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Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States and is the first land-grant institution that was created to serve as a model for future land-grant colleges in the country under the 1862 Morrill Act.MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and telecommunication. It is considered to be one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public universities in the United States.Following the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is the seventh-largest university in the United States , with 49,300 students and 2,954 faculty members.MSU's Division I sports teams are called the Spartans. They compete in the Big Ten Conference in all sports. MSU's football team won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014 and boasts six national championships. Its men's basketball team won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and is currently enjoying a streak of six Final Four appearances over the last 13 seasons. MSU men's ice hockey won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. Cross country has historically been Michigan State's most successful sport, especially during a four-decade period spanning roughly 1930–1970 during which the Spartans won eight NCAA championships and numerous other conference and national titles. Wikipedia.

Hausbeck M.K.,Michigan State University
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

Foster, J. M., and Hausbeck, M. K. 2010. Resistance of pepper to Phytophthora crown, root, and fruit rot is affected by isolate virulence. Plant Dis. 94:24-30. Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of four Phytophthora capsici isolates from Michigan to 31 bell and hot pepper cultivars and breeding lines. Resistance to crown and root rot was assessed following the inoculation of soilless media with P. capsici-infested millet seed. In a detached fruit assay, fruit rot resistance was evaluated following inoculation with zoospore suspensions of 1.75 × 106 zoospores/ml. The four isolates differed in virulence to pepper lines screened for crown and root rot resistance and were considered to be four different physiological races. The pepper lines CM334, NY07-8001, NY07-8006, and NY07-8007 were resistant to the isolates tested. None of the commercial cultivars were resistant to P. capsici isolate 12889, but several cultivars were resistant to the other isolates screened. The isolates varied in their ability to cause infection on the fruits of the different cultivars. Overall, pepper fruit were more susceptible to P. capsici than the roots and crowns. Management of Phytophthora crown and root rot of pepper can be improved through the use of resistant cultivars. However, since isolate virulence affects resistance, cultivar resistance will need to be utilized on a local scale accordingly. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.

Hord N.G.,Michigan State University
Current Atherosclerosis Reports | Year: 2011

Dietary nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2), and arginine can serve as sources for production of NO x (a diverse group of metabolites including nitric oxide, nitrosothiols, and nitroalkenes) via ultraviolet light exposure to skin, mammalian nitrate/nitrite reductases in tissues, and nitric oxide synthase enzymes, respectively. NO x are responsible for the hypotensive, antiplatelet, and cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrates and nitrites. Current regulatory limits on nitrate intakes, based on concerns regarding potential risk of carcinogenicity and methemoglobinemia, are exceeded by normal daily intakes of single foods, such as soya milk and spinach, as well as by some recommended dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. This review includes a call for regulatory bodies to consider all available data on the beneficial physiologic roles of nitrate and nitrite in order to derive rational bases for dietary recommendations. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Valles S.A.,Michigan State University
Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Targeting high-risk populations for public health interventions is a classic tool of public health promotion programs. This practice becomes thornier when racial groups are identified as the at-risk populations. I present the particular ethical and epistemic challenges that arise when there are low-risk subpopulations within racial groups that have been identified as high-risk for a particular health concern. I focus on two examples. The black immigrant population does not have the same hypertension risk as US-born African Americans. Similarly, Finnish descendants have a far lower rate of cystic fibrosis than other Caucasians. In both cases the exceptional nature of these subpopulations has been largely ignored by the designers of important public health efforts, including the recent US government dietary recommendations. I argue that amending the publicly-disseminated risk information to acknowledge these exceptions would be desirable for several reasons. First, recognizing low-risk subpopulations would allow more efficient use of limited resources. Communicating this valuable information to the subpopulations would also promote truth-telling. Finally, presenting a more nuanced empirically-supported representation of which groups are at known risk of diseases (not focusing on mere racial categories) would combat harmful biological race essentialist views held by the public. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Morey L.C.,Texas A&M University | Hopwood C.J.,Michigan State University
Annual Review of Clinical Psychology | Year: 2013

Stability is thought to be one of the major distinguishing features between personality disorders (PDs) and other forms of psychopathology. The development of more reliable PD assessments and the implementation of four major longitudinal studies on PD stability have provided critical data with which to evaluate the stability of PD features. Results from these and other studies reveal significant complexity in the interpretation of PD stability because of several issues that can impact stability estimates. Such estimates will vary as a function of the type of constructs being assessed, the type of stability being considered, the modality and reliability of the assessments being used, and the impacts of sampling. In this article, longitudinal research on PD stability is reviewed in the context of these issues. It is concluded that no single answer can be given to the question, "How stable are PDs?" and that future research and classification need to consider carefully and account for the complexity of this question. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.

Harolds J.A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2013

ABSTRACT: It is very important that a job seeker prepares an excellent curriculum vitae (CV) and cover letter. Often a personal statement is also needed. If these are not done well, often an interview is not granted. There are different formats and headings for the CV, depending on the type of job sought and the institution the job is located in. There are also some differences in how this is done between different countries. However, there are also many common elements of a proper CV. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lane B.R.,Michigan State University | Campbell S.C.,Cleveland Clinic | Gill I.S.,University of Southern California
Journal of Urology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Open partial nephrectomy has proven long-term oncologic efficacy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy outcomes at 5 to 7 years of followup appear comparable to those of the open approach. We present the 10-year outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic or open partial nephrectomy for a single clinical stage cT1 7 cm or less renal cortical tumor. Materials and Methods: Of 1,541 patients treated with partial nephrectomy for a single cT1 tumor between 1999 and 2007 with a minimum 5-year followup, an actual followup of 10 years or greater was available in 45 and 254 after laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy, respectively. Results: Median followup after laparoscopic and open surgery was 6.6 and 7.8 years, respectively. At 10 years the overall survival rate was 77.2%. The metastasis-free survival rate was 95.2% and 90.0% after partial nephrectomy for clinical T1a and T1b renal cell carcinoma, respectively (p <0.0001). Baseline differences between patients treated with laparoscopic and open partial nephrectomy accounted for most observed differences between the cohorts. The median glomerular filtration rate decrease was 16.9% after the laparoscopic approach and 14.1% after the open approach (p = 0.5). On multivariable analysis predictors of all cause mortality included advancing age (HR 1.52/10 years, p <0.0001), comorbidity (HR 1.33/1 U, p <0.0001), absolute indication (HR 2.25, p = 0.003) and predicted recurrence-free survival (HR 1.58/10% increased risk, p = 0.004) but not laparoscopic vs open operative approach (p = 0.13). Similarly, predictors of metastasis included absolute indication (HR 4.35, p <0.0001) and predicted recurrence-free survival (HR 2.67, p <0.0001) but not operative approach (p = 0.42). Conclusions: The 10-year outcomes of laparoscopic nephrectomy and open partial nephrectomy are excellent in carefully selected patients with limited risk of recurrence for cT1 renal cortical tumors. Overall survival at 10 years is mediated by patient factors such as age, comorbidity and operative indication, and by cancer factors such as predicted recurrence-free survival but not by the choice of operative technique, which depends on surgeon preference and experience. © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc.

Lee S.Y.,Michigan State University
Telematics and Informatics | Year: 2014

The influence of early adopters on potential adopters' decisions of whether or not to adopt a product is known to be critical. In this paper, we examine the factors that influence the adoption behavior of smartphone early adopters by looking at smartphone adoption behavior of college students, because a large portion of the early adopters of smartphones are college students. Our focus is on the effect of normative peer influence on a college student's smartphone adoption. We also examine the influence of other factors such as self-innovativeness, self-efficacy, the decision maker's attitudes towards a product, financial burden of using the product, familial influence, and other demographic factors (e.g.; age and gender). College students' adoption behavior is studied using logit and probit choice models developed based on random utility theory. The discrete choice models are empirically estimated using survey data. We find important influence of friends, financial burden, and other family members on the smartphone adoption of college students who adopted smartphones earlier than other students. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Stommel M.,Michigan State University | Osier N.,University of Pittsburgh
International Journal of Obesity | Year: 2013

Objectives:To investigate temporal changes in the bias associated with self-reported (as opposed to measured) body mass index (BMI) and explore the relationship of such bias to changing social attitudes towards obesity.Methods:Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey covering two time periods, 1988-1994 and 2005-2008, discrepancy scores between self-reported vs measured BMI were generated. Changes in the sensitivity of BMI categories based on self-reports were examined for six weight groups, both for the US adult population as a whole and major demographic groups. Linear regression models were used to examine temporal changes in average bias, as well as attitudes about weight within each weight category and by demographic group.Results:Between 2005-2008 and 1988-1994, the bias towards underestimation of a person's BMI based on interview responses has declined among obese individuals, a trend evident in virtually all demographic subgroups explored. Conversely, most demographic groups showed little change in the extent of bias among underweight and normal-weight individuals. Although the 2005-2008 survey respondents underestimated their measured BMI more than the 1988-1994 respondents, this shift can be entirely explained by the increased prevalence of obesity in more recent years. In fact, obese individuals in 2005-2008 were less likely to overreport their height and underreport their weight than their counterparts in the 1988-1994. Evidence from responses to questions about ideal weight and desire to lose weight point in the direction of a shift in social attitudes, which may make it easier to 'admit' to greater weight in surveys.Conclusion:Over the past 20 years, the bias in self-reported height and weight has declined leading to more accurate BMI categorizations based on self-report. This change is likely to affect efforts to find correction factors to adjust BMI scores based on self-reported height and weight.

Rubera G.,Michigan State University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2012

Firms are increasingly recognizing the importance of understanding regional dynamics and their effects on competitiveness. One such area that is gaining increased importance due to intra-regional trade is the factors contributing to the successful rollouts of new products within a region. New product rollouts are complicated by nature but are further compounded by intricacies in the type of innovation (i.e., technological or design) being introduced into a region. Unfortunately, limited research has investigated this area. This study works to address this limitation by examining the per country performance effects of regional new product rollouts of technological and design innovations. The study examines the introduction of 14 technological innovations and 12 design innovations across 17 unique firms operating in eight European countries from 2000 to 2007. Specifically, this study attempts to show (1) an important role of the type of innovation on a firm's regional new product rollout strategy; (2) a relationship between national culture and the effectiveness of regional rollout strategies; and (3) an influence of economic openness on the type of innovation for regional new product rollout strategies. The results indicate that a longer regional new product rollout strategy is a more effective strategy for technological innovations, while a shorter regional new product rollout strategy is a more effective strategy for design innovations. The study also presents significant interaction effects in relation to the cultural dimensions of uncertainty avoidance and power distance as well as a significant effect of economic openness. Implications for practitioners and academics are presented. © 2012 Product Development & Management Association.

Jayne T.S.,Michigan State University
Global Food Security | Year: 2012

This article intends to provide pragmatic guidance for avoiding the more severe problems of food price instability in east and southern Africa. I first summarize the empirical record of food price stabilization efforts in the region, and highlight recurrent aspects of farm survey data with implications for price stabilization strategies. I highlight the understudied problem of strategic interactions between the public and private sector in food markets, associated problems of credible commitment, and how such problems are often at the heart of food crises frequently witnessed in the region. It is argued that by accepting a moderate level of price fluctuation within established bounds under a rules-based approach to intervention, African governments will reduce their chances of facing severe food crises. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Nyaga G.N.,Northeastern University | Whipple J.M.,Michigan State University | Lynch D.F.,Dalhousie University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2010

Firms are building collaborative relationships with their supply chain partners in order to achieve efficiencies, flexibility, and sustainable competitive advantage. However, it is unclear if collaborative relationships provide benefits that compensate for the additional expense associated with such relationships. Further, it is unclear what factors promote successful collaborations. This research examines collaborative relationships in two separate studies using structural equation modeling: one study examines buyers' perceptions and the second study examines suppliers' perceptions. The two studies are then compared using invariance testing in order to determine economic and relational factors that drive satisfaction and performance from each party's perspective. Results show that collaborative activities, such as information sharing, joint relationship effort, and dedicated investments lead to trust and commitment. Trust and commitment, in turn, lead to improved satisfaction and performance. Results from the two independent studies exhibit similarities and differences; while the conceptual model is highly similar, certain paths vary in their significance and/or their importance across buyer and supplier firms such that buyers focus more on relationship outcomes while suppliers look to safeguard their transaction specific investments through information sharing and joint relationship effort. Managerial and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Williams K.J.,Michigan State University
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2014

Progressive lung fibrosis in humans, typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in people. Similar diseases have been described in dogs, cats, and horses. The cause and pathogenesis of such diseases in all species is poorly understood. There is growing evidence in human medicine that IPF is a manifestation of abnormal wound repair in response to epithelial injury. Because viruses can contribute to epithelial injury, there is increasing interest in a possible role of viruses, particularly gammaherpesviruses, in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This review provides background information on progressive fibrosing lung disease in human and veterinary medicine and summarizes the evidence for an association between gammaherpesvirus infection and pulmonary fibrosis, especially Epstein-Barr virus in human pulmonary fibrosis, and equine herpesvirus 5 in equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis. Data derived from experimental lung infection in mice with the gammaherpesvirus murine herpesvirus are presented, emphasizing the host and viral factors that may contribute to lung fibrosis. The experimental data are considered in the context of the pathogenesis of naturally occurring pulmonary fibrosis in humans and horses. © The Author(s) 2014.

Finley A.O.,Michigan State University | Banerjee S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Gelfand A.E.,Duke University
Journal of Statistical Software | Year: 2015

In this paper we detail the reformulation and rewrite of core functions in the spBayes R package. These efforts have focused on improving computational efficiency, flexibility, and usability for point-referenced data models. Attention is given to algorithm and computing developments that result in improved sampler convergence rate and efficiency by reducing parameter space; decreased sampler run-time by avoiding expensive matrix computations, and; increased scalability to large datasets by implementing a class of predictive process models that attempt to overcome computational hurdles by representing spatial processes in terms of lower-dimensional realizations. Beyond these general computational improvements for existing model functions, we detail new functions for modeling data indexed in both space and time. These new functions implement a class of dynamic spatio-temporal models for settings where space is viewed as continuous and time is taken as discrete. © 2015, American Statistical Association. All rights reserved.

Greydanus D.E.,Michigan State University
International journal of adolescent medicine and health | Year: 2012

The Internet has revolutionized education and social communication in the 21st century. This article reviews the growing literature identifying a number of adolescents and young adults with a pathologically excessive Internet use leading to many potential consequences. Current research dilemmas in this area include that Internet addiction is a broad topic with no standard definition and no standard measurement tools. Management of youth with identified problematic Internet use or misuse centers on behavioral therapy and treatment of comorbidities. Pharmacologic approaches are limited at this time but are undergoing research, such as use of opioid antagonists and antidepressants in adults with pathological gambling. Efforts should be expanded on not only the education of all adolescents regarding the benefits but also the potential negative consequences of Internet use. It is vital that we do this for Generation Z, whereas Generation ALPHA will soon benefit or suffer from our efforts in this regard today.

The remediation of sites contaminated with gasoline has been limited by a lack of information on the microorganisms able to transform these chemicals under anaerobic conditions. To address this, researchers have recently adopted a molecular method, called stable isotope probing (SIP), to identify anaerobic toluene and benzene degraders from a number of environments across the globe. The approach involves incubation with 13C labeled benzene or toluene, DNA or RNA extraction, ultracentrifugation and molecular analysis of the separated fractions to determine the organisms responsible for label uptake and therefore contaminant degradation. This manuscript reviews the methods and key results of the studies that have used SIP to specifically investigate anaerobic toluene and benzene degradation. These studies have examined toluene removal under sulfate reducing conditions and benzene degradation under methanogenic, sulfate reducing, iron reducing and nitrate reducing and aerobic conditions. The research to date indicates microorganisms affiliating with the Clostridia (genera Desulfosporosinus and Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae) and Deltaproteobacteria (e.g. genera Desulfocapsa in the family Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfobacterium in the family Desulfobacteraceae) appear to be the active toluene degraders under sulfate reducing conditions. A greater variety of organisms were identified as anaerobic benzene degraders, likely because a range of anaerobic conditions were examined. However, several studies also linked anaerobic benzene degradation to the Deltaproteobacteria (e.g. Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbacea) and the Clostridia (e.g. Peptococcaceae). In summary, these studies highlight the importance of SIP as a method for linking function (anaerobic toluene and benzene degradation) with identity for complex samples. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Burt S.A.,Michigan State University
Psychological Medicine | Year: 2013

Background Although aggressive (AGG) and non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) dimensions of antisocial behavior have been shown to be differentially heritable, available studies have disagreed on the extent to which the genetic and environmental factors influencing AGG also influence RB. The current meta-analysis sought to clarify the extent of etiological overlap between AGG and RB. Method Thirteen twin/sibling studies examining the covariation between AGG and RB were collected, of which 11 (with 12 independent samples) were ultimately included in the analyses (n=12923 twin/sibling pairs). Genetic and environmental correlations between AGG and RB served as study effect sizes. When squared, these correlations directly index the proportion of genetic and environmental overlap. Data were analyzed using mixed effect models. Results Analyses revealed that genetic influences on AGG were largely, but not entirely, distinct from those on RB: only 38.4% of the genetic influences on AGG overlapped with those on RB. Similarly, only 10.2% of the non-shared environmental influences on AGG overlapped with those on RB. Although the conclusion that etiological influences on AGG are partially distinct from those on RB persisted across several potential moderators, the age of the sample and the informant used were found to moderate the extent of overlap. Conclusions The findings underscore the presence of meaningful etiological distinctions between AGG and RB, and imply that future conceptualizations of antisocial behavior should be organized (at least in part) around the dimensions of AGG and RB. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Mao Y.,Michigan State University
Protein Engineering, Design and Selection | Year: 2011

Luciferase exhibits a broad range of emitting frequencies. Light emission from the bioluminescence of luciferase makes it an excellent tool for monitoring gene expression, thus the control of its bioluminescence color has great bio-analytical applications. Here I use an elastic network model to examine how the sequence distribution of luciferase is related to bioluminescence multicolor emission. Based on the open and closed forms of crystal structures for luciferase, several computational analysis tools are applied to characterize the functionally relevant dynamical features within luciferase, and probe the dynamical mechanisms underlying the interactions between luciferin (a light-emitting substrate) and luciferase. Perturbation-based correlation analysis is used to identify hot-spot residues that are dynamically coupled to the active site of luciferase, and the results show that the sequence region of subdomain B of luciferase is largely responsible for determining the emitting color of bioluminescence. Moreover, the mode decomposition analysis reveals that the lowest frequency mode is the major contributor to the dynamical couplings between the hot-spot residues and the binding site in luciferase. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Harolds J.A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2013

A careful, expertly done recruitment process is very important in having a successful group. Selecting a search committee, deciding what characteristics the group wants in a new person, evaluating the candidate's curriculum vitae, speaking to the individual on the phone or during a meeting, and calling references are important steps in selecting the top candidates for a group. The interview at the practice site is the next step, and it is critical. Many tips for planning and conducting a successful interview are given in this article. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Jain H.,Indian Institute of Technology Delhi | Deb K.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation | Year: 2014

In the precursor paper, a many-objective optimization method (NSGA-III), based on the NSGA-II framework, was suggested and applied to a number of unconstrained test and practical problems with box constraints alone. In this paper, we extend NSGA-III to solve generic constrained many-objective optimization problems. In the process, we also suggest three types of constrained test problems that are scalable to any number of objectives and provide different types of challenges to a many-objective optimizer. A previously suggested MOEA/D algorithm is also extended to solve constrained problems. Results using constrained NSGA-III and constrained MOEA/D show an edge of the former, particularly in solving problems with a large number of objectives. Furthermore, the NSGA-III algorithm is made adaptive in updating and including new reference points on the fly. The resulting adaptive NSGA-III is shown to provide a denser representation of the Pareto-optimal front, compared to the original NSGA-III with an identical computational effort. This, and the original NSGA-III paper, together suggest and amply test a viable evolutionary many-objective optimization algorithm for handling constrained and unconstrained problems. These studies should encourage researchers to use and pay further attention in evolutionary many-objective optimization. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

William Brown O.,Michigan State University
Journal of Vascular Surgery | Year: 2012

Endovascular technology continues to improve for the treatment of vascular disease. However, application of these technologies without first obtaining proper informed consent may result in medical malpractice litigation. Similarly, use of these technologies without proper government and/or hospital approval may result in both criminal and/or civil liability. Care must be taken when pushing the envelope of endovascular interventions. © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery.

