and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. However, this amplified inflammatory immune response in Mtb-infected LysMcre gp130loxP/loxP mice was not associated with reduced bacterial loads and/or accelerated pathology. Our study revealed an immunoregulatory function of gp130 cytokines on macrophages/granulocytes, which is, however, not critical for modulating the outcome of TB. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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