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Fox O.J.L.,Diamond Light Source | Fox O.J.L.,University of Bristol | Alianelli L.,Diamond Light Source | Malik A.M.,Micro and Nanotechnology Center | And 5 more authors.
Optics Express | Year: 2014

Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source

Aljada M.,Australian National Fabrication Facility | Jenkins D.W.K.,Australian National Fabrication Facility | Jenkins D.W.K.,Micro and Nanotechnology Center | Flaim C.,University of Queensland | And 2 more authors.
ICONN 2010 - Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2010

In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of silicon microneedle arrays for vaccine delivery using deep reactive ion etching. Three different scenarios have been investigated to study the effect of morphing the gas flow of SF 6/C4F8 during the etching process. Results show that morphing the flow rate of SF6/C4F8 has a significant impact on the needles' shape and size. © 2010 IEEE. Source

Malik A.M.,Micro and Nanotechnology Center | Malik A.M.,University of Oxford | Fox O.J.L.,Diamond Light Source | Fox O.J.L.,University of Bristol | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering | Year: 2013

Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Li Z.-D.,Fudan University | Shen Z.-K.,Fudan University | Hui W.-Y.,Fudan University | Qiu Z.-J.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2011

Nanoscale PZT gratings are successfully transferred to a Pt substrate using reversal nanoimprint technique without any chemical etch processes. The transfer process is preliminarily studied by measuring the surface topography of PZT coated on templates before transferring as well as the transferred patterns on substrates. Piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM) and Raman spectroscopy are used to investigate the transferred PZT nanostructures after annealing. Good ferroelectric and structural properties have been demonstrated by the transferred PZT nanostructures, indicating that this reversal imprint technique is applicable for forming nanoscale PZT domains, which may lead to the manufactures of high density data storage devices at economic cost. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Fang J.-R.,Fudan University | Shen Z.-K.,Fudan University | Yang S.,Fudan University | Lu Q.,Fudan University | And 4 more authors.
Microelectronic Engineering | Year: 2011

The next generation of portable computing and communication devices tremendously depend on the technologies that enable the rapid manipulation, caching and high-density non-volatile data storage. The recent development of organic electronics requires high-quality organic memory compatible with other devices, which will eventually lead to the realization of all organic electronic systems. The challenge of the organic electronics application is to find less degradative ways of fabricating ferroelectric polymer nanostructures. In this work, we applied the nanoimprint technique to fabricate ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] copolymer line and dot nanostructures and compared the ferroelectric properties and domain formation in these two nanostructures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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