Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States and is the first land-grant institution that was created to serve as a model for future land-grant colleges in the country under the 1862 Morrill Act.MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and telecommunication. It is considered to be one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public universities in the United States.Following the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is the seventh-largest university in the United States , with 49,300 students and 2,954 faculty members.MSU's Division I sports teams are called the Spartans. They compete in the Big Ten Conference in all sports. MSU's football team won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014 and boasts six national championships. Its men's basketball team won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and is currently enjoying a streak of six Final Four appearances over the last 13 seasons. MSU men's ice hockey won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. Cross country has historically been Michigan State's most successful sport, especially during a four-decade period spanning roughly 1930–1970 during which the Spartans won eight NCAA championships and numerous other conference and national titles. Wikipedia.
Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013
Coat protein complex I (COPI) and COPII are required for bidirectional membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. While these core coat machineries and other transport factors are highly conserved across species, high-resolution imaging studies indicate that the organization of the ER-Golgi interface is varied in eukaryotic cells. Regulation of COPII assembly, in some cases to manage distinct cellular cargo, is emerging as one important component in determining this structure. Comparison of the ER-Golgi interface across different systems, particularly mammalian and plant cells, reveals fundamental elements and distinct organization of this interface. A better understanding of how these interfaces are regulated to meet varying cellular secretory demands should provide key insights into the mechanisms that control efficient trafficking of proteins and lipids through the secretory pathway. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Lapidus L.J.,Michigan State University
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013
While there have been impressive advances in understanding protein folding over the past few decades, we are still far from the goal of solving the protein folding problem: predicting the folding pathway and final structure entirely from the amino acid sequence. One reason for this shortcoming may be the lack of understanding of the complexity of the unfolded state before folding and earliest steps in the process. Recent technological advances and applications of cutting edge techniques in novel ways have begun to reveal this complexity. Comparing the kinetics with recent molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond timescale may lead to more detailed and predictive folding models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Litchman E.,Michigan State University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2010
Although the number of studies on invasive plants and animals has risen exponentially, little is known about invasive microbes, especially non-pathogenic ones. Microbial invasions by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists occur worldwide but are much harder to detect than invasions by macroorganisms. Invasive microbes have the potential to significantly alter community structure and ecosystem functioning in diverse terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, increased attention is needed on non-pathogenic invasive microbes, both free-living and symbiotic, and their impacts on communities and ecosystems. Major unknowns include the characteristics that make microbes invasive and properties of the resident communities and the environment that facilitate invasions. A comparison of microbial invasions with invasions of macroorganisms should provide valuable insights into general principles that apply to invasions across all domains of life and to taxon-specific invasion patterns. Invasive microbes appear to possess traits thought to be common in many invasive macroorganisms: high growth rate and resource utilization efficiency, and superior competitive abilities. Invading microorganisms are often similar to native species, but with enhanced performance traits, and tend to spread in lower diversity communities. Global change can exacerbate microbial invasions; therefore, they will likely increase in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
Kaplan B.L.F.,Michigan State University
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013
There is clear evidence that CB2, historically referred to as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, mediates many of the immune modulatory effects of cannabinoids. However, cannabinoid receptors cannot be classified simply as central or peripheral since CB2 has been shown to play a role in the central nervous system (CNS) and CB1 mediates many immune system effects. Although Cnr1 mRNA and CB1 protein expression is lower than Cnr2 mRNA or CB2 protein expression in cells of the immune system, several studies have shown direct modulation of immune function via CB1 by endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids in T cells, innate cells, and to a lesser extent, B cells. In addition, indirect, but CB 1-dependent, mechanisms of immune modulation exist. In fact, the mechanism by which cannabinoids attenuate neuroinflammation via CB1 is likely a combination of immune suppression and neuroprotection. Although many studies demonstrate that agonists for CB1 are immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory, CB1 antagonists also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, the data demonstrate that many of the immune modulatory effects of cannabinoids are mediated via CB1. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Robison A.J.,Michigan State University
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2014
Although it has been known for decades that hippocampal calcium/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an essential role in learning and memory consolidation, the roles of CaMKII in other brain regions are only recently being explored in depth. A series of recent studies suggest that CaMKII dysfunction throughout the brain may underlie myriad neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, schizophrenia, depression, epilepsy, and multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, perhaps through maladaptations in glutamate signaling and neuroplasticity. I review here the structure, function, subcellular localization, and expression patterns of CaMKII isoforms, as well as recent advances demonstrating that disturbances in these properties may contribute to psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.