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Bashir M.H.,Microbac Laboratories Inc. | Olson L.K.M.,3M | Walters S.-A.,3M
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

Background: Catheter colonization and bloodstream infection during the first week after insertion of a central venous catheter have been shown to result from the patient's own skin flora. Methods: The backs of 32 healthy subjects were prepped with a 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)/70% isopropyl alcohol antiseptic. Three dressings, 2 of which contained CHG, were placed on the prepped skin in a randomized design. Samples of aerobic bacteria were collected using the cup scrub method. Skin under the dressings was sampled by quadrant on days 1, 4, and 7. Relative suppression of regrowth was compared using an adjusted paired t test. Results: Mean log counts were 3.2 log 10 colony-forming units (CFU)/cm 2 before antisepsis and 0.4 after antisepsis. Mean log counts obtained on days 1, 4, and 7 were 0.4, 0.3, and 0.5 log 10 CFU/cm 2 for the CHG gel; 0.4, 0.4, and 0.9 log 10 CFU/cm 2 for the CHG disk; and 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 log 10 CFU/cm 2 for the Control, respectively. Conclusion: Skin flora was not completely eradicated during antisepsis, and bacterial regrowth occurred postantisepsis. The use of CHG dressings helped sustain a reduced bacterial count on the skin. The continuously releasing CHG gel maintained suppression to a greater extent than the CHG disk at 7 days (P =.01). © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hauger B.E.,Microbac Laboratories Inc.
Society of Plastics Engineers - 2013 SPE International Polyolefins Conference | Year: 2013

The potential for contamination of potable water by the aromatic components of gasoline, namely benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX), is of enduring concern due to their well-known health effects. Permeation of BTEX through plastic pipe and the elastomeric gaskets used in the assembly of some pipe systems has been discussed and debated in academic literature for years. Recently, new insights have been gained through studies of water piping systems by using Fick's Law and relevant engineering variables. This paper will review the state-of-the-art regarding the important question of how various water systems may be affected by hydrocarbon permeation. Source

Borkow G.,Cupron Scientific | Zhou S.S.,Microbac Laboratories Inc. | Page T.,Cupron Scientific | Gabbay J.,Cupron Scientific
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66±0.51 and 6.17±0.37 log10TCID50 of human influenza A virus (H1N1) and avian influenza virus (H9N2), respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min). Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (≤0.88 log10TCID50), while 4.67±1.35 log10TCID50 were recovered from the control masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were ≤0.97±0.01 log10TCID50 and from the control masks 5.03±0.54 log10TCID50. The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards.Conclusions/Significance Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical barrier properties. The use of biocidal masks may significantly reduce the risk of hand or environmental contamination, and thereby subsequent infection, due to improper handling and disposal of the masks.© 2010. Source

Edmonds S.L.,GOJO Industries Inc. | Mccormack R.R.,BioScience Laboratories Inc. | Zhou S.S.,Microbac Laboratories Inc. | Macinga D.R.,GOJO Industries Inc. | Fricker C.M.,GOJO Industries Inc.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2012

Pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli and human norovirus are the main etiologic agents of foodborne illness resulting from inadequate hand hygiene practices by food service workers. This study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial and antiviral efficacy of various hand hygiene product regimens under different soil conditions representative of those in food service settings and assess the impact of product formulation on this efficacy. On hands contaminated with chicken broth containing E. coli, representing a moderate soil load, a regimen combining an antimicrobial hand washing product with a 70% ethanol advanced formula (EtOH AF) gel achieved a 5.22-log reduction, whereas a nonantimicrobial hand washing product alone achieved a 3.10- log reduction. When hands were heavily soiled from handling ground beef containing E. coli, a wash-sanitize regimen with a 0.5% chloroxylenol antimicrobial hand washing product and the 70% EtOH AF gel achieved a 4.60-log reduction, whereas a wash-sanitize regimen with a 62% EtOH foam achieved a 4.11-log reduction. Sanitizing with the 70% EtOH AF gel alone was more effective than hand washing with a nonantimicrobial product for reducing murine norovirus (MNV), a surrogate for human norovirus, with 2.60- and 1.79-log reductions, respectively. When combined with hand washing, the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 3.19-log reduction against MNV. A regimen using the SaniTwice protocol with the 70% EtOH AF gel produced a 4.04-log reduction against MNV. These data suggest that although the process of hand washing helped to remove pathogens from the hands, use of a wash-sanitize regimen was even more effective for reducing organisms. Use of a high-efficacy sanitizer as part of a wash-sanitize regimen further increased the efficacy of the regimen. The use of a well-formulated alcohol-based hand rub as part of a wash-sanitize regimen should be considered as a means to reduce risk of infection transmission in food service facilities. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection. Source

Kampf G.,BODE Chemie GmbH | Kampf G.,University of Greifswald | Ruselack S.,BODE Chemie GmbH | Eggerstedt S.,BODE Chemie GmbH | And 2 more authors.
BMC Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

Background: Some manufacturers recommend using 1.1 mL per application of alcohol-based handrubs for effective hand disinfection. However, whether this volume is sufficient to cover both hands, as recommended by the World Health Organization, and fulfills current efficacy standards is unknown. This study aimed to determine hand coverage for three handrubs (two gels based on 70% v/v and 85% w/w ethanol and a foam based on 70% v/v ethanol) applied at various volumes.Methods: Products were tested at product volumes of 1.1 mL, 2 mL, 2.4 mL as well as 1 and 2 pump dispenser pushes; the foam product was tested in addition at foam volumes of 1.1 mL, 2 mL, and 2.4 mL. Products were supplemented with a fluorescent dye and 15 participants applied products using responsible application techniques without any specific steps but the aim of completely covering both hands. Coverage quality was determined under ultraviolet light by two blinded investigators. Efficacy of the three handrubs was determined according to ASTM E 1174-06 and ASTM E 2755-10. For each experiment, the hands of 12 participants were contaminated with Serratia marcescens and the products applied as recommended (1.1 mL for 70% v/v ethanol products; 2 mL for the 85% w/w ethanol product). Log10-reduction was calculated.Results: Volumes < 2 mL yielded high rates of incomplete coverage (67%-87%) whereas volumes ≥ 2 mL gave lower rates (13%-53%). Differences in coverage were significant between the five volumes tested for all handrubs (p < 0.001; two-way ANOVA) but not between the three handrubs themselves (p = 0.796). Application of 1.1 mL of 70% v/v ethanol rubs reduced contamination by 1.85 log10 or 1.60 log10 (ASTM E 1174-06); this failed the US FDA efficacy requirement of at least 2 log10. Application of 2 mL of the 85% w/w ethanol rub reduced contamination by 2.06 log10 (ASTM E 1174-06), fulfilling the US FDA efficacy requirement. Similar results were obtained according to ASTM E 2755-10.Conclusions: Our data indicated that handrubs based on 70% ethanol (v/v) with a recommended volume of 1.1 mL per application do not ensure complete coverage of both hands and do not achieve current ASTM efficacy standards. © 2013 Kampf et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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