Opriessnig T.,Iowa State University | Langohr I.,Michigan State University
Veterinary Pathology | Year: 2013

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), a small single-stranded DNA virus, was initially discovered in 1998 and is highly prevalent in the domestic pig population. Disease manifestations associated with PCV2 include postweaning multisystemic wasting disease (PMWS), enteric disease, respiratory disease, porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure. Although these clinical manifestations involve different organ systems, there is considerable overlap in clinical expression of disease and presence of lesions between pigs and within herds. It is now widely accepted that PCV2 can be further subdivided into different types, of which PCV2a and PCV2b are present worldwide and of greatest importance. This review will focus on PCV2-associated lesions in different organ systems. © The Author(s) 2012.

Chang L.-Y.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Lunt R.R.,Michigan State University | Brown P.R.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Bulovic V.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Bawendi M.G.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nano Letters | Year: 2013

PbS colloidal quantum dot heterojunction solar cells have shown significant improvements in performance, mostly based on devices that use high-temperature annealed transition metal oxides to create rectifying junctions with quantum dot thin films. Here, we demonstrate a solar cell based on the heterojunction formed between PbS colloidal quantum dot layers and CdS thin films that are deposited via a solution process at 80 C. The resultant device, employing a 1,2-ethanedithiol ligand exchange scheme, exhibits an average power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. Through a combination of thickness-dependent current density-voltage characteristics, optical modeling, and capacitance measurements, the combined diffusion length and depletion width in the PbS quantum dot layer is found to be approximately 170 nm. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Stein G.E.,Michigan State University
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease | Year: 2013

Tigecycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against difficult-to-treat pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp., Acinetobacter baumannii, and Gram-negative bacterial strains that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases. Minimal organ toxicity and lack of dosage adjustment in most patients are important considerations for tigecycline use. Tigecycline has been shown to be as effective and safe as standard antimicrobial therapy for treatment of adults with complicated intra-abdominal infections, complicated skin and skin structure infections, and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The clearest applications of tigecycline are for on-label indications. Whether tigecycline should be utilized as therapy for other infections including hospital-acquired infections with a high likelihood of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a complex issue that requires ongoing assessment. This article offers an updated overview of tigecycline clinical studies, current microbial resistance patterns, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic investigations, and safety analyses. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Hughes A.K.,Michigan State University
Family Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sexual health communication can be difficult for aging women as well as their health care providers. The current exploratory study was undertaken to learn more about how mid-to-late-life women approached communication about sexual health with their health care providers and what factors impacted their perceptions of their abilities to do so. METHODS: In this descriptive qualitative study, 27 communitydwelling women, ages 50-80, were interviewed about their perceptions of their abilities to communicate with their health care providers about their sexual health. Interview data was coded for major themes. RESULTS: All of the women in the study had self efficacy to communicate about their sexual health, especially if there was a physical problem present. For a majority of women, provider-related behaviors impacted their communication self efficacy. Providerrelated behaviors that both encouraged and hindered communication were identified. Relationship quality and provider-initiated communication were among the behaviors that encourage communication about sexual health. Women in this sample valued active listening by the provider as well as a nonjudgmental stance. Perceptions of provider discomfort, lack of time or interest, as well as confidentiality concerns were identified as barriers to communication about sexual health. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual health is important to the quality of life of aging and older women. Providers can incorporate some of the behaviors identified as enhancing of communication self efficacy so that this important health topic is covered in the clinical encounter.

Cooper I.A.,Indiana University Bloomington | Cooper I.A.,Michigan State University
American Naturalist | Year: 2010

Sexual selection more so than natural selection is posited as the major cause of sex differences. Here I show ecological correlations between solar radiation levels and sexual dimorphism in body color of a Hawaiian damselfly. Megalagrion calliphya exhibits sexual monomorphism at high elevations where both sexes are red in color; sexual dimorphism at low elevations where females are green; and female-limited dimorphism at midelevations where both red and green females exist. Within a midelevation population red females are also more prevalent during high daily levels of solar radiation. I found that red pigmentation is correlated with superior antioxidant ability that may protect from UV damage and confer a benefit to damselflies in exposed habitats including males which defend exposed mating habitats at all elevations and females which are in shaded habitats except at high elevation. This study characterizes the ecology of sexual dimorphism and provides a new ecological hypothesis for the evolution of female-limited dimorphism. © 2010 by The University of Chicago.

Oberoi S.,University of Pittsburgh | Barchowsky A.,University of Pittsburgh | Wu F.,Michigan State University
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention | Year: 2014

Background: Arsenic is a ubiquitous, naturally occurring metalloid that poses a significant human cancer risk. While water consumption provides the majority of human exposure, millions of individuals worldwide are significantly exposed to arsenic through naturally occurring levels of arsenic in grains, vegetables, meats and fish, as well as through food processed with water containing arsenic. Thus, we estimated the global burdens of disease for bladder, lung, and skin cancers attributable to inorganic arsenic in food. Methods: To determine foodborne inorganic arsenic exposures worldwide, we used World Health Organization estimates of food consumption in thirteen country clusters, in conjunction with reported measurements of total and inorganic arsenic in different foods. We estimated slope factors for arsenic-related bladder and lung cancers, and used the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency skin cancer slope factor, to calculate the annual risk of the cancer incidence in males and females within each country cluster. Results: We estimated that each year 9,129 to 119,176 additional cases of bladder cancer, 11,844 to 121,442 of lung cancer, and 10,729 to 110,015 of skin cancer worldwide are attributable to inorganic arsenic in food. Conclusions: These estimates indicate that foodborne arsenic exposure causes a significant global burden of human disease. Impact: Estimating the global cancer burden caused by arsenic exposure in food will support policies that reduce exposure to disease-promoting environmental hazards. © 2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

Trampedach R.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Stein R.F.,Michigan State University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

The scale length over which convection mixes mass in a star can be calculated as the inverse of the vertical derivative of the unidirectional (up or down) mass flux. This is related to the mixing length in the mixing length theory of stellar convection. We give the ratio of mass mixing length to pressure scale height for a grid of three-dimensional surface convection simulations, covering from 4300K to 6900K on the main sequence, and up to giants at log g = 2.2, all for solar composition. These simulations also confirm what is already known from solar simulations that convection does not proceed by discrete convective elements, but rather as a continuous, slow, smooth, warm upflow and turbulent, entropy deficient, fast down drafts. This convective topology also results in mixing on a scale comparable to the classic mixing length formulation, and is simply a consequence of mass conservation on flows in a stratified atmosphere. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Voit G.M.,Michigan State University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2011

The radial distributions of temperature, density, and gas entropy among cool-core clusters tend to be quite similar, suggesting that they have entered a quasi-steady state. If that state is regulated by a combination of thermal conduction and feedback from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), then the characteristics of those radial profiles ought to contain information about the spatial distribution of AGN heat input and the relative importance of thermal conduction. This paper addresses those topics by deriving steady-state solutions for clusters in which radiative cooling, electron thermal conduction, and thermal feedback fueled by accretion are all present, with the aim of interpreting the configurations of cool-core clusters in terms of steady-state models. It finds that the core configurations of many cool-core clusters have entropy levels just below those of conductively balanced solutions in which magnetic fields have suppressed electron thermal conduction to 1/3 of the full Spitzer value, suggesting that AGN feedback is triggered when conduction can no longer compensate for radiative cooling. And even when feedback is necessary to heat the central 30kpc, conduction may still be the most important heating mechanism within a cluster's central 100kpc. © 2011. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Patterns of biodiversity are ultimately the product of speciation and extinction. Speciation serves as the biodiversity pump while extinction serves as the agent that culls global to local levels of biodiversity. Linking these central processes to global and local patterns of biodiversity is a key challenge in both ecology and evolution. This challenge necessarily requires a simultaneous consideration of the species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity across space and the tree of life. In this review, I outline a research framework for biodiversity science that considers the evolutionary and ecological processes that generate and cull levels of biodiversity and that influence the inter-relationships between species, phylogenetic, and functional diversity. I argue that a biodiversity synthesis must begin with a consideration of the inherently ecological process of speciation and end with how global biodiversity is filtered into local-scale plant communities. The review ends with a brief outlook on future challenges for those studying biodiversity, including outstanding hypotheses that need testing and key data limitations. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

Sullivan C.M.,Michigan State University
Aggression and Violent Behavior | Year: 2011

More and more funders of non-profit organizations are mandating that grantees engage in outcome evaluation. Given that this mandate is rarely accompanied by additional funding to devote to such efforts, as well as the limited skills many staff have in conducting outcome evaluation, this has been a significant hardship for human service programs. Domestic violence victim service programs have additional barriers to evaluating service effectiveness, including: (1) each survivor. 11While all those being victimized by an intimate partner deserve effective advocacy, protection, and support, the overwhelming majority of survivors using domestic violence services are women battered by intimate male partners and ex-partners. For that reason, survivors are referred to as "women" and "she/her" throughout this article. A conscious decision was also made to use the term "survivor" instead of "victim" throughout. Although there is debate about the use of these terms in the field, the author is more comfortable referring to women, not in terms of their victimization, but rather by their strengths, courage and resilience. comes to the program with different needs and life circumstances; (2) there is debate about which 'outcomes' are appropriate for these programs to accomplish; (3) many service clients are anonymous or engage in very short-term services; and (4) surveying survivors can compromise their safety or comfort. Some programs, therefore, resist evaluating their services (which can compromise their funding) while others engage in evaluations that can compromise their integrity or values. Others, however, see outcome evaluation as an opportunity for growth and improvement. Evidence is provided that, if done appropriately and sensitively, outcome evaluation can be incorporated into ongoing staff activities, can provide evidence for program effectiveness, and can improve services for survivors of intimate partner abuse. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Klump K.L.,Michigan State University
Hormones and Behavior | Year: 2013

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Brown B.A.,Michigan State University | Rae W.D.M.,Garsington
Nuclear Data Sheets | Year: 2014

Use of the code NuShellX@MSU is outlined. It connects to the ENSDF data files for automatic comparisons to energy level data. Operator overlaps provide predictions for spectroscopic factors, two-nucleon transfer amplitudes, nuclear moments, gamma decay and beta decay. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Harada R.,RIKEN | Sugita Y.,RIKEN | Feig M.,RIKEN | Feig M.,Michigan State University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The effect of protein crowding on the structure and dynamics of water was examined from explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of a series of protein G and protein G/villin systems at different protein concentrations. Hydration structure was analyzed in terms of radial distribution functions, three-dimensional hydration sites, and preservation of tetrahedral coordination. Analysis of hydration dynamics focused on self-diffusion rates and dielectric constants as a function of crowding. The results show significant changes in both structure and dynamics of water under highly crowded conditions. The structure of water is altered mostly beyond the first solvation shell. Diffusion rates and dielectric constants are significantly reduced following linear trends as a function of crowding reflecting highly constrained water in crowded environments. The reduced dynamics of diffusion is expected to be strongly related to hydrodynamic properties of crowded cellular environments while the reduced dielectric constant under crowded conditions has implications for the stability of biomolecules in crowded environments. The results from this study suggest a prescription for modeling solvation in simulations of cellular environments. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Fazleabas A.T.,Michigan State University
Seminars in Reproductive Medicine | Year: 2010

The development of a baboon model of induced endometriosis, which recapitulates the retrograde menstruation hypothesis, has greatly facilitated our understanding of the early events associated with the disease process. Sequential analysis of the eutopic endometrium following the establishment of disease suggests that the development of progesterone resistance is a gradual process and becomes evident after 6 months of disease induction. This resistance is manifested by a decreased responsiveness of the progesterone receptor and its chaperone immunophilins as well as epigenetic modifications of progesterone-regulated genes. In comparative studies, the time-dependent changes observed in the baboon eutopic endometrium are similar to those that have been reported to be altered in women with endometriosis. The baboon model therefore provides insight into the potential mechanisms by which genes in the eutopic endometrium are dysregulated and how this alteration results in infertility that is associated with endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Walker R.,Michigan State University
Applied Geography | Year: 2012

This article adapts a general equilibrium model that provides a spatial solution for land use, labor allocation, and product markets in a two good economy. The adaptation, based on von Thünen, considers the multi-regional case, and solves for two regions, one industrial and the other, a newly opened agricultural frontier. The conceptual framework is considered with reference to Brazil, where forest recovery in the Atlantic Rainforest occurs simultaneously with forest losses in Amazonia. Simulation results of the theoretical model are given, demonstrating the impacts of comparative advantage in regional agriculture on the spatial system. The main theoretical interest of the article, aside from providing a formal spatial statement, is to define a distinction between aggregate forest transition (A-FT), when the area of all forests in a multi-regional system increases with the advent of trade relations, and regional forest transition (R-FT), when forest recovery is spatially constrained, and depends on forest losses elsewhere. Thus, the article addresses the role of scale in defining forest transition, and does so by representing spatial dynamics with a formal model. It also suggests that forest transition privileges one biome at the expense of others, and that a concept of landscape turnaround is more germane from a wildlands conservation perspective. The article closes with a discussion of Brazil, and how its forests in Amazonia and along the Atlantic will fare in the coming years. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Harolds J.A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2015

Supplemental digital content is available in the text. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Herms D.A.,Ohio State University | McCullough D.G.,Michigan State University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Since its accidental introduction from Asia, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash trees in North America. As it continues to spread, it could functionally extirpate ash with devastating economic and ecological impacts. Little was known about EAB when it was first discovered in North America in 2002, but substantial advances in understanding of EAB biology, ecology, and management have occurred since. Ash species indigenous to China are generally resistant to EAB and may eventually provide resistance genes for introgression into North American species. EAB is characterized by stratified dispersal resulting from natural and human-assisted spread, and substantial effort has been devoted to the development of survey methods. Early eradication efforts were abandoned largely because of the difficulty of detecting and delineating infestations. Current management is focused on biological control, insecticide protection of high-value trees, and integrated efforts to slow ash mortality. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Tanasova M.,ETH Zurich | Borhan B.,Michigan State University
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2012

Metallated porphyrin tweezers have demonstrated a remarkable ability to function as reporters of absolute stereochemistry for a number of different classes of organic molecules. Flexibility in binding, however, can result in an ensemble of different Exciton Coupled Circular Dichroism (ECCD) active conformations that could lead to variable results. Linker flexibility was found to be a key determinant of binding conformation. Experimental results indicate that a balance between linker flexibility and rigidity could yield an optimum porphyrin tweezer that stabilizes a common conformation for all bound chiral guests. This leads to a more simplified approach to absolute stereochemical determination of asymmetry for small organic molecules. This was demonstrated by the use of a C 3-linked zincated porphyrin tweezer that yields a common conformational preference for a variety of α-chiral carboxylic acids derivatized with a diamine carrier. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Brudvig L.A.,Michigan State University
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

The practice of ecological restoration is a primary option for increasing levels of biodiversity by modifying human-altered ecosystems. The scientific discipline of restoration ecology provides conceptual guidance and tests of restoration strategies, with the ultimate goal of predictive landscape restoration. I construct a conceptual model for restoration of biodiversity, based on sitelevel (e.g., biotic and abiotic) conditions, landscape (e.g, interpatch connectivity and patch geometry), and historical factors (e.g., species arrival order and land-use legacies). I then ask how well restoration ecology has addressed the various components of this model. During the past decade, restoration research has focused largely on how the restoration of site-level factors promotes species diversity - primarily of plants. Relatively little attention has been paid to how landscape or historical factors interplay with restoration, how restoration influences functional and genetic components of biodiversity, or how a suite of less-studied taxa might be restored. I suggest that the high level of variation seen in restoration outcomes might be explained, at least in part, by the contingencies placed on site-level restoration by landscape and historical factors and then present a number of avenues for future research to address these often ignored linkages in the biodiversity restoration model. Such work will require carefully conducted restoration experiments set across multiple sites and many years. It is my hope that by considering how space and time influence restoration, we might move restoration ecology in a direction of stronger prediction, conducted across landscapes, thus providing feasible restoration strategies that work at scales over which biodiversity conservation occurs. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) recombineering is a technology which is used to make subtle changes in the chromosome of several bacterial genera. Cells which express a single-stranded DNA binding protein (RecT or Bet) are transformed with an oligonucleotide which is incorporated via an annealing and replication-dependent mechanism. By in silico analysis we identified ssDNA binding protein homologs in the genus Lactobacillus and Lactococcus lactis. To assess whether we could further improve the recombineering efficiency in Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 we expressed several RecT homologs in this strain. RecT derived from Enterococcus faecalis CRMEN 19 yielded comparable efficiencies compared with a native RecT protein, but none of the other proteins further increased the recombineering efficiency. We successfully improved recombineering efficiency 10-fold in L. lactis by increasing oligonucleotide concentration combined with the use of oligonucleotides containing phosphorothioate-linkages (PTOs). Surprisingly, neither increased oligonucleotide concentration nor PTO linkages enhanced recombineering in L. reuteri 6475. To emphasize the utility of this technology in improving probiotic features we modified six bases in a transcriptional regulatory element region of the pdu-operon of L. reuteri 6475, yielding a 3-fold increase in the production of the antimicrobial compound reuterin. Directed genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria through ssDNA recombineering will simplify strain improvement in a way that, when mutating a single base, is genetically indistinguishable from strains obtained through directed evolution.

