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North Richmond, CA, United States

Janda J.M.,Public Health Laboratory | Abbott S.A.,Microbial Diseases Laboratory
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2014

The ability to accurately and quickly identify microbial agents associated with infectious diseases has been a longstanding and continuous goal of diagnostic microbiology laboratories. Over the course of several decades, technology and testing methodologies in this field have gradually evolved from traditional- or classic-based culture and identification approaches to antigen capture systems and more molecular-oriented applications. Recently, these molecular-based applications have signaled a new era in clinical diagnostic microbiology with the commercial introduction of culture-independent diagnostic testing (CIDT) systems. The first major commercial venture into the CIDT arena involves the detection of acute bacterial gastroenteritis. Several commercial products are now on the market globally with at least 4 Food and Drug Administration approved since January of 2013. These new systems offer the direct detection of a variety of enteropathogens quickly without the need for traditional culture. In Greek mythology, Pandora opened a "jar" or "box" out of curiosity thereby releasing all of humanity's evils most notably diseases and plagues according to Hesiod's Theogony. While not ill-intentioned the only thing left in the box was Hope. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Kato-Maeda M.,San Francisco General Hospital | Gagneux S.,UK National Institute for Medical Research | Gagneux S.,Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute | Gagneux S.,University of Basel | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease | Year: 2011

Spoligotyping is used in molecular epidemiological studies, and signature patterns have identified strain families. However, homoplasy occurs in the markers used for spoligotyping, which could lead to identical spoligotypes in phylogenetically unrelated strains. We determined the accuracy of strain classification based on spoligotyping using the six large sequence and single nucleotide polymorphisms-defined lineages as a gold standard. Of 919 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates, 870 (95%) were classified into a spoligotype family. Strains from a particular spoligotype family belonged to the same lineage. We did not find convergence to the same spoligotype. Spoligotype families appear to be sub-lineages within the main lineages. © 2011 The Union. Source

Janda J.M.,Erickson | Abbott S.L.,Microbial Diseases Laboratory
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2014

The genus Shewanella is currently composed of more than 50 species that inhabit a range of marine environs and ecosystems. Several members of this genus, including S. oneidensis, have been identified that could potentially play key roles in environmental processes such as bioremediation of toxic elements and heavy metals and serving as microbial fuel cells. In contrast to this beneficial role, shewanellae are increasingly being implicated as human pathogens in persons exposed through occupational or recreational activities to marine niches containing shewanellae. Documented illnesses linked to Shewanella include skin and soft tissue infections, bacteremia, and otitis media. At present, it is unclear exactly how many Shewanella species are truly bona fide human pathogens. Recent advances in the taxonomy and phylogenetic relatedness of members of this genus, however, support the concept that most human infections are caused by a single species, S. algae. Some phylogenetic data further suggest that some current members of the genus are not true Shewanella species sensu stricto. The current review summarizes our present knowledge of the distribution, epidemiology, disease spectrum, and identification of microbial species focusing on a clinical perspective. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Desmond E.,Microbial Diseases Laboratory
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter | Year: 2014

Improving tuberculosis (TB) laboratory test capacity internationally is essential to combat the increasing prevalence of drug-resistant TB in many countries throughout the world, which poses a direct public health threat to the United States. Microbiologists from the U.S. who plan to serve as consultants to assist in improving TB laboratories in resource-challenged countries should prepare for such work using available resources that are readily available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the Global Laboratory Initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO). Identifying and networking with potential collaborators in various countries can help ensure success. Consultants should also become familiar with WHO-recommended TB laboratory test methods, available training programs, and tools for laboratory accreditation. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Michael Janda J.,Kern County Public Health Laboratory | Abbott S.L.,Microbial Diseases Laboratory | McIver C.J.,University of New South Wales
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2016

After many years in the family Vibrionaceae, the genus Plesiomonas, represented by a single species, P. shigelloides, currently resides in the family Enterobacteriaceae, although its most appropriate phylogenetic position may yet to be determined. Common environmental reservoirs for plesiomonads include freshwater ecosystems and estuaries and inhabitants of these aquatic environs. Long suspected as being an etiologic agent of bacterial gastroenteritis, convincing evidence supporting this conclusion has accumulated over the past 2 decades in the form of a series of foodborne outbreaks solely or partially attributable to P. shigelloides. The prevalence of P. shigelloides enteritis varies considerably, with higher rates reported from Southeast Asia and Africa and lower numbers from North America and Europe. Reasons for these differences may include hygiene conditions, dietary habits, regional occupations, or other unknown factors. Other human illnesses caused by P. shigelloides include septicemia and central nervous system disease, eye infections, and a variety of miscellaneous ailments. For years, recognizable virulence factors potentially associated with P. shigelloides pathogenicity were lacking; however, several good candidates now have been reported, including a cytotoxic hemolysin, iron acquisition systems, and lipopolysaccharide. While P. shigelloides is easy to identify biochemically, it is often overlooked in stool samples due to its smaller colony size or relatively low prevalence in gastrointestinal samples. However, one FDA-approved PCR-based culture-independent diagnostic test system to detect multiple enteropathogens (FilmArray) includes P. shigelloides on its panel. Plesiomonads produce β-lactamases but are typically susceptible to many firstline antimicrobial agents, including quinolones and carbapenems. © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

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