Saint Paul, MN, United States
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Kim Y.-C.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | Udeshi N.D.,University of Virginia | Balsbaugh J.L.,University of Virginia | Shabanowitz J.,University of Virginia | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2011

The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In Arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an O-GlcNAc transferase named SECRET AGENT (SEC). Modification of PPV-CP by SEC is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in SEC mutants. Previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four O-GlcNAc sites on the capsid protein that are modified by Escherichia coli-expressed SEC. The infection process was not affected when two of these sites were mutated suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of these sites does not have a significant role in the infection process or that a subset of the modifications is sufficient. Since it is possible that the mutational mapping approach missed or incorrectly identified O-GlcNAc sites, the modifications produced by E. coli-expressed SEC were characterized using mass spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylated peptides were enzymatically tagged with galactose, the products were enriched on immobilized Ricinus communis agglutinin I and sequenced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. Five O-GlcNAc sites on PPV-CP were identified. Two of these sites were not identified in by the previous mutational mapping. In addition, one site previously predicted by mutation mapping was not detected, but modification of this site was not supported when the mutation mapping was repeated. This study suggests that mapping modification sites by ETD mass spectrometry is more comprehensive and accurate than mutational mapping. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Lor V.S.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | Olszewski N.E.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Essays in Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development. DELLA proteins repress GA responses. GA binding to its receptor triggers a series of events that culminate in the destruction of DELLA proteins by the 26S proteas-ome, which removes the repression of GA signalling. DELLA proteins are transcription co-activators that induce the expression of genes which encode products that inhibit GA responses. In addition to repressing GA responses, DELLA proteins influence the activity of other signalling pathways and serve as a central hub from which other pathways influence GA signalling. In this role, DELLA proteins bind to and inhibit proteins, including transcription factors that act in the signalling pathways of other hormones and light. The binding of these proteins to DELLA proteins also inhibits DELLA activity. GA signalling is subject to homoeo-static regulation through GA-induced repression of GA biosynthesis gene expression, and increased production of the GA receptor and enzymes that catabolize bioactive GAs. This review also discusses the nature of mutant DELLA alleles that are used to produce high-yielding 'Green Revolution' cereal varieties, and highlights important gaps in our knowledge of GA signalling. © 2015 Authors.


Olszewski N.E.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | West C.M.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Sassi S.O.,Harvard University | Hartweck L.M.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2010

The role in plants of posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and the evolution and function of O-GlcNAc transferases responsible for this modification are reviewed. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) leads us to propose that plants have two distinct OGTs, SEC- and SPY-like, that originated in prokaryotes. Animals and some fungi have a SEC-like enzyme while plants have both. Green algae and some members of the Apicomplexa and amoebozoa have the SPY-like enzyme. Interestingly the progenitor of the Apicomplexa lineage likely had a photosynthetic plastid that persists in a degenerated form in some species, raising the possibility that plant SPY-like OGTs are derived from a photosynthetic endosymbiont. OGTs have multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) that within the SEC- and SPY-like classes exhibit evidence of strong selective pressure on specific repeats, suggesting that the function of these repeats is conserved. SPY-like and SEC-like OGTs have both unique and overlapping roles in the plant. The phenotypes of sec and spy single and double mutants indicate that O-GlcNAc modification is essential and that it affects diverse plant processes including response to hormones and environmental signals, circadian rhythms, development, intercellular transport and virus infection. The mechanistic details of how O-GlcNAc modification affects these processes are largely unknown. A major impediment to understanding this is the lack of knowledge of the identities of the modified proteins. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked -N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In Arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an O-GlcNAc transferase named SECRET AGENT (SEC). Modification of PPV-CP by SEC is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in SEC mutants. Previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four O-GlcNAc sites on the capsid protein that are modified by Escherichia coli-expressed SEC. The infection process was not affected when two of these sites were mutated suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of these sites does not have a significant role in the infection process or that a subset of the modifications is sufficient. Since it is possible that the mutational mapping approach missed or incorrectly identified O-GlcNAc sites, the modifications produced by E. coli-expressed SEC were characterized using mass spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylated peptides were enzymatically tagged with galactose, the products were enriched on immobilized Ricinus communis agglutinin I and sequenced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. Five O-GlcNAc sites on PPV-CP were identified. Two of these sites were not identified in by the previous mutational mapping. In addition, one site previously predicted by mutation mapping was not detected, but modification of this site was not supported when the mutation mapping was repeated. This study suggests that mapping modification sites by ETD mass spectrometry is more comprehensive and accurate than mutational mapping.


PubMed | Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant physiology | Year: 2012

Many plant proteins are modified with N-linked oligosaccharides at asparagine-X-serine/threonine sites during transit through the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. We have identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins with modifications consisting of an N-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide (N-GlcNAc). Electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry analysis of peptides bearing this modification mapped the modification to asparagine-X-serine/threonine sites on proteins that are predicted to transit through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. A mass labeling method was developed and used to study N-GlcNAc modification of two thioglucoside glucohydrolases (myrosinases), TGG1 and TGG2 (for thioglucoside glucohydrolase). These myrosinases are also modified with high-mannose (Man)-type glycans. We found that N-GlcNAc and high-Man-type glycans can occur at the same site. It has been hypothesized that N-GlcNAc modifications are generated when endo--N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) cleaves N-linked glycans. We examined the effects of mutations affecting the two known Arabidopsis ENGases on N-GlcNAc modification of myrosinase and found that modification of TGG2 was greatly reduced in one of the single mutants and absent in the double mutant. Surprisingly, N-GlcNAc modification of TGG1 was not affected in any of the mutants. These data support the hypothesis that ENGases hydrolyze high-Man glycans to produce some of the N-GlcNAc modifications but also suggest that some N-GlcNAc modifications are generated by another mechanism. Since N-GlcNAc modification was detected at only one site on each myrosinase, the production of the N-GlcNAc modification may be regulated.


PubMed | Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochimica et biophysica acta | Year: 2010

The role in plants of posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and the evolution and function of O-GlcNAc transferases responsible for this modification are reviewed. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) leads us to propose that plants have two distinct OGTs, SEC- and SPY-like, that originated in prokaryotes. Animals and some fungi have a SEC-like enzyme while plants have both. Green algae and some members of the Apicomplexa and amoebozoa have the SPY-like enzyme. Interestingly the progenitor of the Apicomplexa lineage likely had a photosynthetic plastid that persists in a degenerated form in some species, raising the possibility that plant SPY-like OGTs are derived from a photosynthetic endosymbiont. OGTs have multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) that within the SEC- and SPY-like classes exhibit evidence of strong selective pressure on specific repeats, suggesting that the function of these repeats is conserved. SPY-like and SEC-like OGTs have both unique and overlapping roles in the plant. The phenotypes of sec and spy single and double mutants indicate that O-GlcNAc modification is essential and that it affects diverse plant processes including response to hormones and environmental signals, circadian rhythms, development, intercellular transport and virus infection. The mechanistic details of how O-GlcNAc modification affects these processes are largely unknown. A major impediment to understanding this is the lack of knowledge of the identities of the modified proteins.

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