Todd E.C.D.,Michigan State University | Notermans S.,Foundation Food Micro and Innovation
Food Control | Year: 2011

To manage the problem of foodborne listeriosis requires an understanding of the burden of the disease on a worldwide scale as foods that are prone to contamination are eaten widely domestically and many are traded globally. Surveillance of the disease, caused by Listeria monocytogenes, is typically restricted to developed countries, but many of these do not consider listeriosis as a notifiable disease and estimate the numbers by other means. Incidence rates range from 0.3 to 1.3 per 100,000, but most are in the 0.3-0.5 range, irrespective of the regulatory system and industry control programmes that have been in place. Ready-to-eat foods are the vehicle for transmission of the Listeria through contamination somewhere in the food chain. Meat, poultry and dairy products have been most frequently implicated, but other foods including produce may also have been vehicles of transmission. Large outbreaks are usually linked to errors in food processing plants, such as contaminated slicing machines, followed by opportunities for growth of the pathogen. Less is known about home-generated illnesses but incorrect use of refrigerators can allow cross-contamination and growth of the pathogen to levels that can cause infections. In the U.S., door-to-door salesmen have sold contaminated Hispanic soft cheeses that have led to outbreaks and stillbirths. In addition to outbreak investigation, case-control studies, and the use of experts, risk assessments, and food attribution studies can help focus on areas of greatest risk for prevention and control measures throughout the food chain. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

The International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) developed a Risk Governance Framework whose purpose is to help policy makers, regulators and risk managers both understand the concept of risk governance and apply it to their handling of risks. The Framework allows input from the scientific and public health perspective as well as the less-easily measurable side of freedom of choice. For food, the public wants many choices and less regulation, but at the same time safe products to consume. These ideals are at times in conflict. One example of this is the demand for soft cheese made from unpasteurised milk which may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes or other pathogens. Distinguishing between simple, complex, uncertain and ambiguous risks can help to design a risk management strategy. Public health advocates typically see management of soft cheese made from unpasteurised milk as a simple risk (protection of health), whereas for a small but vociferous proportion of the public sees it more of an uncertain or ambiguous one (choice trumps the slight risk of illness). The implications of five management options for the cheese are discussed. The new Codex Guidelines tend to put these cheeses into Option 1, a strict control on the presence of the pathogen, which will be ignored by the cheese aficionados. Other options are worth exploring to give some more choice but at low risk. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Evidence is reviewed that complementary proteins and peptides form complexes with increased antigencity and/or autoimmunogenicity. Five case studies are highlighted: 1) diphtheria toxin-antitoxin (antibody), which induces immunity to the normally non-antigenic toxin, and autoimmune neuritis; 2) tryptophan peptide of myelin basic protein and muramyl dipeptide (“adjuvant peptide”), which form a complex that induces experimental allergic encephalomyelitis; 3) an insulin and glucagon complex that is far more antigenic than either component individually; 4) various causes of experimental autoimmune myocarditis such as C protein in combination with its antibody, or coxsackie B virus in combination with the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor; 5) influenza A virus haemagglutinin with the outer membrane protein of the Haemophilus influenzae, which increases antigenicity. Several mechanisms cooperate to alter immunogenicity. Complexation alters antigen processing, protecting the components against proteolysis, altering fragmentation and presenting novel antigens to the immune system. Complementary antigens induce complementary adaptive immune responses (complementary antibodies and/or T cell receptors) that produce circulating immune complexes (CIC). CIC stimulate innate immunity. Concurrently, complementary antigens stimulate multiple Toll-like receptors that synergize to over-produce cytokines, which further stimulate adaptive immunity. Thus innate and adaptive immunity form a positive feedback loop. If components of the complex mimic a host protein, then autoimmunity may result. Enhanced antigenicity for production of improved vaccines and/or therapeutic autoimmunity (e.g., against cancer cells) might be achieved by using information from antibody or TCR recognition sites to complement an antigen; by panning for complements in randomized peptide libraries; or using antisense peptide strategies to design complements. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

Pratt S.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Charge correlations in lattice gauge calculations suggest that up, down, and strange charges move independently in the quark-gluon plasma, and that the density of such charges is similar to what is expected from simple thermal arguments. Here, we show how specific elements of the charge-charge correlation matrix in the quark-gluon plasma survive hadronization and become manifest in final-state charge-charge correlation measurements. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Thoennessen M.,Michigan State University
Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables | Year: 2013

Currently, 163 isotopes of elements with Z≥100 have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is described here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Mitra J.,Michigan State University | Vallem M.R.,General Electric
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2012

It is well known that the presence of energy storage ameliorates the reliability challenges posed by intermittent sources. However, a quantitative assessment of the exact amount of storage required to meet a reliability target or guarantee in the presence of intermittent sources is not trivial. This paper describes a practical approach to achieving this. First, an analytical approach is developed for determining the amount of storage required to meet a reliability target at a specific load point. Then the method is extended to a more complex island-capable microgrid system where initial reliability assessment and final verification of reliability guarantee are performed using sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The necessary component and system models are developed and described, and a mock military base is used to demonstrate the method. The work reported was performed under a contract from Sandia National Laboratory to determine storage need in order to provide reliability guarantee on an island-capable military microgrid, but the approach applies as well to civilian systems, both islanded and grid-connected. A method for determining an optimal storage mix is also developed. © 1969-2012 IEEE.

Reguera G.,Michigan State University
Biochemical Society Transactions | Year: 2012

The in situ stimulation of Fe(III) oxide reduction in the subsurface stimulates the growth of Geobacter spp. and the precipitation of U(VI) from groundwater. As with Fe(III) oxide reduction, the reduction of uranium by Geobacter spp. requires the expression of their conductive pili. The pili bind the soluble uranium and catalyse its extracellular reductive precipitation along the pili filaments as a mononuclear U(IV) complexed by carbon-containing ligands. Although most of the uranium is immobilized by the pili, some uranium deposits are also observed in discreet regions of the outer membrane, consistent with the participation of redox-active foci, presumably c-type cytochromes, in the extracellular reduction of uranium. It is unlikely that cytochromes released from the outer membrane could associate with the pili and contribute to the catalysis, because scanning tunnelling microscopy spectroscopy did not reveal any haem-specific electronic features in the pili, but, rather, showed topographic and electronic features intrinsic to the pilus shaft. Pili not only enhance the rate and extent of uranium reduction per cell, but also prevent the uranium from traversing the outer membrane and mineralizing the cell envelope. As a result, pili expression preserves the essential respiratory activities of the cell envelope and the cell's viability. Hence the results support a model in which the conductive pili function as the primary mechanism for the reduction of uranium and cellular protection in Geobacter spp. ©The Authors Journal compilation ©2012 Biochemical Society.

Steiner A.W.,Michigan State University | Steiner A.W.,University of Washington | Gandolfi S.,Los Alamos National Laboratory
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

Using a phenomenological form of the equation of state of neutron matter near the saturation density which has been previously demonstrated to be a good characterization of quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that currently available neutron star mass and radius measurements provide a significant constraint on the equation of state of neutron matter. At higher densities we model the equation of state by using polytropes and a quark matter model. We show that observations offer an important constraint on the strength of the three-body force in neutron matter, and thus some theoretical models of the three-body force may be ruled out by currently available astrophysical data. In addition, we obtain an estimate of the symmetry energy of nuclear matter and its slope that can be directly compared to the experiment and other theoretical calculations. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Jain A.K.,Michigan State University | Jain A.K.,Korea University
Pattern Recognition Letters | Year: 2010

Organizing data into sensible groupings is one of the most fundamental modes of understanding and learning. As an example, a common scheme of scientific classification puts organisms into a system of ranked taxa: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, etc. Cluster analysis is the formal study of methods and algorithms for grouping, or clustering, objects according to measured or perceived intrinsic characteristics or similarity. Cluster analysis does not use category labels that tag objects with prior identifiers, i.e., class labels. The absence of category information distinguishes data clustering (unsupervised learning) from classification or discriminant analysis (supervised learning). The aim of clustering is to find structure in data and is therefore exploratory in nature. Clustering has a long and rich history in a variety of scientific fields. One of the most popular and simple clustering algorithms, K-means, was first published in 1955. In spite of the fact that K-means was proposed over 50 years ago and thousands of clustering algorithms have been published since then, K-means is still widely used. This speaks to the difficulty in designing a general purpose clustering algorithm and the ill-posed problem of clustering. We provide a brief overview of clustering, summarize well known clustering methods, discuss the major challenges and key issues in designing clustering algorithms, and point out some of the emerging and useful research directions, including semi-supervised clustering, ensemble clustering, simultaneous feature selection during data clustering, and large scale data clustering. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

The general framework of Fourier analysis of complex impedance including both the amplitude and phase information is presented. For the single frequency sine/cosine input, Fast Fourier Transform can be used to obtain the amplitude and phase of the harmonics in the output signal. Complex nonlinear least squares fitting can then be applied to correlate the experimental and calculated results as in conventional impedance spectroscopy. General purpose p-n junction diodes were used as model systems to test the method as well as to compare it to other means of analysis. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Wang C.Y.,Michigan State University
European Journal of Mechanics, B/Fluids | Year: 2011

Similarity solutions are essential for understanding nonlinear viscous fluid flow. The similarity transform reduces the NavierStokes equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, which can be solved to yield universal curves. This paper reviews the advances in similarity solutions of a viscous fluid due to a stretching boundary. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tibbetts E.A.,University of Michigan | Huang Z.Y.,Michigan State University
American Naturalist | Year: 2010

The challenge hypothesis was proposed as a mechanism for vertebrates to optimize their testosterone titers by upregulating testosterone during periods of aggressive competition. Here we test key predictions of the challenge hypothesis in an independently evolved endocrine system: juvenile hormone (JH) in a social insect. We assess how social conflict influences JH titers in Polistes dominulus wasps. Aggressive conflict was produced by removing the queen from some colonies (experimental) and a low-ranked worker from other colonies (control). Queen removal produced competition among workers to fill the reproductive vacancy. Workers upregulated their JH titers in response to this social conflict; worker JH titers were higher in queenless than in queenright colonies. Furthermore, JH titers were associated with an individual's ability to dominate rivals; the worker that took over as the replacement queen had a substantially higher JH titer than did other workers. Finally, JH titers were positively associated with aggression in queenless colonies, but there was no relationship between JH and aggression in stable, queenright colonies. Overall, these results match key predictions of the challenge hypothesis and parallel much of the work on testosterone in vertebrates. Social modulation of hormone titers is not confined to a particular endocrine system but is likely to be an adaptive feature of endocrine systems across diverse taxa. © 2010 by The University of Chicago.

Swenson N.G.,Michigan State University | Weiser M.D.,North Carolina State University
Ecology | Year: 2010

Plant geographers have sought for decades to describe and predict the geographic distribution of vegetation types on the basis of plant function and its relationship with the abiotic environment. Traditionally this has been accomplished using categorical representations such as plant functional types. Increasingly, plant functional ecologists have sought to refine categorical functional types via quantitative functional traits in order to understand the ecological implications of trade-offs in plant form and function. Fewer works have focused upon testing whether commonly measured functional traits enhance our understanding of plant biogeography broadly and the geographic distribution of vegetation types in particular. Here we combine a continental-scale forest inventory data set containing 18 111 plots with a plant functional trait data set to ask: (1) Is there a strong relationship between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional trait values in forest inventory plots? And (2) can different Holdridge life zones be distinguished upon the basis of their functional trait distributions? The results show geographic patterns of functional trait distributions that are often strongly correlated with climate and also show that the Holdridge life zones in the study area can be differentiated using a combination of functional traits. © 2010 by the Ecological Society of America.

Rothstein D.E.,Michigan State University
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Free amino acids (FAAs) in soil solution are increasingly recognized as a potentially important source of nitrogen (N) for plants, yet we are just beginning to understand the behavior of FAAs in soil. I investigated the effects of amino-acid chemistry and soil properties on mineralization, microbial assimilation and sorption of amino-acid N in soils from three ecosystems representing the two endpoints and mid point of a temperate forest fertility gradient ranging from low mineral N availability/high FAA oak forests to high mineral N availability/low FAA maple-basswood forests. Soils were amended with six 15N-labeled amino-acid substrates that ranged widely in chemical properties, including molecular weight, C:N ratio, average net charge, hydrophobicity, and polarity: Arginine (Arg), Glutamine (Gln), Glutamate (Glu), Serine (Ser), Glycine (Gly) and Leucine (Leu). Mineralization of amino-acid N accounted for 7-45% (18% avg.) of the added label and was most strongly affected by soil characteristics, with mineralization increasing with increasing soil fertility. Mineralization of amino-acid N was unrelated to amino-acid C:N ratio, rather, I observed greater N mineralization from polar FAAs compared to non-polar ones. Assimilation of amino-acid N into microbial biomass accounted for 6-48% (29% avg.) of the added label, and was poorly predicted by either intrinsic amino-acid properties or soil properties, but instead appeared to be explicable in terms of compound-specific demand by soil micoorganisms. Sorption of amino-acid N to soil solids accounted for 4-15% (7% avg.) of the added label and was largely controlled by charge characteristics of individual amino acids. The fact that both positively- and negatively-charged amino acids were more strongly sorbed than neutral ones suggests that cation and anion exchange sites are an important factor controlling sorption of FAAs in these acid forest soils. Together, the findings from this study suggest that there may be important differences in the behavior of free amino acids in sandy, acidic forest soils compared to generalizations drawn from finer-textured grassland soils, which, in turn, might affect the availability of some FAAs in soil solution. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Kaufman M.G.,Michigan State University | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014

Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Von Eye A.,Michigan State University
Development and Psychopathology | Year: 2010

The development of paradigms, or perspectives of research takes place at the level of theory, in the domain of methodology, and in the context of existing paradigms and perspectives. The development of the person-oriented approach has made considerable progress at the level of theory. In addition, the approach has found a large number of applications. Sterba and Bauer's Keynote Article has closed a gap by discussing methodological implications of the person-oriented approach. In particular, the authors have discussed whether and, if yes, how the tenets of the person-oriented approach can be tested using tools of applied statistics popular in current empirical psychological research. Continuing this discussion, this article focuses on recent developments in all three areas. First, the importance and the implications of the concept of dimensional identity are discussed. It is argued that dimensional identity needs to be established across time and individuals for comparisons to be valid, both in person-oriented and in variable-oriented research. Second, methods not covered in Sterba and Bauer's Keynote are discussed and their application is exemplified. One focus of this discussion is on configural frequency analysis, which allows researchers to make statements about particular cells or groups of cells in cross-classifications of categorical variables. Third, person-oriented research is compared to differential psychology. It is argued that the concept of dimensional identity represents the next step in the development of a psychological subdiscipline that allows one to consider that individuals differ and develop in unique ways. These differences not only manifest in means but in any parameter, including covariance structures, and they can also manifest in the differential meaningfulness of variables for the description of individuals. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2010.

Telewski F.W.,Michigan State University
Plant Science | Year: 2012

The scientific investigation of the influence of wind on tree growth has been conducted for over 200 years. One influence of wind on trees is the formation of an asymmetric crown, usually characterized as being windswept under moderate windy conditions. As wind exposure increases, the terms applied to this growth form include flag-tree, banner-tree, and krummholz. The modification in crown morphology has been widely recognized and studied, especial in the area of wind prospecting or as a bioindicator of wind speed in environments lacking monitoring stations. However, the causes and physiology underlying this response is little understood. The windswept morphology is consistent with the morphologies associated with other tropisms (i.e. phototropism and gravitropism). Tropisms are defined as a growth response towards (positive) or away (negative) from an environmental stimulus. The asymmetric growth form of windswept trees appears to be a negative thigmotropic growth response to wind. In this review, evidence will be presented to support or reject two hypotheses; H 1 the windswept growth form is the result of a negative thigmotropic growth response or H 2 the windswept growth form is determined by the biophysical properties of wood. It is argued that the windswept growth form is more likely the product of biomechanical properties (accept H 2) than of a physiological thigmotropic growth response (reject H 1). However, proper testing of both hypotheses is still required before a final confirmation can be established. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Fleck L.M.,Michigan State University
New Biotechnology | Year: 2012

In the age of genomic medicine we can often now do the genetic testing that will permit more accurate personal tailoring of medications to obtain the best therapeutic results. This is certainly a medically and morally desirable result. However, in other areas of medicine pharmacogenomics is generating consequences that are much less ethically benign and much less amenable to a satisfactory ethical resolution. More specifically, we will often find ourselves left with 'wicked problems,' 'ragged edges,' and well-disguised ethical precipices. This will be especially true with regard to these extraordinarily expensive cancer drugs that generally yield only extra weeks or extra months of life. Our key ethical question is this: Does every individual faced with cancer have a just claim to receive treatment with one of more of these targeted cancer therapies at social expense? If any of these drugs literally made the difference between an unlimited life expectancy (a cure) and a premature death, that would be a powerful moral consideration in favor of saying that such individuals had a strong just claim to that drug. However, what we are beginning to discover is that different individuals with different genotypes respond more or less positively to these targeted drugs with some in a cohort gaining a couple extra years of life while others gain only extra weeks or months. Should only the strongest responders have a just claim to these drugs at social expense when there is no bright line that separates strong responders from modest responders from marginal responders? This is the key ethical issue we address. We argue that no ethical theory yields a satisfactory answer to this question, that we need instead fair and respectful processes of rational democratic deliberation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Anthony J.C.,Michigan State University
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2010

Stage-transition models based on the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) generally are applied in epidemiology and genetics research on drug dependence syndromes associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other internationally regulated drugs (IRDs). Difficulties with DSM stage-transition models have surfaced during cross-national research intended to provide a truly global perspective, such as the work of the World Mental Health Surveys Consortium. Alternative simpler dependence-related phenotypes are possible, including population-level count process models for steps early and before coalescence of clinical features into a coherent syndrome (e.g., zero-inflated Poisson [ZIP] regression). Selected findings are reviewed, based on ZIP modeling of alcohol, tobacco, and IRD count processes, with an illustration that may stimulate new research on genetic susceptibility traits. The annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) can be readily modified for this purpose, along the lines of a truly anonymous research approach that can help make NSDUH-type cross-national epidemiological surveys more useful in the context of subsequent genomewide association (GWAS) research and post-GWAS investigations with a truly global health perspective.

Kaguni J.M.,Michigan State University
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology | Year: 2011

To initiate DNA replication, DnaA recognizes and binds to specific sequences within the Escherichia coli chromosomal origin (oriC), and then unwinds a region within oriC. Next, DnaA interacts with DnaB helicase in loading the DnaB-DnaC complex on each separated strand. Primer formation by primase (DnaG) induces the dissociation of DnaC from DnaB, which involves the hydrolysis of ATP bound to DnaC. Recent evidence indicates that DnaC acts as a checkpoint in the transition from initiation to the elongation stage of DNA replication. Freed from DnaC, DnaB helicase unwinds the parental duplex DNA while interacting the cellular replicase, DNA polymerase III holoenzyme, and primase as it intermittently forms primers that are extended by the replicase in duplicating the chromosome. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities’ potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential. © 2015, Society for Community Research and Action.

