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Saint Paul, MN, United States

Kim Y.-C.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | Udeshi N.D.,University of Virginia | Balsbaugh J.L.,University of Virginia | Shabanowitz J.,University of Virginia | And 2 more authors.
Amino Acids | Year: 2011

The capsid protein of Plum pox virus (PPV-CP) is modified with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). In Arabidopsis thaliana this modification is made by an O-GlcNAc transferase named SECRET AGENT (SEC). Modification of PPV-CP by SEC is hypothesized to have a direct role in the infection process, because virus titer and rate of spread are reduced in SEC mutants. Previous studies used deletion mapping and site-directed mutagenesis to identify four O-GlcNAc sites on the capsid protein that are modified by Escherichia coli-expressed SEC. The infection process was not affected when two of these sites were mutated suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of these sites does not have a significant role in the infection process or that a subset of the modifications is sufficient. Since it is possible that the mutational mapping approach missed or incorrectly identified O-GlcNAc sites, the modifications produced by E. coli-expressed SEC were characterized using mass spectrometry. O-GlcNAcylated peptides were enzymatically tagged with galactose, the products were enriched on immobilized Ricinus communis agglutinin I and sequenced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) mass spectrometry. Five O-GlcNAc sites on PPV-CP were identified. Two of these sites were not identified in by the previous mutational mapping. In addition, one site previously predicted by mutation mapping was not detected, but modification of this site was not supported when the mutation mapping was repeated. This study suggests that mapping modification sites by ETD mass spectrometry is more comprehensive and accurate than mutational mapping. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Olszewski N.E.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | West C.M.,The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center | Sassi S.O.,Harvard University | Hartweck L.M.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects | Year: 2010

The role in plants of posttranslational modification of proteins with O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and the evolution and function of O-GlcNAc transferases responsible for this modification are reviewed. Phylogenetic analysis of eukaryotic O-GlcNAc transferases (OGTs) leads us to propose that plants have two distinct OGTs, SEC- and SPY-like, that originated in prokaryotes. Animals and some fungi have a SEC-like enzyme while plants have both. Green algae and some members of the Apicomplexa and amoebozoa have the SPY-like enzyme. Interestingly the progenitor of the Apicomplexa lineage likely had a photosynthetic plastid that persists in a degenerated form in some species, raising the possibility that plant SPY-like OGTs are derived from a photosynthetic endosymbiont. OGTs have multiple tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) that within the SEC- and SPY-like classes exhibit evidence of strong selective pressure on specific repeats, suggesting that the function of these repeats is conserved. SPY-like and SEC-like OGTs have both unique and overlapping roles in the plant. The phenotypes of sec and spy single and double mutants indicate that O-GlcNAc modification is essential and that it affects diverse plant processes including response to hormones and environmental signals, circadian rhythms, development, intercellular transport and virus infection. The mechanistic details of how O-GlcNAc modification affects these processes are largely unknown. A major impediment to understanding this is the lack of knowledge of the identities of the modified proteins. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Lor V.S.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute | Olszewski N.E.,Microbial and Plant Genomics Institute
Essays in Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Gibberellins (GAs) are phytohormones that regulate growth and development. DELLA proteins repress GA responses. GA binding to its receptor triggers a series of events that culminate in the destruction of DELLA proteins by the 26S proteas-ome, which removes the repression of GA signalling. DELLA proteins are transcription co-activators that induce the expression of genes which encode products that inhibit GA responses. In addition to repressing GA responses, DELLA proteins influence the activity of other signalling pathways and serve as a central hub from which other pathways influence GA signalling. In this role, DELLA proteins bind to and inhibit proteins, including transcription factors that act in the signalling pathways of other hormones and light. The binding of these proteins to DELLA proteins also inhibits DELLA activity. GA signalling is subject to homoeo-static regulation through GA-induced repression of GA biosynthesis gene expression, and increased production of the GA receptor and enzymes that catabolize bioactive GAs. This review also discusses the nature of mutant DELLA alleles that are used to produce high-yielding 'Green Revolution' cereal varieties, and highlights important gaps in our knowledge of GA signalling. © 2015 Authors.

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