Harolds J.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2015

It is very helpful for physicians searching for a job to know a little about employment contracts. This article summarizes some important principles about contracts and some of their clauses. The article also emphasizes the importance of having the understandings regarding employment put in a formal written contract. This article may help the candidate avoid certain difficulties and may help in contract negotiations. However, this article is not a substitute for legal advice, and all physicians should consult a lawyer before signing an employment contract. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

The purpose of this note is to examine distortion during pure pressure loading for anisotropic hyperelastic solids. We contrast the corresponding issues in compressible and incompressible hyperelasticity, and then use these results to examine nearly incompressible materials. An anisotropic compressible hyperelastic solid will generally exhibit both volume change and distortion under hydrostatic pressure loading. In contrast, an incompressible hyperelastic solid - both isotropic and anisotropic - exhibits no change to its current state of deformation as the hydrostatic pressure is varied. Nearly incompressible hyperelastic materials are compressible, but approach an incompressible response in an appropriate limit. We examine this limiting process in the context of transverse isotropy. The issue arises as to how to implement a nearly incompressible version of a given truly incompressible material model. Here we examine how certain implementations eliminate distortion under pure pressure loading and why alternative implementations do not eliminate the distortion. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Cukier R.I.,Michigan State University
Journal of Physical Chemistry B | Year: 2012

Basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors are dimeric proteins that recognize DNA. The monomers consist of a leucine zipper subdomain responsible for dimerization and a highly basic DNA recognition subdomain. Twelve explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories were run on the GCN4 bZIP transcriptional factor in the absence of DNA at three temperatures and two ion concentrations (0 mM with Cl- ions to neutralize the bZIP and 200 mM with additional Na+ and Cl- ions) to probe the conformational ensemble that the basic region samples. In most trajectories, the basic region exhibits an alligator-jaw-like opening and closing (only one monomer moves), versus scissor-like motion, by a mainly rigid body, hinge motion centered on three "fork" residues that span the basic region to the coiled coil. In this motion, the α-helical character of the basic region monomers is mostly maintained. A broad range of distances is accessed, consistent with the absence of particular interactions for the basic region monomers. In two of the trajectories, the basic region monomers "collapse" to form a stable state. The coiled coil, leucine zipper subdomain is very stable for all of the trajectories. Ion solvation of the charged residue side chains is transient, on the scale of a few picoseconds. There is no evidence for persistent specific ion salt bridges to charged residues. For 0 mM, only certain basic region positively charged residues are substantially Cl- ion salt bridged. For 200 mM, in addition, some basic region negatively (positively) charged residues are salt bridged to Na+ (Cl-) ions. The different ion solvation patterns at the two ion concentrations are not greatly temperature sensitive, and the conformational sampling found in the MD is remarkably unperturbed by ion concentration and/or temperature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

Root-Bernstein R.,Michigan State University
Current allergy and asthma reports | Year: 2014

The possible role of infections in driving autoimmune disease (AD) has long been debated. Many theories have emerged including release of hidden antigens, epitope spread, anti-idiotypes, molecular mimicry, the adjuvant effect, antigenic complementarity, or simply that AD could be a direct consequence of activation or subversion of the immune response by microbes. A number of issues are not adequately addressed by current theories, including why animal models of AD require adjuvants containing microbial peptides in addition to self tissue to induce disease, and why ADs occur more often in one sex than the other. Reviews published in the past 3 years have focused on the role of the innate immune response in driving AD and the possible role of persistent infections in altering immune responses. Overall, recent evidence suggests that microbes activating specific innate immune responses are critical, while antigenic cross-reactivity may perpetuate immune responses leading to chronic autoinflammatory disease.

Wampler K.S.,Michigan State University
Journal of Marital and Family Therapy | Year: 2010

In this overview, I comment on the strong theme of the need to define and improve the quality of doctoral education in marriage and family therapy that pervades the three essays. Deficits in research training are the central concern, although the essayists take different perspectives on the nature of the research training needed. The different perspectives can be understood in terms of three different models of doctoral education. The institutional model focuses on professional training with little financial support for students and lower expectations for faculty research. The community of scholars model emphasizes a balance of research and practice with students required to attend full-time and financial support provided. Research is a mix of faculty- and student-driven and is often focused on professional issues. The star researcher model often held out as the ideal, although not yet represented in marital and family therapy (MFT), emphasizes faculty externally funded programmatic research with students working on and supported by faculty grant funding. The value and role of all three models in MFT doctoral education are described and discussed. © 2010 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

Wiltbank M.C.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Pursley J.R.,Michigan State University
Theriogenology | Year: 2014

Timed-AI after synchronization of ovulation has become one of the most used reproductive technologies developed during the past 40 years. Various adaptations of this technology are now extensively used worldwide, in the beef and dairy cattle industry. Our well-cited report, published in Theriogenology in 1995, presented a method termed Ovsynch, that used GnRH and PGF2α to perform synchronization of ovulation and timed AI in lactating dairy cows. This report introduced Ovsynch, more as a concept of induced ovulation, and demonstrated the ovarian dynamics during the protocol. Validation and improvements on this method were subsequently performed in numerous university studies and on commercial dairies, worldwide. This review will provide a brief historical background, some personal recollections, and certain modifications that have been made in synchronization of ovulation protocols. Each section emphasizes the physiology that underlies the most widely-used synchronization of ovulation protocols and key modifications and some practical application of these protocols on commercial operations. Finally, the effect of timed AI in the US dairy industry and in the Brazilian beef cattle industry are compared. Although numerous studies have been done using these protocols, there is still substantial need for research to improve the synchronization, efficacy, simplicity, and practical application of these protocols. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Reusch R.N.,Michigan State University
FEBS Journal | Year: 2012

Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli is a paradigm for the biogenesis of outer membrane proteins; however, the structure and assembly of OmpA have remained controversial. A review of studies to date supports the hypothesis that native OmpA is a single-domain large pore, while a two-domain narrow-pore structure is a folding intermediate or minor conformer. The in vitro refolding of OmpA to the large-pore conformation requires isolation of the protein from outer membranes with retention of an intact disulfide bond followed by sufficient incubation in lipids at temperatures of ≥ 26 °C to overcome the high energy of activation for refolding. The in vivo maturation of the protein involves covalent modification of serines in the eighth β-barrel of the N-terminal domain by oligo-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrates as the protein is escorted across the cytoplasm by SecB for post-translational secretion across the secretory translocase in the inner membrane. After cleavage of the signal sequence, protein chaperones, such as Skp, DegP and SurA, guide OmpA across the periplasm to the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex in the outer membrane. During this passage, a disulfide bond is formed between C290 and C302 by DsbA, and the hydrophobicity of segments of the C-terminal domain, which are destined for incorporation as β-barrels in the outer membrane bilayer, is increased by covalent attachment of oligo-(R)-3- hydroxybutyrates. With the aid of the BAM complex, OmpA is then assembled into the outer membrane as a single-domain large pore. © 2012 The Author Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

Barman S.M.,Michigan State University
International Journal of Psychophysiology | Year: 2016

Since the first recordings of sympathetic nerve activity in the 1930s, it was very clear that the activity was organized into bursts synchronized to the respiratory and cardiac cycles. Since the early studies, evidence has accumulated showing that sympathetic neural networks are quite complex and generate a variety of periodicities that range between ~ 0.04 and 10 Hz, depending on the physiological state, type of nerve being analyzed, age of the subject, and the species. Despite the ubiquity of sympathetic rhythms, many investigators have failed to consider this oscillatory characteristic of sympathetic nerve activity and instead rely on simply quantifying changes in the level of activity to make decisions about the role of the sympathetic nervous system in mediating certain behaviors. This review highlights work that shows the importance of including an assessment of the frequency characteristics of sympathetic nerve activity. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Neal J.W.,Michigan State University
American Journal of Community Psychology | Year: 2014

This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored. © 2013 Society for Community Research and Action.

Hickey S.E.,Ohio State University | Curry C.J.,University of California at San Francisco | Toriello H.V.,Michigan State University
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2013

MTHFR polymorphism testing is frequently ordered by physicians as part of the clinical evaluation for thrombophilia. It was previously hypothesized that reduced enzyme activity of MTHFR led to mild hyperhomocysteinemia which led to an increased risk for venous thromboembolism, coronary heart disease, and recurrent pregnancy loss. Recent meta-analyses have disproven an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and risk for coronary heart disease and between MTHFR polymorphism status and risk for venous thromboembolism. There is growing evidence that MTHFR polymorphism testing has minimal clinical utility and, therefore should not be ordered as a part of a routine evaluation for thrombophilia. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

Lee Y.S.,Michigan State University
Building and Environment | Year: 2010

The study investigated differences in worker satisfaction and perceived job performance regarding privacy, interaction, and acoustic quality issues in personal workspaces between five office types in LEED-certified buildings. It finds that people in high cubicles showed significantly lower satisfaction and job performance in relation to visual privacy and interaction with co-workers than both enclosed private and enclosed shared office types. They also showed significantly lower satisfaction with noise level and sound privacy and lower job performance perceived by acoustic quality than enclosed private, enclosed shared, and bullpen types. The bullpen type, open-plan office without partitions, presented significantly higher satisfaction with noise level and higher performance perceived by acoustic quality than both high and low cubicles. Considering the bullpen type also showed higher satisfaction with sound privacy than the high cubicle type, high partitions don't seem to contribute to creating workspaces where people can have a secure conversation. The bullpen type didn't show any difference from the enclosed shared type in all privacy, interaction, and acoustic quality questions, indicating it may be a good option for a small office space instead of the enclosed shared type. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Colautti R.I.,University of Tubingen | Lau J.A.,Michigan State University
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2015

Biological invasions are 'natural' experiments that can improve our understanding of contemporary evolution. We evaluate evidence for population differentiation, natural selection and adaptive evolution of invading plants and animals at two nested spatial scales: (i) among introduced populations (ii) between native and introduced genotypes. Evolution during invasion is frequently inferred, but rarely confirmed as adaptive. In common garden studies, quantitative trait differentiation is only marginally lower (~3.5%) among introduced relative to native populations, despite genetic bottlenecks and shorter timescales (i.e. millennia vs. decades). However, differentiation between genotypes from the native vs. introduced range is less clear and confounded by nonrandom geographic sampling; simulations suggest this causes a high false-positive discovery rate (>50%) in geographically structured populations. Selection differentials (s) are stronger in introduced than in native species, although selection gradients (β) are not, consistent with introduced species experiencing weaker genetic constraints. This could facilitate rapid adaptation, but evidence is limited. For example, rapid phenotypic evolution often manifests as geographical clines, but simulations demonstrate that nonadaptive trait clines can evolve frequently during colonization (~two-thirds of simulations). Additionally, QST-FST studies may often misrepresent the strength and form of natural selection acting during invasion. Instead, classic approaches in evolutionary ecology (e.g. selection analysis, reciprocal transplant, artificial selection) are necessary to determine the frequency of adaptive evolution during invasion and its influence on establishment, spread and impact of invasive species. These studies are rare but crucial for managing biological invasions in the context of global change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University | Wasteneys G.O.,University of British Columbia
Plant Journal | Year: 2013

Movement of secretory organelles is a fascinating yet largely mysterious feature of eukaryotic cells. Microtubule-based endomembrane and organelle motility utilizing the motor proteins dynein and kinesin is commonplace in animal cells. In contrast, it has been long accepted that intracellular motility in plant cells is predominantly driven by myosin motors dragging organelles and endomembrane-bounded cargo along actin filament bundles. Consistent with this, defects in the acto-myosin cytoskeleton compromise plant growth and development. Recent findings, however, challenge the actin-centric view of the motility of critical secretory organelles and distribution of associated protein machinery. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on actin-mediated organelle movement within the secretory pathway of plant cells, and report on recent and exciting findings that support a critical role of microtubules in plant cell development, in fine-tuning the positioning of Golgi stacks, as well as their involvement in cellulose synthesis and auxin polar transport. These emerging aspects of the biology of microtubules highlight adaptations of an ancestral machinery that plants have specifically evolved to support the functioning of the acto-myosin cytoskeleton, and mark new trends in our global appreciation of the complexity of organelle movement within the plant secretory pathway. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Meinz E.J.,Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville | Hambrick D.Z.,Michigan State University
Psychological Science | Year: 2010

Deliberate practice-that is, engagement in activities specifically designed to improve performance in a domain-is strongly predictive of performance in domains such as music and sports. It has even been suggested that deliberate practice is sufficient to account for expert performance. Less clear is whether basic abilities, such as working memory capacity (WMC), add to the prediction of expert performance, above and beyond deliberate practice. In evaluating participants having a wide range of pianoplaying skill (novice to expert), we found that deliberate practice accounted for nearly half of the total variance in piano sightreading performance. However, there was an incremental positive effect of WMC, and there was no evidence that deliberate practice reduced this effect. Evidence indicates that WMC is highly general, stable, and heritable, and thus our results call into question the view that expert performance is solely a reflection of deliberate practice. © The Author(s) 2010.

Stein R.F.,Michigan State University
Living Reviews in Solar Physics | Year: 2012

We review the properties of solar magneto-convection in the top half of the convection zones scale heights (from 20 Mm below the visible surface to the surface, and then through the photosphere to the temperature minimum). Convection is a highly non-linear and nonlocal process, so it is best studied by numerical simulations. We focus on simulations that include sufficient detailed physics so that their results can be quantitatively compared with observations. The solar surface is covered with magnetic features with spatial sizes ranging from unobservably small to hundreds of megameters. Three orders of magnitude more magnetic flux emerges in the quiet Sun than emerges in active regions. In this review we focus mainly on the properties of the quiet Sun magnetic field. The Sun's magnetic field is produced by dynamo action throughout the convection zone, primarily by stretching and twisting in the turbulent downflows. Diverging convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy carry magnetic flux toward the surface and sweep the field into the surrounding downflow lanes where the field is dragged downward. The result is a hierarchy of undulating magnetic Ω-and U-loops of different sizes. New magnetic flux first appears at the surface in a mixed polarity random pattern and then collects into isolated unipolar regions due to underlying larger scale magnetic structures. Rising magnetic structures are not coherent, but develop a filamentary structure. Emerging magnetic flux alters the convection properties, producing larger, darker granules. Strong field concentrations inhibit transverse plasma motions and, as a result, reduce convective heat transport toward the surface which cools. Being cooler, these magnetic field concentrations have a shorter scale height and become evacuated. The field becomes further compressed and can reach strengths in balance with the surrounding gas pressure. Because of their small internal density, photons escape from deeper in the atmosphere. Narrow evacuated field concentrations get heated from their hot sidewalls and become brighter than their surroundings. Wider magnetic concentrations are not heated so they become darker, forming pores and sunspots.

Wade J.,Michigan State University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2016

Sex differences in the morphology of neural and peripheral structures related to reproduction often parallel the frequency of particular behaviours displayed by males and females. In a variety of model organisms, these sex differences are organized in development by gonadal steroids, which also act in adult- hood to modulate behavioural expression and in some cases to generate parallel anatomical changes on a seasonal basis. Data collected from diverse species, however, suggest that changes in hormone availability are not sufficient to explain sex and seasonal differences in structure and function. This paper pulls together some of this literature from songbirds and lizards and considers the information in the broader context of taking a comparative approach to investigating genetic mechanisms associated with behavioural neuroendocrinology. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

Prasov A.A.,Lincoln Laboratory | Khalil H.K.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control | Year: 2013

We address the problem of state estimation for a class of nonlinear systems with measurement noise in the context of feedback control. It is well-known that high-gain observers are robust against model uncertainty and disturbances, but sensitive to measurement noise when implemented in a feedback loop. This work presents the benefits of a nonlinear-gain structure in the innovation process of the high-gain observer, in order to overcome the tradeoff between fast state reconstruction and measurement noise attenuation. The goal is to generate a larger observer gain during the transient response than in the steady-state response. Thus, by reducing the observer gain after achieving satisfactory state estimates, the effect of noise on the steady-state performance is reduced. Moreover, the nonlinear-gain observer presented in this paper is shown to surpass the system performance achieved when using comparable linear-gain observers. The proof argues boundedness and ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system under the proposed output feedback. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Werner R.A.,University of Michigan | Andary M.,Michigan State University
Muscle and Nerve | Year: 2011

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment. Electrodiagnostic (EDX) studies are a valid and reliable means of confirming the diagnosis. This monograph addresses the various EDX techniques used to evaluate the median nerve at the wrist. It also demonstrates the limitations of EDX studies with a focus on the sensitivity and specificity of EDX testing for CTS. The need to use reference values for populations such as diabetics and active workers, where normative values differ from conventional cutoffs used to confirm suspected CTS, is presented. The value of needle electromyography (EMG) is examined. © 2011 American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine.

Prange T.,Michigan State University
Veterinary surgery : VS : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons | Year: 2010

To determine (1) the short- (to hospital discharge) and long- (>6 months) term survival, (2) factors associated with short-term survival, and (3) the perioperative course for horses with resection and anastomosis of the descending colon. Multicentered case series. Horses (n=43) that had descending colon resection and anastomosis. Medical records (January 1995-June 2009) of 7 equine referral hospitals were reviewed for horses that had descending colon resection and anastomosis and were recovered from anesthesia. Retrieved data included history, results of clinical and clinicopathologic examinations, surgical findings, postsurgical treatment and complications, and short-term survival (hospital discharge). Long-term survival was defined as survival > or =6 months after hospital discharge. Of 43 horses, 36 (84%) were discharged from the hospital. Twenty-eight of 30 horses with follow-up information survived > or =6 months. No significant associations between perioperative factors and short-term survival were identified. Lesions included strangulating lipoma (n=27), postfoaling trauma (4), infarction (4), intraluminal obstruction (2), and other (6). Common postoperative complications included fever and diarrhea. During hospitalization 7 horses were euthanatized or died because of septic peritonitis (3), endotoxemia (3), and colic and ileus (1). Descending colon resection and anastomosis has a favorable prognosis for hospital discharge and survival > or =6 months. The most common cause of small colon incarceration was strangulating lipoma. Complications include postoperative fever and diarrhea but the prognosis is good after small colon resection and anastomosis.

Piecuch P.,Michigan State University
Molecular Physics | Year: 2010

Active-space coupled-cluster (CC) methods, including their origin and recent developments, are reviewed, and further challenges in this area are briefly discussed. The focus is on the significance of the paper by Professors Stanisaw A. Kucharski and Rodney J. Bartlett, and the author of the present article [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 6103 (1999)], written when the author of the present article was a member of Professor Rodney J. Bartlett's research group at Quantum Theory Project. It is argued that that paper has played an important role in bringing the idea of selecting higher-than-double excitations within the single-reference CC framework to mimic multi-reference theories, proposed earlier [N. Oliphant and L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1229 (1991); P. Piecuch etal., J. Chem. Phys. 99, 1875 (1993)], to the forefront of quantum chemistry development work, while inspiring extensions of such methods to electronically excited states and valence systems around closed shells via the equation-of-motion CC theory. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Mathews S.,Michigan State University
Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2013

Tetracyclines and sulfonamides used in human and animal medicine are released to terrestrial ecosystems from wastewater treatment plants or by direct manure application. The interactions between plants and these antibiotics are numerous and complex, including uptake and accumulation, phytometabolism, toxicity responses, and degradation in the rhizosphere. Uptake and accumulation of antibiotics have been studied in plants such as wheat, maize, potato, vegetables, and ornamentals. Once accumulated in plant tissue, organic contaminants can be metabolized through a sequential process of transformation, conjugation through glycosylation and glutathione pathways, and ultimately sequestration into plant tissue. While studies have yet to fully elucidate the phytometabolism of tetracyclines and sulfonamides, an in-depth review of plant and mammalian studies suggest multiple potential transformation and conjugation pathways for tetracyclines and sulfonamides. The presence of contaminants in the vicinity or within the plants can elicit stress responses and defense mechanisms that can help tolerate the negative effects of contaminants. Antibiotics can change microbial communities and enzyme activity in the rhizosphere, potentially inducing microbial antibiotic resistance. On the other hand, the interaction of microbes and root exudates on pharmaceuticals in the rhizosphere can result in degradation of the parent molecule to less toxic compounds. To fully characterize the environmental impacts of increased antibiotic use in human medicine and animal production, further research is essential to understand the effects of different antibiotics on plant physiology and productivity, uptake, translocation, and phytometabolism of antibiotics, and the role of antibiotics in the rhizosphere.

Thoennessen M.,Michigan State University
International Journal of Modern Physics E | Year: 2014

The 2013 update of the discovery of nuclide project is presented. Details of the 12 new nuclides observed for the first time in 2013 are described. In addition, the discovery of 266Db has been included and the previous assignments of six other nuclides were changed. Overview tables of where and how nuclides were discovered have also been updated and are discussed. © World Scientific Publishing Company.

Chen G.,Michigan State University
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

The paper examines the nature of the housing predicaments faced by China's urban poor since the advent of pro - ownership housing marketization in the 1990s. It is argued that housing deprivation in today's urban China is a complex problem which is difficult to disentangle based solely on the material outcomes of housing distribution and housing inequalities. Therefore, an integrative framework is proposed to examine the issue from the perspective of structure - agency interaction. Statistical methods are employed to identify the concrete market and nonmarket factors which constrain the housing decisions of Nanjing's poor families, based on census and household - survey data. Qualitative interviews are then utilized to help reconstruct and interpret different storylines of homeownership transition under the identified constraints. Findings suggest that the ownership - based housing model has been promoted among the poor in exploitative ways, which has resulted in profound deprivationöfor both poor owners and nonowners. Alternative, nonownership housing options are urgently needed to address the problem. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Holekamp K.E.,Michigan State University
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2013

We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

Huang J.,Michigan State University
Magnetic Resonance in Medicine | Year: 2014

Purpose Recently developed neuronal current magnetic resonance imaging aims to directly detect neuronal currents associated with brain activity, but controversial results have been reported in different studies on human subjects. Although there is no dispute that local neuronal currents produce weak transient magnetic fields that would attenuate local MR signal intensity, there is not yet consensus as to whether this attenuation is detectable with present magnetic resonance imaging techniques. This study investigates the magnitude of neuronal current-induced signal attenuation in human visual cortex. Theory A temporally well-controlled visual stimulation paradigm with a known neuronal firing pattern in monkey visual cortex provides a means of detecting and testing the magnitude of the neuronal current-induced attenuation in neuronal current magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Placing a series of acquisition windows to fully cover the entire response duration enables a thorough detection of any detectable MR signal attenuation induced by the stimulus-evoked neuronal currents. Results No significant neuronal current-induced MR signal attenuation was observed in the putative V1 in any participated subjects. Conclusion The present magnetic resonance imaging technique is not sensitive enough to detect neuronal current-induced MR signal attenuation, and the upper limit of this attenuation was found to be less than 0.07% under the study condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Holt T.J.,Michigan State University
Social Science Computer Review | Year: 2013

Malicious software is increasingly used by hackers and attackers in order to acquire sensitive information and compromise various systems. The sophistication of these tools has increased to such a point that individuals now sell various programs and services through electronic markets where data can be bought and sold. There is, however, minimal research examining the social dynamics that structure the relationships between buyers and sellers and the nature of the market dynamics overall. This study addresses this gap in the literature through a qualitative investigation of a sample of threads from 10 publicly accessible Russian web forums that facilitate the distribution of malware and attack tools. The findings indicate that price, customer service, and trust influence the relationships between actors in this market and influence the nature of exchanges in these forums. © The Author(s) 2012.

We propose a scheme to distinguish zero-energy peaks due to Majorana from those due to other effects at finite temperature by simply replacing the normal metallic lead with a resistive lead (large R∼kΩ) in the tunneling spectroscopy. The dissipation effects due to the large resistance change the tunneling conductance significantly in different ways. The Majorana peak remains increase as temperature decreases G∼T2r-1 for r=e2R/h<1/2. The zero-energy peak due to other effects splits into two peaks at finite temperature and the conductance at zero voltage bias varies with temperature by a power law. The dissipative tunneling with a Majorana mode belongs to the same universal class as the unstable critical point of the case with a non-Majorana mode. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Alexandra S.B.,Michigan State University
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2014

Background Behavioral genetic research has historically concluded that the more important environmental influences were nonshared or result in differences between siblings, whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as shared environmental influences) were indistinguishable from zero. Recent theoretical and meta-analytic work {Burt. Psychological Bulletin [135 (2009) 608]} has challenged this conclusion as it relates to child and adolescent psychopathology, however, arguing that the shared environment is a moderate, persistent, and identifiable source of individual differences in such outcomes prior to adulthood. Methods The current review seeks to bolster research on the shared environment by highlighting both the logistic advantages inherent in studies of the shared environment, as well as the use of nontraditional but still genetically informed research designs to study shared environmental influences. Results Although often moderate in magnitude prior to adulthood and free of unsystematic measurement error, shared environmental influences are nevertheless likely to have been underestimated in prior research. Moreover, the shared environment is likely to include proximal effects of the family, as well as the effects of more distal environmental contexts such as neighborhood and school. These risk and protective factors could influence the child either as main effects or as moderators of genetic influence (i.e. gene-environment interactions). Finally, because the absence of genetic relatedness in an otherwise nonindependent dataset also qualifies as 'genetically informed', studies of the shared environment are amenable to the use of novel and non-traditional designs (with appropriate controls for selection). Conclusions The shared environment makes important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Empirical examinations of the shared environment would thus be of real and critical value for understanding the development and persistence of common mental health issues prior to adulthood. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2013 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

Bidwell D.,Michigan State University
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2010

A controversial management plan designed to reduce the risk of domestic cattle contracting the disease brucellosis calls for government officials to haze, capture, and kill wild bison that cross Yellowstone National Park's boundary with Montana. Perceptions of the brucellosis risk have been amplified by the actions of state and federal governmental institutions. These actions are shaped by the economic and political contexts in which these institutions operate. In the mid-1990s, when the conflict over bison management escalated, negotiations of agreements for the free trade of cattle placed substantial pressure on the state to maintain a federal designation of "brucellosis-free." An analytic-deliberative approach to risk assessment might benefit bison management at Yellowstone. Because contemporary environmental issues frequently revolve around the management of risk, risk perception literature should be added to the "eclectic equipment" that comprises political ecology. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

McCright A.M.,Michigan State University
Population and Environment | Year: 2010

This study tests theoretical arguments about gender differences in scientific knowledge and environmental concern using 8 years of Gallup data on climate change knowledge and concern in the US general public. Contrary to expectations from scientific literacy research, women convey greater assessed scientific knowledge of climate change than do men. Consistent with much existing sociology of science research, women underestimate their climate change knowledge more than do men. Also, women express slightly greater concern about climate change than do men, and this gender divide is not accounted for by differences in key values and beliefs or in the social roles that men and women differentially perform in society. Modest yet enduring gender differences on climate change knowledge and concern within the US general public suggest several avenues for future research, which are explored in the conclusion. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mukherji S.K.,Michigan State University
Journal of the American College of Radiology | Year: 2014

An accountable care organization is a form of a managed care organization in which a group of networked health care providers, which may include hospitals, group practices, networks of practices, hospital-provider partnerships, or joint ventures, are accountable for the health care of a defined group of patients. Initial results of the institutions participating in CMS's Physician Group Demonstration Project did not demonstrate a substantial reduction in imaging that could be directly attributed to the accountable care organization model. However, the initial results suggest that incentive-based methodology appears to be successful for increasing compliance for measuring quality metrics. © 2014 American College of Radiology.

Rooney T.O.,Michigan State University
Lithos | Year: 2010

Lithospheric thinning is a fundamental process associated with the transition from continental to oceanic regimes during continental rifting. Precisely how and when this lithospheric thinning proceeds are first order controls on rift basin evolution. The Main Ethiopian Rift, part of the ~2000km long East African Rift System, is the archetypical modern example of continental rifting, and a key location in which to study the evolution of the lithosphere during extension. This study explores lithospheric modification in the interface region between the Main Ethiopian rift and northward propagating rifting from Kenya through a major and trace element study of rift initiation and maturation using the 19 myr magmatic record preserved in this region. Initial rifting in southern Ethiopia is coincident with the eruption of basalts along the rift shoulders that are characterized by deep fractionation trends (0.5GPa) and poorly developed magmatic pathways. The earliest of these basalts are derived from melting columns where the aluminum phase is garnet-dominated (TbN/YbN ~1.8-2) and has geochemical characteristics interpreted as melting of the lithospheric mantle. The transition from initial rift shoulder magmatism to Quaternary magmatic-tectonic fault belts on the modern rift floor at Arba Minch (6°N) is coincident with a shallowing of the melting column (TbN/YbN ~1.3-1.7), less significant contributions from the lithospheric mantle, and the establishment of a shallow fractionation regime (0.1GPa). At Chencha (~6.3°N) newly dated (12.32±0.17Ma) magmatism on the rift shoulder has similar fractionation paths to contemporaneous magmatism to the south (0.5GPa), but is derived from a different, shallower mantle source (TbN/YbN ~1.3-1.5) that we interpret results from lithospheric thinning associated with the now-inactive Chow Bahir rift. Between 6.5 and 8°N, significant surface faulting and shallow magmatic fractionation paths (0.1GPa) in the dominant Quaternary structure of the Main Ethiopian Rift (the Wonji Fault Belt and Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone), highlights the strong connection between magmatism and extensional tectonics in these structures. Along the eastern rift margin, Wonji Fault Belt magmas are derived from a dominantly shallow melting column (TbN/YbN ~1.4-1.7) that is similar in composition to the older rift shoulder lavas at Chencha. Adjacent to the western rift margin, magmas erupted in the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone are interpreted to have erupted through a thicker lithosphere as these magmas are derived from a deeper melting column (TbN/YbN ~1.7-2.1) that contains some minor apatite. The inferred variations in lithospheric thickness in southern Ethiopia outlined in this study illustrate the interaction between northward and southward rift propagation in addition to lateral variations across the rift floor as extension migrates into zones of focused magmatic intrusion. The results of this investigation show that geochemical techniques can be applied to probe the history of lithospheric modification during rifting and provide new constraints for models of rift development. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Neal Z.,Michigan State University
Urban Studies | Year: 2010

Despite embracing the concept of networks to help explain the organisation of modern urban systems, measurement has presented an overriding challenge to researchers: how can linkages between cities be operationalised? Airline traffic data have been proposed as a promising solution, but these data introduce their own complications. In this paper, the Airline Origin and Destination Survey is used to refine this approach, distinguishing first between hub/spoke and origin/destination networks and, secondly, between networks of business-oriented and leisure-oriented travel among 115 US metropolitan areas in 2006. After illustrating the importance of these distinctions with employment data from the American Community Survey, the resulting and more narrowly focused business network is used to test a model of urban economic flows. Results suggest that the volume of business exchanges between US cities is a function of the cities' own attributes and as well as relational factors including economic similarity. © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Odom A.L.,Michigan State University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2011

In this Perspective, methods for the direct conversion of one type of metal-ligand multiple bond (MLMB) to another are discussed. Of particular interest, because of their potential utility in organic synthesis, are examples of direct conversion of N- and O-based MLMB to alkylidenes and alkylidynes. Recent efforts in this area from our laboratory with some background are detailed. The research from our group involves metallacycles prepared directly from an imido ligand where a metal-carbon bond can have alkylidene-like or alkyl-like properties and reactivity depending on the ancillary ligands. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011.

Brown B.A.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

The pairing gap for Ca53 obtained from new experimental data on the masses of Ca52-54 has the smallest value yet observed. This is explained in the framework of the nuclear shell model with schematic and realistic Hamiltonians as being due to shell gaps around the low-j orbital 1p1/2. Minima in the pairing gaps for all nuclei are shown and discussed. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Lindemann H.,Michigan State University
Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Serious illness puts pressure not only on individual family members but also on the family itself. The care of an acutely ill child requires the family to channel many of its resources toward a single member - an arrangement that can usually be sustained for a while but that cannot continue indefinitely while the other members do without. Illness disrupts ordinary familial functions and, if it is serious enough, threatens to break the family altogether. In this article, I argue that there are situations in which the threat to family integrity is so real and serious that the interests of parents or siblings or sometimes grandparents may override the interests of the pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Ellison N.B.,Michigan State University
Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media | Year: 2012

Today, social network sites are a key site for public displays of connection and grieving. Mourners weigh the benefits of publicness with the problems associated with large and diverse audiences. The replicability, scalability, persistence, and searchability features of networked publics influence both how mourners grieve and their control over depictions of the deceased. This article analyzes a corpus of posts and comments on Facebook memorial pages (N = 37). We examine how the social and technical affordances of social media, and Facebook in particular, affect public displays of grief and portrayals of the deceased. The visibility of social media both encourages performative displays of mourning and allows wider audiences to pay respects. This openness allows for context collapse and potentially unwelcome participants such as "trolls." We consider the ways in which the publicness of the SNS memorial page affects displays of grieving, specifically around efforts to engage in impression management of the deceased. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Harolds J.A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

This article examines numerous general questions and possible responses that will be of special interest for those doctors interviewing for an administrative position. These queries will be presented under the topic headings of why do you want to change jobs, what are your strong and weak points, what are your credentials to do this job well, and what are your career objectives. However, some of these questions and answers will also be helpful to those physicians seeking a clinical job. Additional types of questions and answers, such as those found in behavioral, situational, and stress interviews, will be discussed in subsequent articles. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Yakura E.K.,Michigan State University
Information and Organization | Year: 2013

Using longitudinal field data, this paper examines the changing role of visual powerpoint media over the course of a large, multi-year information systems project in a regional U.S. bank. Existing research has generally focused on visual representation of relatively static objects in medical, scientific and engineering contexts, but projects are an inherently dynamic collection of activities-distributed over time and space-that progress through a beginning, middle and end. This analysis of the visual presentation material used in an IT project highlights the abstract nature of the referent (the project). The dominant presentation technology in use in this project was the powerpoint presentation; this paper analyzes the changes in the presentations over time, and inscription and conscription at different stages of the project. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Breslau N.,Michigan State University
Psychological medicine | Year: 2013

Neuroticism has been consistently correlated with the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) response to traumatic events. Interpretation of these findings is limited by the retrospective nature of these findings: neuroticism was measured after the trauma had occurred. The prospective association of neuroticism with PTSD has not been examined (the relationship of neuroticism with PTSD symptoms was examined in a few prospective studies). We evaluate prospectively the relationship of neuroticism, measured at baseline, with the cumulative occurrence of PTSD during the subsequent 10 years, using data from a longitudinal epidemiological study of young adults. A sample of 1007 young adults randomly selected from the membership of a large health maintenance organization in southeast Michigan was assessed at baseline and followed up at 3, 5 and 10 years later. We conducted a series of multinomial logistic regressions to estimate the relative risk (RR) of exposure to trauma and PTSD by neuroticism at baseline, adjusting for history of major depression (n = 990). During the 10-year follow-up, 50.2% of the sample experienced traumatic events and 5.2% developed PTSD. Neuroticism score at baseline increased significantly the RR of PTSD response to trauma. Additional analysis revealed that, among persons with history of major depression at baseline, RR for PTSD associated with neuroticism was equal to the null value of 1, but was increased significantly among those with no history of major depression. The results confirm the role of neuroticism as diathesis in the PTSD response to traumatic experiences.

Bastian N.,Liverpool John Moores University | Strader J.,Michigan State University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2014

Scenarios that invoke multiple episodes of star formation within young globular clusters (GCs) to explain the observed chemical and photometric anomalies in GCs require that clusters can retain the stellar ejecta of the stars within them and accrete large amounts of gas from their surroundings. Hence, it should be possible to find young massive clusters in the local Universe that contain significant amounts (>10 per cent) of the cluster mass of gas and/or dust within them. Recent theoretical studies have suggested that clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with masses in excess of 104 M⊙ and ages between 30 and ~300 Myr should contain such gas reservoirs. We have searched for HI gas within 12 LMC (and 1 Small Magellanic Cloud) clusters and also for dust using Spitzer 70 and 160 μm images. No clusters were found to contain gas and/or dust. While two of the clusters have HI at the same (projected) position and velocity, the gas does not appear to be centred on the clusters, but rather part of nearby clouds or filaments, suggesting that the gas and cluster are not directly related. This lack of gas (<1 per cent of the stellar mass) is in strong tension with model predictions, and may be due to higher stellar feedback than has been previously assumed or due to the assumptions used in the previous calculations. © 2014 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Case E.D.,Michigan State University
Journal of Electronic Materials | Year: 2012

Using thermoelectrics to directly convert heat energy into useful electricity faces a number of challenges. In addition to the optimized thermal and electrical transport parameters that are needed to boost energy conversion efficiency, thermoelectric (TE) materials must possess sufficient mechanical integrity to survive hundreds or thousands of in-service heating and cooling cycles (thermal fatigue). The nature of TE materials themselves makes it problematic for them to survive under thermal fatigue conditions since TE materials typically (1) are brittle semiconductors or ceramics and (2) have low thermal conductivity which acts to enhance the dimensionless figure of merit ZT but also leads to high stress in response to thermal transients. In addition, many TE materials, including chalcogenide compounds and intermetallic compounds, have relatively high thermal expansion coefficients which also generates high stresses when TE materials are exposed to thermal gradients and transients. The problem of thermal fatigue has been discussed (but not studied directly) in terms of thermal shock parameters, where thermal shock refers to a single thermal cycle and thermal fatigue refers to many thermal cycles. The differences between thermal shock and thermal fatigue are profound in part since the physical mechanisms that lead to good thermal shock resistance are defeated by thermal fatigue. This paper presents a description of (i) the inadequacies of both the thermoelastic model and the energy balance model in addressing thermal fatigue problems as well as (ii) strategies that have been successful in reducing thermal fatigue damage in brittle materials. © 2012 TMS.

Sheibani-Rad S.,Michigan State University
Orthopedics | Year: 2012

The Lisfranc joints make up the bony structural support of the transverse arch in the midfoot and account for approximately 0.2% of all fractures. Early recognition and treatment of this injury are paramount to preserving normal foot biomechanics and function. Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment of patients with Lisfranc injuries, particularly when the instability is entirely ligamentous.The authors performed a qualitative, systematic review of the literature to compare the 2 most common procedures for Lisfranc fractures: primary arthrodesis and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Six articles with a total of 193 patients met the inclusion criteria. At 1-year follow-up, the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score of ORIF patients was 72.5 and of arthrodesis patients was 88.0. Fisher's exact test revealed no significant effect of treatment group on the percentage on patients who had an anatomic reduction (P=.319).This study highlights that both procedures yield satisfactory and equivalent results. A slight advantage may exist in performing a primary arthrodesis for Lisfranc joint injuries in terms of clinical outcomes. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Coat protein complex I (COPI) and COPII are required for bidirectional membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. While these core coat machineries and other transport factors are highly conserved across species, high-resolution imaging studies indicate that the organization of the ER-Golgi interface is varied in eukaryotic cells. Regulation of COPII assembly, in some cases to manage distinct cellular cargo, is emerging as one important component in determining this structure. Comparison of the ER-Golgi interface across different systems, particularly mammalian and plant cells, reveals fundamental elements and distinct organization of this interface. A better understanding of how these interfaces are regulated to meet varying cellular secretory demands should provide key insights into the mechanisms that control efficient trafficking of proteins and lipids through the secretory pathway. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Brown B.A.,Michigan State University | Larsen A.A.C.,University of Oslo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

A strong enhancement at low γ-ray energies has recently been discovered in the γ-ray strength function of Fe56,57. In this work, we have for the first time obtained theoretical γ decay spectra for states up to ≈8MeV in excitation for Fe56,57. We find large B(M1) values for low γ-ray energies that provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The role of mixed E2 transitions for the low-energy enhancement is addressed theoretically for the first time, and it is found that they contribute a rather small fraction. Our calculations clearly show that the high-(=f) diagonal terms are most important for the strong low-energy M1 transitions. As such types of 0ω transitions are expected for all nuclei, our results indicate that a low-energy M1 enhancement should be present throughout the nuclear chart. This could have far-reaching consequences for our understanding of the M1 strength function at high excitation energies, with profound implications for astrophysical reaction rates. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Velbel M.A.,Michigan State University
Applied Geochemistry | Year: 2011

Microdenticles (with lengths in the micron-submicron range rather than tens of microns) are developed on the lateral surfaces of larger "classic" denticles on naturally weathered hornblende from weathered amphibolite of the Carroll Knob Complex in western North Carolina. Microdenticles share the shape and orientation of the larger more typical denticles, producing arrays of microdenticles that give the larger host denticle the appearance of a surface covered with imbricate pointed or rounded scales. The arrays of imbricate microdenticles are formed by low-temperature aqueous alteration during weathering of the Carroll Knob Complex hornblende; they are later-stage corrosion forms on already-corroded surfaces of hornblende that show larger-scale evidence of typical weathering. In the Carroll Knob occurrence, hornblende microdenticles are associated with dilute weathering solutions, suggesting possible control by extreme undersaturation of solutions with respect to hornblende. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Levchenko A.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014

We discuss the violation of spin-charge separation in generic nonlinear Luttinger liquids and investigate its effect on the relaxation and thermal transport of genuine spin-1/2 electron liquids in ballistic quantum wires. We identify basic scattering processes compatible with the symmetry of the problem and conservation laws that lead to the decay of plasmons into the spin modes. We derive a closed set of coupled kinetic equations for the spin-charge excitations and solve the problem of thermal conductance of interacting electrons for an arbitrary relation between the quantum wire length and spin-charge thermalization length. © 2014 American Physical Society.

Tan X.,Michigan State University
Marine Technology Society Journal | Year: 2011

With advances in actuation and sensing materials and devices, there is a growing interest in developing underwater robots that propel and maneuver themselves as real fish do. Such robots, often known as robotic fish, could provide an engineering tool for understanding fish swimming. Equipped with communication capabilities and sensors, they could also serve as economical, dynamic samplers of aquatic environments. In this paper we discuss some of the major challenges in realizing adaptive, cost-effective, mobile sensor networks that are enabled by resource-constrained robotic fish. Such challenges include maneuvering in the presence of ambient disturbances, localization with adequate precision, sustained operation with minimal human interference, and cooperative control and sensing under communication constraints. We also present potential solutions and promising research directions for addressing these challenges, some of which are inspired by how fish solve similar problems.

Weber A.J.,Michigan State University
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2013

Retinal ganglion cells represent the output neurons of the retina. They are responsible for integrating electrical signals that originate with the photoreceptors and, via their axons that comprise the optic nerve, transmit that information to higher visual centers of the brain. The retinal ganglion cells reside on the inner surface of the retina and their axons course across the inner surface to exit at the back of the eye through a region known as the optic nerve head. Within this region, initiation of the degenerative processes associated with glaucoma are thought to occur, leading to degeneration of not only the optic nerve but also the retinal ganglion cells themselves. Studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms behind glaucoma have identified diverse cellular components and molecular events that occur in response to nerve injury. The challenge to date has been to identify and promote pro-survival events while suppressing those that support further degradation and loss of vision. Complicating this process is the fact that the cells and molecules involved can play multiple roles. An understanding of the players and their complex relationships is central to the development of a successful treatment strategy. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Guo R.,Michigan State University
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2016

Membrane proteins are assembled through balanced interactions among proteins, lipids and water. Studying their folding while maintaining the native lipid environment is necessary but challenging. Here we present methods for analyzing key elements of membrane protein folding including thermodynamic stability, compactness of the unfolded state and folding cooperativity under native conditions. The methods are based on steric trapping, which couples the unfolding of a doubly biotinylated protein to the binding of monovalent streptavidin (mSA). We further advanced this technology for general application by developing versatile biotin probes possessing spectroscopic reporters that are sensitized by mSA binding or protein unfolding. By applying these methods to the Escherichia coli intramembrane protease GlpG, we elucidated a widely unraveled unfolded state, subglobal unfolding of the region encompassing the active site, and a network of cooperative and localized interactions to maintain stability. These findings provide crucial insights into the folding energy landscape of membrane proteins. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.

Using Census and administrative data for 2052 Census tracts in a large urban county, this study explores the relationship between several indicators of social organization and neighborhood rates of child maltreatment for 0- to 5-year-olds. Spatial regression models demonstrate that neighborhoods with a higher percentage of 3- and 4-year-olds attending preschool or nursery school, both locally and in adjacent neighborhoods, had lower rates of early maltreatment referrals and substantiations. Neighborhoods with more licensed child care spaces relative to child care need, as defined by the number of 0- to 5-year-old in the neighborhood with working parents, had lower rates of early child maltreatment referrals. However, neighborhoods with a greater spatial density of child care center spaces, defined as the number of licensed child care center spaces or "slots" per square mile, had higher rates of early child maltreatment referrals. Neighborhoods characterized by concentrated socioeconomic disadvantage, inadequate resources for informal child supervision, and ethnic heterogeneity experienced higher rates of early child maltreatment referrals and substantiations, while neighborhoods with larger concentrations of affluent residents and immigrants experienced lower rates. These results point to the importance of community context in understanding child maltreatment risk. They also suggest that early care and education resources may deserve special attention when developing community-based prevention programs to reduce the maltreatment of young children. © The Author(s) 2011.

The USDA National Farmers Market Directory is the largest and most comprehensive directory of farmers markets in the United States. It is the only farmers market directory that provides the geographical coordinates of market locations and allows the public to download the dataset at no cost. The geographic coordinates of the market locations in the directory were collected through a web-based GIS data collection form. This form allows market managers to navigate, review, and adjust market locations on the web-based map, and to save the coordinates of the market locations into the database. However, market location addresses and descriptions provided by users are in an open-ended format, which did not allow automatic verification of the accuracy of a market location. In using the web-based GIS to capture market coordinates, deficiencies in users' computer literacy skills, attention to details, Internet speed, etc. means spatial errors in market locations coordinates were possible. Hence, the directory data, including market location coordinates, has to be validated before it is delivered to the public. This study developed a method to verify the coordinates of farmers market locations by comparing user-generated market coordinates against the geocoded coordinates from multiple geocoding services based on user-submitted market addresses. Using the USDA 2012 National Farmers Market Directory as a test dataset, three-quarters of the market locations generated by farmers market managers were verified as the ground-truth locations. This study suggests that multiple geocoding services provide a feasible and practical method for validating user-generated farmers market locations. •A cost- and time-efficient method to validate farmers market locations.•Utilized multiple geocoding services to provide high quality geo-reference data.•Web-based GIS provided an efficient tool to let users identify locations accurately. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Page D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Prakash M.,Ohio University | Lattimer J.M.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Steiner A.W.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We propose that the observed cooling of the neutron star in Cassiopeia A is due to enhanced neutrino emission from the recent onset of the breaking and formation of neutron Cooper pairs in the P23 channel. We find that the critical temperature for this superfluid transition is 0.5×109K. The observed rapidity of the cooling implies that protons were already in a superconducting state with a larger critical temperature. This is the first direct evidence that superfluidity and superconductivity occur at supranuclear densities within neutron stars. Our prediction that this cooling will continue for several decades at the present rate can be tested by continuous monitoring of this neutron star. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Bauer P.W.,Michigan State University
Journal of women's health (2002) | Year: 2010

To examine healthcare provider knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding exercise during pregnancy using a cross-sectional 31-question pen and paper survey. Ninety-three practicing healthcare providers, M.D. (n = 45) and D.O. (n = 14) physicians and certified nurse midwives (C.N.M., n = 34), from hospitals and birth centers around Michigan participated in this study. Descriptive characteristic data, provider knowledge, beliefs, and practices regarding exercise during pregnancy, common exercise restrictions given to pregnant patients, and provider awareness of current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) exercise and pregnancy guidelines were collected. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were completed. Overall, 99% of respondents believed that exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, 64% of all respondents believed that maternal exercise heart rate should not exceed 140 beats per minute (bpm), and 60% of M.D.s and 86% of D.O.s were not familiar with the 1994 ACOG guidelines for exercise and pregnancy (p < 0.05). Although the providers' beliefs about exercise during pregnancy were positive, not all were aware of or followed current ACOG recommendations. Different strategies for dissemination of current research may be warranted.

Lee S.Y.,Michigan State University
Computers in Human Behavior | Year: 2014

The social comparison theory and its subsequent studies say that comparing with others can influence an individual in several ways (e.g.; evaluation of oneself, influence on self-esteem/self-confidence, and efficient decision making) and people compare with others when they are confronted with information of others. With the popularity of social network sites, many people acquire or are exposed to information of others on social network sites, which implies that people are likely to frequently engage in social comparison behavior on social network sites. The present paper examines social comparison behavior on social network sites (especially on Facebook) using a college students sample. We find that an individual's personality characteristics (i.e.; social comparison orientation, self-esteem, self-uncertainty, and self-consciousness) influence the person's social comparison frequency on Facebook. A positive relationship between Facebook use intensity and social comparison frequency on Facebook is found. In addition, we find a positive association between social comparison frequency on Facebook and the frequency of having a negative feeling from comparison. Other findings are also reported in the paper. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Havens T.C.,Michigan State University | Bezdek J.C.,University of Missouri
IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering | Year: 2012

The VAT algorithm is a visual method for determining the possible number of clusters in, or the cluster tendency of a set of objects. The improved VAT (iVAT) algorithm uses a graph-theoretic distance transform to improve the effectiveness of the VAT algorithm for "ltough"l cases where VAT fails to accurately show the cluster tendency. In this paper, we present an efficient formulation of the iVAT algorithm which reduces the computational complexity of the iVAT algorithm from O(N 3) to O(N 2). We also prove a direct relationship between the VAT image and the iVAT image produced by our efficient formulation. We conclude with three examples displaying clustering tendencies in three of the Karypis data sets that illustrate the improvement offered by the iVAT transformation. We also provide a comparison of iVAT images to those produced by the Reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) algorithm; our examples suggest that iVAT is superior to the RCM method of display. © 2012 IEEE.

Lapidus L.J.,Michigan State University
Current Opinion in Structural Biology | Year: 2013

While there have been impressive advances in understanding protein folding over the past few decades, we are still far from the goal of solving the protein folding problem: predicting the folding pathway and final structure entirely from the amino acid sequence. One reason for this shortcoming may be the lack of understanding of the complexity of the unfolded state before folding and earliest steps in the process. Recent technological advances and applications of cutting edge techniques in novel ways have begun to reveal this complexity. Comparing the kinetics with recent molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond timescale may lead to more detailed and predictive folding models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Whyte K.P.,Michigan State University
Climatic Change | Year: 2013

Federally-recognized tribes must adapt to many ecological challenges arising from climate change, from the effects of glacier retreat on the habitats of culturally significant species to how sea leave rise forces human communities to relocate. The governmental and social institutions supporting tribes in adapting to climate change are often constrained by political obstructions, raising concerns about justice. Beyond typical uses of justice, which call attention to violations of formal rights or to considerations about the degree to which some populations may have caused anthropogenic climate change, a justice framework should guide how leaders, scientists and professionals of all heritages and who work with or for federally-recognized tribes understand what actions are morally essential for supporting tribes' adaptation efforts. This paper motivates a shift to a forward-looking framework of justice. The framework situates justice within the systems of responsibilities that matter to tribes and many others, which range from webs of inter-species relationships to government-to-government partnerships. Justice is achieved when these systems of responsibilities operate in ways that support the continued flourishing of tribal communities. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ma W.,Michigan State University | Berkowitz G.A.,University of Connecticut
New Phytologist | Year: 2011

Ca2+ elevation in the cytosol is an essential early event during pathogen response signaling cascades. However, the specific ion channels involved in Ca2+ influx into plant cells, and how Ca2+ signals are initiated and regulate downstream events during pathogen defense responses, are at present unclear. Plant cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels (CNGCs) provide a pathway for Ca2+ conductance across the plasma membrane (PM) and facilitate cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in response to pathogen signals. Recent studies indicate that the recognition of pathogens results in cyclic nucleotide production and the activation of CNGCs, which leads to downstream generation of pivotal signaling molecules (such as nitric oxide (NO)). Calmodulins (CaMs) and CaM-like proteins (CMLs) are also involved in this signaling, functioning as Ca2+ sensors and mediating the synthesis of NO during the plant pathogen response signaling cascade. In this article, these and other pivotal signaling components downstream from the Ca2+ signal, such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and CaM-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs), are discussed in terms of their involvement in the pathogen response signal transduction cascade. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

Schaller G.E.,Dartmouth College | Shiu S.-H.,Michigan State University | Armitage J.P.,University of Oxford
Current Biology | Year: 2011

Two-component signaling pathways involve histidine kinases, response regulators, and sometimes histidine-containing phosphotransfer proteins. Prevalent in prokaryotes, these signaling elements have also been co-opted to meet the needs of signal transduction in eukaryotes such as fungi and plants. Here we consider the evolution of such regulatory systems, with a particular emphasis on the roles they play in signaling by the plant hormones cytokinin and ethylene, in phytochrome-mediated perception of light, and as integral components of the circadian clock. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Toriello H.V.,Michigan State University
Pediatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2012

Autism is a heterogeneous entity that clearly has a substantial genetic component to its cause. There is likely enough evidence to suggest that there are common genetic mechanisms that predispose to various psychiatric disorders. More recent studies have attempted to identify the specific genes involved in predisposition to autism. In general, such conditions can be subdivided into metabolic, mitochondrial, chromosomal, and monogenic (ie, caused by mutation in a single gene). This article examines what conditions should be considered in the child who does not appear to have a syndromic cause as the reason for the autistic phenotype. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sarriguren P.,CSIC - Institute for the Structure of Matter | Pereira J.,Michigan State University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2010

Gamow-Teller strength distributions, β-decay half-lives, and β-delayed neutron emission are investigated in neutron-rich Zr and Mo isotopes within a deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The approach is based on a self-consistent Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations and residual separable particle-hole and particle-particle forces. Comparison with recent measurements of half-lives stresses the important role that nuclear deformation plays in the description of β-decay properties in this mass region. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

Keek L.,Michigan State University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2012

Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data are of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the Proportional Counter Array instrument on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we perform the first detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the shortfall in energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our technique to study the superexpansion phase of the same superburst in greater detail. © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Beisson F.,Aix - Marseille University | Li-Beisson Y.,Aix - Marseille University | Pollard M.,Michigan State University
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Cutin and suberin are insoluble lipid polymers that provide critical barrier functions to the cell wall of certain plant tissues, including the epidermis, endodermis and periderm. Genes that are specific to the biosynthesis of cutins and/or aliphatic suberins have been identified, mainly in Arabidopsis thaliana. They notably encode acyltransferases, oxidases and transporters, which may have either well-defined or more debatable biochemical functions. However, despite these advances, important aspects of cutin and suberin synthesis remain obscure. Central questions include whether fatty acyl monomers or oligomers are exported, and the extent of extracellular assembly and attachment to the cell wall. These issues are reviewed. Greater emphasis on chemistry and biochemistry will be required to solve these unknowns and link structure with function. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Haupt J.L.,Michigan State University
Veterinary surgery : VS : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons | Year: 2010

To compare the proportion of the proximal recess of the navicular bursa that could be examined through a single endoscopic portal and the severity of iatrogenic lesions between conventional and modified approaches. Descriptive study. Equine cadaver forelimbs (n=16). Arthroscopic access to the navicular bursa in 1 limb of each pair was by a conventional approach and in the other limb, by a modified approach using sharp dissection through the distal digital flexor sheath, immediately palmar to the T ligament. The time required to access the bursa and the estimated proportion of the navicular bone that could be seen with each approach were recorded. Iatrogenic damage to the navicular bone and the deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) were quantified. The mean access time to the navicular bursa using the conventional approach was 1.21+/-0.41 minutes compared with 2.09+/-0.86 minutes using the modified technique. The estimated proportions of the bursa visible through a single endoscopic portal using the conventional and modified approaches were 60% and 80%, respectively. Scores for navicular bone (P=.003) and DDFT (P=.012) damage using the conventional approach were significantly higher than those using the modified approach. A modified, transthecal approach to the navicular bursa under direct observation resulted in significantly less iatrogenic damage than the conventional approach. With experience, the modified approach is straightforward, reasonably rapid, and allows near-complete examination of the navicular bursa through a single portal, with minimal iatrogenic damage to the intrabursal structures.

Farre E.M.,Michigan State University
Plant Biology | Year: 2012

Circadian regulated changes in growth rates have been observed in numerous plants as well as in unicellular and multicellular algae. The circadian clock regulates a multitude of factors that affect growth in plants, such as water and carbon availability and light and hormone signalling pathways. The combination of high-resolution growth rate analyses with mutant and biochemical analysis is helping us elucidate the time-dependent interactions between these factors and discover the molecular mechanisms involved. At the molecular level, growth in plants is modulated through a complex regulatory network, in which the circadian clock acts at multiple levels. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

Ma W.,Michigan State University
Plant Science | Year: 2011

The increase of cytosolic Ca 2+ is a vital event in plant pathogen signaling cascades. Molecular components linking pathogen signal perception to cytosolic Ca 2+ increase have not been well characterized. Plant cyclic nucleotide gated channels (CNGCs) play important roles in the pathogen signaling cascade, in terms of facilitating Ca 2+ uptake into the cytosol in response to pathogen and pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) signals. Perception of pathogens leads to cyclic nucleotide production and the activation of CNGCs. The Ca 2+ signal is transduced through Ca 2+ sensors (Calmodulin (CaM) and CaM-like proteins (CMLs)), which regulates the production of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, roles of Ca 2+/CaM interacting proteins such as CaM binding Protein (CBP) and CaM-binding transcription activators (CAMTAs)) have been recently identified in the plant defense signaling cascade as well. Furthermore, Ca 2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been found to function as components in terms of transcriptional activation in response to a pathogen (PAMP) signal.Although evidence shows that Ca 2+ is an essential signaling component upstream from many vital signaling molecules (such as NO), some work also indicates that these downstream signaling components can also regulate Ca 2+ homeostasis. NO can induce cytosolic Ca 2+ increase (through activation of plasma membrane- and intracellular membrane-localized Ca 2+ channels) during pathogen signaling cascades. Thus, much work is needed to further elucidate the complexity of the plant pathogen signaling network in the future. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Holt T.J.,Michigan State University
Terrorism and Political Violence | Year: 2012

The Internet and computer-mediated communications (CMCs) have drastically changed the way that individuals communicate and share information across the globe. Over the last two decades, financial institutions, private industry, and governments have come to rely on technology in order to access sensitive data and manage critical infrastructure, such as electrical power grids. As a consequence, the threat posed by cybercriminals has increased dramatically and afforded significant opportunities for terrorist groups and extremist organizations to further their objectives. The complex and intersecting nature of both crime and terror make it difficult to clearly separate these issues, particularly in virtual environments, due to the anonymous nature of CMCs and challenges to actor attribution. Thus, this study examines the various definitions for physical and cyberterror and the ways that these activities intersect with cybercrime. In addition, the ways that terrorists and extremist groups use the Internet and CMCs to recruit individuals, spread misinformation, and gather intelligence on various targets are discussed. Finally, the uses of computer hacking tools and malware are explored as a way to better understand the relationship between cybercrime and terror. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Litchman E.,Michigan State University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2010

Although the number of studies on invasive plants and animals has risen exponentially, little is known about invasive microbes, especially non-pathogenic ones. Microbial invasions by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists occur worldwide but are much harder to detect than invasions by macroorganisms. Invasive microbes have the potential to significantly alter community structure and ecosystem functioning in diverse terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, increased attention is needed on non-pathogenic invasive microbes, both free-living and symbiotic, and their impacts on communities and ecosystems. Major unknowns include the characteristics that make microbes invasive and properties of the resident communities and the environment that facilitate invasions. A comparison of microbial invasions with invasions of macroorganisms should provide valuable insights into general principles that apply to invasions across all domains of life and to taxon-specific invasion patterns. Invasive microbes appear to possess traits thought to be common in many invasive macroorganisms: high growth rate and resource utilization efficiency, and superior competitive abilities. Invading microorganisms are often similar to native species, but with enhanced performance traits, and tend to spread in lower diversity communities. Global change can exacerbate microbial invasions; therefore, they will likely increase in the future. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Harolds J.A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Nuclear Medicine | Year: 2014

The type and caliber of the questions asked by a job hunter is one of the ways an interviewer will evaluate the candidate. Questions that show poor preparation should not be asked, such as failure to read what the employer sent to the job seeker or not doing elementary research on the practice, the organization, or the community. Asking about insignificant details also is not helpful. Not having any good questions to ask is a negative in an interview. This article discusses many possible important questions for the applicant to ask during an interview. © 2014 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Congenital haemophilia is a rare and complex condition for which dedicated specialized and comprehensive care has produced measurable improvements in clinical outcomes and advances in patient management. Among these advances is the ability to safely perform surgery in patients with inhibitor antibodies to factors VIII and IX, in whom all but the most necessary of surgeries were once avoided due to the risk for uncontrollable bleeding due to ineffectiveness of replacement therapy. Nevertheless, surgery continues to pose a major challenge in this relatively rare group of patients because of significantly higher costs than in patients without inhibitors, as well as a high risk for bleeding and other complications. Because of the concentration of expertise and experience, it is recommended that any surgery in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors be planned in conjunction with a haemophilia treatment centre (HTC) and performed in a hospital that incorporates a HTC. Coordinated, standard pre-, intra- and postoperative assessments and planning are intended to optimize surgical outcome and utilization of resources, including costly factor concentrates and other haemostatic agents, while minimizing the risk for bleeding and other adverse consequences both during and after surgery. This article will review the special considerations for patients with inhibitors as they prepare for and move through surgery and recovery, with an emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of individual members of the multidisciplinary team in facilitating this process. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Chen B.-Y.,Michigan State University
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics | Year: 2012

Almost all economic theories presuppose a production function, either on the firm level or the aggregate level. In this sense the production function is one of the key concepts of mainstream neoclassical theories. There is a very important class of production functions that are often analyzed in both microeconomics and macroeconomics; namely, h-homogeneous production functions. This class of production functions includes two important production functions; namely, the generalized Cobb-Douglas production functions and ACMS production functions. It was proved in 2010 by L. Losonczi [12] that twice differentiable two-inputs h-homogeneous production functions with constant elasticity of substitution (CES) property are Cobb-Douglas' and ACMS production functions. Lozonczi also pointed out in [12] that his proof does not work for production functions of n-inputs with n > 2. In this paper we settle this classification problem completely by classifying all h-homogeneous production functions which satisfy the CES property. More precisely, we prove that, for arbitrary number of inputs, the only twice differentiable h-homogeneous production functions satisfying the CES property are the generalized Cobb-Douglas production functions and the generalized ACMS production functions.

Merritt D.H.,New York University | Klein S.,Michigan State University
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2015

Young children under 6 years old are over-represented in the U.S. child welfare system (CWS). Due to their exposure to early deprivation and trauma, they are also highly vulnerable to developmental problems, including language delays. High quality early care and education (ECE) programs (e.g. preschool, Head Start) can improve children's development and so policymakers have begun calling for increased enrollment of CWS-supervised children in these programs. However, it is not a given that ECE will benefit all children who experience maltreatment. Some types of maltreatment may result in trauma-related learning and behavior challenges or developmental deficits that cause children to respond to ECE settings differently. The current study uses data from a nationally representative survey of children in the U.S. child welfare system, the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II, to assess whether young CWS-supervised children (N = 1,652) who were enrolled in ECE had better language development outcomes 18 months later than those not enrolled in ECE. We also explore whether the type of maltreatment that brought children to the CWS' attention moderates the relationship between ECE and children's language development. After controlling for children's initial scores on the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-3), type(s) of maltreatment experienced, and child and caregiver demographics, we found that ECE participation predicted better PLS-3 scores at follow-up, with a positive interaction between ECE participation and supervisory neglect. ECE seems to be beneficial for CWS-involved children's early language development, especially for children referred to the CWS because they lack appropriate parent supervision at home. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

This study examines the roles of parental political socialization and the moral commitment to change social inequalities in predicting marginalized youths' (defined here as lower-SES youth of color) political participation. These issues are examined by applying structural equation modeling to a longitudinal panel of youth. Because tests of measurement invariance suggested racial/ethnic heterogeneity, the structural model was fit separately for three racial/ethnic groups. For each group, parental political socialization: discussion predicted youths' commitment to produce social change and for two groups, longitudinally predicted political participation. This study contributes to the literature by examining civic/political participation among disparate racial/ethnic groups, addresses an open scholarly question (whether youths' commitment to create social change predicts their "traditional" participation), and emphasizes parents' role in fostering marginalized youths' civic and political participation. © 2012 Society for Community Research and Action.

Neubig R.R.,Michigan State University
Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science | Year: 2015

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins of the inhibitory (Gi/o) class play critical physiological roles and the receptors that activate them are important therapeutic targets (e.g., mu opioid, serotonin 5HT1a, etc.). Gi/o proteins are negatively regulated by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. The redundant actions of the 20 different RGS family members have made it difficult to establish their overall physiological role. A unique G protein mutation (G184S in Gαi/o) prevents RGS binding to the Gα subunit and blocks all RGS action at that particular Gα subunit. The robust phenotypes of mice expressing these RGS-insensitive (RGSi) mutant G proteins illustrate the profound action of RGS proteins in cardiovascular, metabolic, and central nervous system functions. Specifically, the enhanced Gαi2 signaling through the RGSi Gαi2G184S mutant knock-in mice shows protection against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury and potentiation of serotonin-mediated antidepressant actions. In contrast, the RGSi Gαo mutant knock-in produces enhanced mu-opioid receptor-mediated analgesia but also a seizure phenotype. These genetic models provide novel insights into potential therapeutic strategies related to RGS protein inhibitors and/or G protein subtype-biased agonists at particular GPCRs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Gorelick P.B.,Michigan State University
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2016

Health care in the USA is undergoing a drastic transformation under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is driving major health-care policy changes by connecting payment for traditional health-care services to value-based care initiatives and emphasising population health and innovative mechanisms to deliver care. Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, neurological practice will need to adapt and transform. Therefore, neurological policy should consider employing a new framework for neurological residency training, developing interdisciplinary team approaches to neurological subspecialty care, and strengthening the primary care-neurological specialty care interface to avoid redundancies and other medical waste. Additionally, neurological policy will need to support a more robust review of diagnostic and care pathway use to reduce avoidable expenditures, and test and implement bundled payments for key neurological diagnoses. In view of an anticipated 19% shortage of US neurologists in the next 10 years, development of new neurological policy under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is paramount. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Mithas S.,University of Maryland University College | Ramasubbu N.,Singapore Management University | Sambamurthy V.,Michigan State University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2011

How do information technology capabilities contribute to firm performance? This study develops a conceptual model linking IT-enabled information management capability with three important organizational capabilities (customer management capability, process management capability, and performance management capability). We argue that these three capabilities mediate the relationship between information management capability and firm performance. We use a rare archival data set from a conglomerate business group that had adopted a model of performance excellence for organizational transformation based on the Baldrige criteria. This data set contains actual scores from high quality assessments of firms and intraorganizational units of the conglomerate, and hence provides unobtrusive measures of the key constructs to validate our conceptual model. We find that information management capability plays an important role in developing other firm capabilities for customer management, process management, and performance management. In turn, these capabilities favorably influence customer, financial, human resources, and organizational effectiveness measures of firm performance. Among key managerial implications, senior leaders must focus on creating necessary conditions for developing IT infrastructure and information management capability because they play a foundational role in building other capabilities for improved firm performance. The Baldrige model also needs some changes to more explicitly acknowledge the role and importance of information management capability so that senior leaders know where to begin in their journey toward business excellence.

Mitra J.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems | Year: 2010

This letter describes an analytical approach to determining the size, in terms of both power and energy capacity, of a backup storage unit in such a way as to meet a specified reliability target. The backup could be in the form of electrical energy storage or fuel storage. The proposed approach might benefit facilities that require high levels of reliability in their electric supply. © 2010 IEEE.

Keating D.M.,Michigan State University
Journal of Religion and Health | Year: 2013

This study examined supportive messages in spiritual and non-spiritual online support groups for depression. Both social support and religiosity have been associated with reduced depressive symptomology. Proportions of three types of support (i.e., informational, emotional, and network) were considered; messages were further delineated as being either religious or non-religious in nature. Messages (N = 2,674) from two Christian and two unaffiliated online groups were analyzed. Results indicated that Christian groups communicated more informational support and General groups communicated more network support. Christian groups communicated more religious messages. This and future research is valuable to practitioners and clergy aiding depressed individuals and to the literature on social support and religion. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Tarnowsky T.J.,Michigan State University
Acta Physica Polonica B, Proceedings Supplement | Year: 2012

Dynamical fluctuations in global conserved quantities such as baryon number, strangeness, or charge may be enhanced near a QCD critical point. Charge dependent results from new measurements of dynamical K/π, p/π, and K/p ratio fluctuations are presented. The STAR experiment has performed a comprehensive study of the energy dependence of these dynamical fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at the energies √s NN = 7.7-200 GeV using the observable, ν dyn. These results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. Various proposed scaling scenarios that attempt to remove the intrinsic volume dependence of ν dyn and to simplify comparisons between experimental measurements are also considered. Constructing an intensive quantity allows for a direct connection to thermodynamic predictions.

This article examines woodfuel policy challenges and opportunities in Malawi two decades after woodfuel-crisis narratives and counter-narratives. A nuanced examination of woodfuel supply, demand, use, and markets illuminated options to turn stagnant policies based on charcoal 'bans' and fuel-substitution into proactive, realistic ones acknowledging woodfuel dominance and its socio-economic importance. Findings revealed growing, spatially differentiated woodfuel deficits in southern and central Malawi and around Blantyre, Zomba and Lilongwe cities. Poverty, limited electricity access, reliability and generation exacerbated by tariff subsidies, and complex fuel-allocation decisions restricted energy-ladder transitions from woodfuels to electricity, producing an enduring urban-energy mix dominated by charcoal, thereby increasing wood consumption. Diverse socio-political interests prevented lifting of the charcoal 'ban' despite progressive forest laws. Despite implementation challenges, lessons already learnt, efficiency and poverty-reduction arguments, limited government capacity, growing illegal production of charcoal in forest reserves, and its staying power, make targeted community-based forest management (CBFM) approaches more practical for regulated, commercial production of woodfuels than the status quo. New differentiated policies should include commercial woodfuel production and licensing for revenue and ecological sustainability under CBFM or concessions within and outside selected reserves, an enterprise-based approaches for poverty reduction, smallholder/private tree-growing, woodfuel-energy conserving technologies, improved electricity supply and agricultural productivity. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Cooper M.M.,Michigan State University
Journal of Chemical Education | Year: 2013

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe what all students should know about science and engineering, and be able to do by the time they leave high school. The NGSS are based on learning progressions of core ideas in the discipline, crosscutting concepts across disciplines, and the practices that will allow students to use their disciplinary knowledge in meaningful ways. As states adopt the NGSS, significant changes will be required in all areas of science education, including the development of new curricula and assessments. Support for both pre- and inservice teachers will be crucial, and perhaps less obviously, so will changes in the way chemistry is taught at the college level. The Next Generation Science Standards logo is © 2013 The American Chemical Society and Division of Chemical Education, Inc.

Carlo J.L.,Michigan State University | Lyytinen K.,Case Western Reserve University | Boland Jr. R.J.,Case Western Reserve University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2012

In unpredictable and unforgiving environments, organizations need to act with care and reliability, often referred to as collective mindfulness. We present a theory-generating, interpretative field study of a highly complex and successful building project by architect Frank O. Gehry. We argue that what has been labeled collective mindfulness is only possible through a dialectic process of collective minding, in which organizational actors simultaneously exhibit elements of being mindful and mindless. Our analysis reveals that collective minding emerges from struggling with contradictions in the five elements of mindfulness. We argue that when actors struggle with these dialectic tensions, the same information technology capabilities are enacted as multiple, contradictory technologies-in-practice. Implications for the further study of collective minding and the appropriation of IT capabilities are discussed.

Vignaroli N.,Michigan State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

A 3 sigma excess has been recently announced by ATLAS in events with Z-peaked dilepton pairs, jets, and large transverse missing energy. We interpret this finding in the context of composite Higgs/Randall-Sundrum theories. We find that composite Higgs theories with custodial symmetry protection to the Zbb¯ coupling predict a significant contribution to ZZbb (and to hhbb) final states coming from heavy gluon decays to pairs of bottom partner vectorlike quarks. The heavy gluon to vectorlike quark signal is largely accepted by the ATLAS selection if one of the Z bosons in the ZZbb final state decays leptonically and the other to neutrinos. For a bottom partner of ∼900GeV, we find that the ATLAS excess can be reproduced by composite Higgs models, in an experimentally allowed parameter space, for heavy gluon masses roughly in a range 1.87-2.15 TeV and for heavy gluon couplings to light quarks within ∼(0.3-0.65)gS. We briefly discuss the implication of this result for future experimental tests. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Zhang L.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Li T.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

This is part II of a two-part paper that explores efficient anti-jamming system design based on message-driven frequency hopping (MDFH). In Part I, we point out that under disguised jamming, where the jammer mimics the authorized signal, MDFH experiences considerable performance losses like other wireless systems. To overcome this limitation, we propose an anti-jamming MDFH scheme (AJ-MDFH), which enhances the jamming resistance of MDFH by enabling shared randomness between the transmitter and the receiver using an AES generated ID sequence transmitted along the information stream. In part II, using the arbitrarily varying channel (AVC) model, we analyze the capacity of MDFH and AJ-MDFH under disguised jamming. We show that under the worst case disguised jamming, as long as the secure ID sequence is unavailable to the jammer (which is ensured by AES), the AVC corresponding to AJ-MDFH is nonsymmetrizable. This implies that the deterministic capacity of AJ-MDFH with respect to the average probability of error is positive. On the other hand, due to lack of shared randomness, the AVC corresponding to MDFH is symmetric, resulting in zero deterministic capacity. We further calculate the capacity of AJ-MDFH and show that it converges as the ID constellation size goes to infinity. © 2013 IEEE.

Reusch R.N.,Michigan State University
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2013

Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), a linear polymer of R-3-hydroxybutyrate (R-3HB), is a fundamental constituent of biological cells. Certain prokaryotes accumulate PHB of very high molecular weight (10,000 to >1,000,000 residues), which is segregated within granular deposits in the cytoplasm; however, all prokaryotes and all eukaryotes synthesize PHB of medium-chain length (~100-200 residues) which resides within lipid bilayers or lipid vesicles, and PHB of short-chain length (<12 residues) which is conjugated to proteins (cPHB), primarily proteins in membranes and organelles. The physical properties of cPHB indicate it plays important roles in the targeting and folding of cPHB-proteins. Here we review the occurrence, physical properties and molecular characteristics of cPHB, and discuss its influence on the folding and structure of outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Neal Z.,Michigan State University
Urban Studies | Year: 2012

Whether people follow jobs or jobs follow people has been a central question in urban economics for decades. Because urban leaders increasingly focus on creative jobs as a growth strategy and because temporary city visitors play an increasingly significant role in economic processes, this study addresses a modified version of this question: do air passengers follow creative jobs (the flow generation hypothesis), or do creative jobs follow air passengers (the structural advantage hypothesis). The results indicate that both processes are in operation, but at different times. Air passengers follow creative jobs during periods of national economic decline, while creative jobs follow air passengers during periods of national economic growth. These findings suggest that city leaders must adopt an urban growth strategy that evolves with changing national economic conditions. © 2012 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

The 1990s saw a radical shift in the US investment in large-scale projects along with a shift in the rationale for US support of such projects and the national laboratories which host them. Previously, the largest projects were for the esoteric field of high energy and justifications drew on the Cold War priorities of national security and the cultural benefits of a free society. Starting with Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Photon Source, a materials science accelerator, all this changed. From this time forward those promoting large-scale projects instead pointed to more practical considerations in line with the post-Cold-War moral economy valuing entrepreneurship and measurable utility. It might seem that change resulted from a direct competition between high energy physicists and materials scientists that was mediated by high-level policy makers in favor of the latter. This case study reveals a much more telling and nuanced story in which science policy was shaped at every turn by the need of the US national laboratories to adapt to a changing social, political, economic, technological and scientific context amidst the underlying desire for institutional persistence. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Extant research has highlighted meaningful distinctions in the correlates, developmental trajectories, and etiologies of physically aggressive (AGG) as compared to non-aggressive rule-breaking (RB) antisocial behavior. AGG is a highly heritable behavioral dimension that emerges in early childhood and exhibits specific ties to negative emotionality and executive dysfunction. Although the frequency of aggressive behaviors decreases after early childhood, those who are most aggressive early in life typically continue to aggress at relatively high rates across the lifespan. By contrast, RB demonstrates specific associations with impulsivity, is most frequent during adolescence, and evidences more moderate levels of stability and stronger environmental influences as compared to AGG. These etiological and developmental differences link up quite well to Moffitt's (1993) developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior, providing a clear theoretical basis for examining differences between AGG and RB. Perhaps more importantly, however, the link between AGG/RB and Moffitt's taxonomy allows us to conceptualize her categorical taxonomy in dimensional terms, an important development given the recent emphasis on dimensional conceptualizations of psychopathology. Available evidence further indicates that neither AGG nor RB is redundant with callous-unemotional traits. The current review thus underscores the clear advantages of differentiating between AGG and RB when studying antisocial behavior. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Britton R.A.,Michigan State University | Young V.B.,University of Michigan
Gastroenterology | Year: 2014

Antibiotic-associated infection with the bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a major cause of morbidity and increased health care costs. C difficile infection follows disruption of the indigenous gut microbiota by antibiotics. Antibiotics create an environment within the intestine that promotes C difficile spore germination, vegetative growth, and toxin production, leading to epithelial damage and colitis. Studies of patients with C difficile infection and animal models have shown that the indigenous microbiota can inhibit expansion and persistence of C difficile. Although the specific mechanisms of these processes are not known, they are likely to interfere with key aspects of the pathogen's physiology, including spore germination and competitive growth. Increasing our understanding of how the intestinal microbiota manage C difficile could lead to better means of controlling this important nosocomial pathogen. © 2014 by the AGA Institute.

Leitner D.,Michigan State University
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2013

The increased availability of rare isotope beams in the field of low energy nuclear physics has enabled dramatic advancements in the understanding of nuclear matter during the last decade. The energy required for these nuclear physics experiments range from thermal energies to energies around the Coulomb barrier, as well as fast beams from 50 MeV/nucleon to several hundred MeV/nucleon generated by fragmentation facilities. This paper focuses on radioactive ion beam facilities utilizing rare isotope post-accelerators which cover beam energies ranging from a few hundred keV/nucleon to about 20 MeV/nucleon. An overview of the various existing post-accelerator facilities is given and the design features and challenges associated with these facilities are explored. A dedicated section of the paper will focus on describing the ReAccelerator facility (ReA) at Michigan State University as an example of a recently installed state-of-the-art post-accelerator.© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Smith B.J.,Michigan State University
Epilepsy Currents | Year: 2014

Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are events commonly encountered by primary care physicians, neurologists, pediatricians, and emergency medicine physicians in their practices, yet there continues to be significant variability in the way they are evaluated, diagnosed, and treated. Lack of understanding this condition and limited data on long-term outcome from current treatment paradigms have resulted in an environment with iatrogenic injury, morbidity, and significant costs to the patient and healthcare system. This article will review the current state of research addressing PNES treatment both in the adult and pediatric populations. © American Epilepsy Society.

Pellemoine F.,Michigan State University
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms | Year: 2013

In the context of new generation rare isotope beam facilities based on high-power heavy-ion accelerators and in-flight separation of the reaction products, the design of the rare isotope production targets is a major challenge. In order to provide high-purity beams for science, high resolution is required in the rare isotope separation. This demands a small beam spot on the production target which, together with the short range of heavy ions in matter, leads to very high power densities inside the target material. This paper gives an overview of the challenges associated with this high power density, discusses radiation damage issues in targets exposed to heavy ion beams, and presents recent developments to meet some of these challenges through different projects: FAIR, RIBF and FRIB which is the most challenging. Extensive use of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been made at all facilities to specify critical target parameters and R&D work at FRIB successfully retired two major risks related to high-power density and heavy-ion induced radiation damage. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Reardon T.,Michigan State University | Reardon T.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Timmer C.P.,Harvard University | Minten B.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2012

A "supermarket revolution" has occurred in developing countries in the past 2 decades. We focus on three specific issues that reflect the impact of this revolution, particularly in Asia: continuity in transformation, innovation in transformation, and unique development strategies. First, the record shows that the rapid growth observed in the early 2000s in China, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand has continued, and the "newcomers" - India and Vietnam - have grown even faster. Although foreign direct investment has been important, the roles of domestic conglomerates and even state investment have been significant and unique. Second, Asia's supermarket revolution has exhibited unique pathways of retail diffusion and procurement system change. There has been "precocious"penetration of rural towns by rural supermarkets and rural business hubs, emergence of penetration of fresh produce retail that took much longer to initiate in other regions, and emergence of Asian retail developing-country multinational chains. In procurement, a symbiosis between modern retail and the emerging and consolidating modern food processing and logistics sectors has arisen. Third, several approaches are being tried to link small farmers to supermarkets. Some are unique to Asia, for example assembling into a "hub" or "platform" or "park" the various companies and services that link farmers to modern markets. Other approaches relatively new to Asia are found elsewhere, especially in Latin America, including "bringing modern markets to farmers" by establishing collection centers and multipronged collection cum service provision arrangements, and forming market cooperatives and farmer companies to help small farmers access supermarkets.

Lee K.,Michigan State University
Child Abuse Review | Year: 2016

Using the Head Start Impact Study data, this secondary data analysis examines Head Start's impact on cognitive outcomes for children in foster care. Out of 4442 children, 162 children in foster care were selected to examine the following study questions. (1) Do children in foster care who enrol in Head Start have different child and family characteristics than those who do not participate in Head Start? (2) Do children in foster care who participate in Head Start have higher reading and math scores at ages five to six? (3) Do child and family characteristics moderate Head Start's impact on reading and math scores of children in foster care at ages five to six? There was no main Head Start impact on reading and math scores for children in foster care. However, Head Start impact was found for the child's gender and the caregiver's age. Girls who participated in Head Start obtained higher reading and math scores than boys. Children cared for by older caregivers had higher math scores than those cared for by younger caregivers. Baseline variables such as ethnicity, special needs status and cognitive skills prior to Head Start enrolment were directly associated with math and reading scores at ages five to six. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hamann K.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology | Warneken F.,Harvard University | Greenberg J.R.,Michigan State University | Tomasello M.,Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Nature | Year: 2011

Humans actively share resources with one another to a much greater degree than do other great apes, and much human sharing is governed by social norms of fairness and equity. When in receipt of a windfall of resources, human children begin showing tendencies towards equitable distribution with others at five to seven years of age. Arguably, however, the primordial situation for human sharing of resources is that which follows cooperative activities such as collaborative foraging, when several individuals must share the spoils of their joint efforts. Here we show that children of around three years of age share with others much more equitably in collaborative activities than they do in either windfall or parallel-work situations. By contrast, one of humans two nearest primate relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), share(make food available to another individual) just as often whether they have collaborated with them or not. This species difference raises the possibility that humans tendency to distribute resources equitably may have its evolutionary roots in the sharing of spoils after collaborative efforts. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pontifex M.B.,Michigan State University
Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development | Year: 2014

With the increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, a greater understanding of the extent to which excess adiposity and aerobic fitness relate to cognitive health is of increasing importance. To date, however, the vast majority of research in this area has focused on adiposity or fitness, rather than the possible inter-relationship, as it relates to cognition. Accordingly, this study examined the differential associations between body composition, aerobic fitness, and cognitive control in a sample of 204 (96 female) preadolescent children. Participants completed a modified flanker task (i.e., inhibition) and a switch task (i.e., cognitive flexibility) to assess two aspects of cognitive control. Findings from this study indicate that fitness and adiposity appear to be separable factors as they relate to cognitive control, given that the interaction of fitness and adiposity was observed to be nonsignificant for both the flanker and switch tasks. Fitness exhibited an independent association with both inhibition and cognitive flexibility whereas adiposity exhibited an independent association only with cognitive flexibility. These results suggest that while childhood obesity and fitness appear to both be related to cognitive control, they may be differentially associated with its component processes. © 2014 The Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Moniruzzaman M.,Michigan State University
Medical Anthropology Quarterly | Year: 2012

The technology-driven demand for the extraction of human organs-mainly kidneys, but also liver lobes and single corneas-has created an illegal market in body parts. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, in this article I examine the body bazaar in Bangladesh: in particular, the process of selling organs and the experiences of 33 kidney sellers who are victims of this trade. The sellers' narratives reveal how wealthy buyers (both recipients and brokers) tricked Bangladeshi poor into selling their kidneys; in the end, these sellers were brutally deceived and their suffering was extreme. I therefore argue that the current practice of organ commodification is both exploitative and unethical, as organs are removed from the bodies of the poor by inflicting a novel form of bioviolence against them. This bioviolence is deliberately silenced by vested interest groups for their personal gain. © 2012 by the American Anthropological Association.

Park J.,Florida Atlantic University | Hughes A.K.,Michigan State University
Journal of the American Geriatrics Society | Year: 2012

The objective of this literature review is to gain insight into the efficacy of nonpharmacological interventions in chronic pain management in community-dwelling older adults. An extensive search of pertinent databases was performed to identify reports of studies of nonpharmacological (physical and psychosocial) pain interventions. The review identifies intervention studies that used randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and summarizes existing evidence of effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions. A literature search yielded 28 RCT intervention studies (18 for physical interventions and 10 for psychosocial interventions) that met inclusion criteria and are included in this review. Twenty-one studies (75%) identified in this review demonstrated statistically significant differences (P <.05) in pain scores between nonpharmacological interventions and no intervention or sham interventions; the intervention groups showed lower pain intensity. More research is needed to determine the best format, intensity, duration, and content of such treatments, as well as their efficacy in the older adult population. Methodological limitations are identified in many of the studies, such as low statistical power due to sample size and imprecise measurement, lack of reliable sham controls, and inadequate blinding. Future intervention studies of nonpharmacological pain therapies may require larger sample sizes, control for comorbidities, and long-term follow-up. © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

Ralston A.,Michigan State University
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2016

Understanding how and when cells become different during embryogenesis is a goal that is at the forefront of investigations in mammalian development. Two recent studies from the laboratories of Nicholas Plachta and Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz present evidence that cellular heterogeneities detected in four-cell mouse embryos bias the process of cell fate acquisition thereafter. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Calantone R.,Michigan State University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2012

Collaboration between research, development, and engineering (RD&E) and marketing has traditionally been regarded as beneficial for new product performance (NPP). However, some studies have pointed out the drawbacks of excessive collaboration. Because collaboration simultaneously presents costs and benefits that vary with conditions, a contingent view of managerial practices suggests that the optimal level of integration should vary according to some factors that indicate when high levels of collaboration are preferable to lower levels. Although the literature on the many different factors that may impact the desirable level of collaboration is abundant, only a few studies have investigated the role of the peculiar characteristics of the new products being developed. This is at odds with several calls for future research on the role of the characteristics of the new product. This paper investigates the moderating role of an explorative versus an exploitive innovation program. It also controls for the moderating role of environmental uncertainty, which has been traditionally considered a moderator of the relationship between RD&E-marketing collaboration and new product program performance. The paper also investigates how a firm's innovation posture-a cultural trait-influences both directly and indirectly, via marketing's technical knowledge, RD&E-marketing collaboration. Indeed, several scholars have recognized that cultural differences create the main barrier between RD&E and marketing. Hence, a firm's culture should have an impact on the cultural barriers between the two departments. Further, the firm's innovation posture affects the extent to which the departments have to share resources and exchange information. In their seminal work, Gupta, Raj, and Wilemon argue that resource dependency is the main factor affecting the integration achieved between RD&E and marketing. Hence, an analysis of a firm's innovation posture is required to gain a deeper understanding of the antecedents of the collaboration between the two departments. The antecedents and effects of RD&E-marketing collaboration are tested in a sample of 80 companies operating in the U.S. auto industry through partial least squares. The paper shows that the extent to which a company develops explorative rather than exploitative innovations is a better moderator than environmental uncertainty in the relationship between RD&E-marketing collaboration and new product program performance. This contradicts much previous literature and sheds light on a partially neglected construct in the new product development literature. Second, the paper demonstrates that firms with a more aggressive innovation posture tend to develop greater collaboration between RD&E and marketing. Also, the marketing department tends to have a better understanding of the RD&E processes and capabilities in companies with an aggressive innovation posture than in companies with a defensive one. © 2011 Product Development & Management Association.

Bjork B.-C.,Hanken School of Economics | Solomon D.,Michigan State University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2012

Background: In the past few years there has been an ongoing debate as to whether the proliferation of open access (OA) publishing would damage the peer review system and put the quality of scientific journal publishing at risk. Our aim was to inform this debate by comparing the scientific impact of OA journals with subscription journals, controlling for journal age, the country of the publisher, discipline and (for OA publishers) their business model.Methods: The 2-year impact factors (the average number of citations to the articles in a journal) were used as a proxy for scientific impact. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) was used to identify OA journals as well as their business model. Journal age and discipline were obtained from the Ulrich's periodicals directory. Comparisons were performed on the journal level as well as on the article level where the results were weighted by the number of articles published in a journal. A total of 610 OA journals were compared with 7,609 subscription journals using Web of Science citation data while an overlapping set of 1,327 OA journals were compared with 11,124 subscription journals using Scopus data.Results: Overall, average citation rates, both unweighted and weighted for the number of articles per journal, were about 30% higher for subscription journals. However, after controlling for discipline (medicine and health versus other), age of the journal (three time periods) and the location of the publisher (four largest publishing countries versus other countries) the differences largely disappeared in most subcategories except for journals that had been launched prior to 1996. OA journals that fund publishing with article processing charges (APCs) are on average cited more than other OA journals. In medicine and health, OA journals founded in the last 10 years are receiving about as many citations as subscription journals launched during the same period.Conclusions: Our results indicate that OA journals indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus are approaching the same scientific impact and quality as subscription journals, particularly in biomedicine and for journals funded by article processing charges. © 2012 Björk and Solomon et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Lapidus L.J.,Michigan State University
Molecular BioSystems | Year: 2013

Much work in recent years has been devoted to understanding the complex process of protein aggregation. This review looks at the earliest stages of aggregation, long before the formation of fibrils that are the hallmark of many aggregation-based diseases, and proposes that the first steps are controlled by the reconfiguration dynamics of the monomer. When reconfiguration is much faster or much slower than bimolecular diffusion, then aggregation is slow, but when they are similar, aggregation is fast. The experimental evidence for this model is reviewed and the prospects for small molecule aggregation inhibitors to prevent disease are discussed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Korkmaz S.,Michigan State University
Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice | Year: 2012

Project delivery of sustainable buildings is more complex than that for traditional buildings. It requires early interdisciplinary collaboration with full commitment of team members to the project's green goals-ensured by delivery methods, contractual conditions, team procurement, and project management practices. As the need for sustainable built environment grows, the demand for professionals who can manage delivery of sustainable buildings efficiently will also increase in the (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry. Teaching delivery of sustainable building characteristics to students through traditional methods is challenging, however. This paper presents a case study in which a multidisciplinary graduate class of 14 students was exposed to case-based collaborative-learning methods, examining whether these methods could improve student understanding of sustainable building delivery. The results of pre- and post case study assignment surveys and evaluation of role play and open class discussions show that understanding of key delivery parameters is improved, especially for design integration and team characteristics. The methods also improved student interest, shown by semester evaluations. The classroom presence of students from different backgrounds (e.g.,engineering, construction management, and design) benefitted student-learning in a collaborative environment. The results provide insights for schools, departments, and instructors seeking effective ways to teach sustainable built environment processes. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Cooper T.F.,University of Houston | Lenski R.E.,Michigan State University
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2010

Background. Environmental conditions affect the topology of the adaptive landscape and thus the trajectories followed by evolving populations. For example, a heterogeneous environment might lead to a more rugged adaptive landscape, making it more likely that replicate populations would evolve toward distinct adaptive peaks, relative to a uniform environment. To date, the influence of environmental variability on evolutionary dynamics has received relatively little experimental study. Results. We report findings from an experiment designed to test the effects of environmental variability on the adaptation and divergence of replicate populations of E. coli. A total of 42 populations evolved for 2000 generations in 7 environmental regimes that differed in the number, identity, and presentation of the limiting resource. Regimes were organized in two sets, having the sugars glucose and maltose singly and in combination, or glucose and lactose singly and in combination. Combinations of sugars were presented either simultaneously or as temporally fluctuating resource regimes. This design allowed us to compare the effects of resource identity and presentation on the evolutionary trajectories followed by replicate populations. After 2000 generations, the fitness of all populations had increased relative to the common ancestor, but to different extents. Populations evolved in glucose improved the least, whereas populations evolving in maltose or lactose increased the most in their respective sets. Among-population divergence also differed across regimes, with variation higher in those groups that evolved in fluctuating environments than in those that faced constant resource regimens. This divergence under the fluctuating conditions increased between 1000 and 2000 generations, consistent with replicate populations evolving toward distinct adaptive peaks. Conclusions. These results support the hypothesis that environmental heterogeneity can give rise to more rugged adaptive landscapes, which in turn promote evolutionary diversification. These results also demonstrate that this effect depends on the form of environmental heterogeneity, with greater divergence when the pairs of resources fluctuated temporally rather than being presented simultaneously. © 2010 Cooper and Lenski; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Preverbal children are capable of explicitly communicating their own desires, emotions, and thoughts through infant signs (i.e., symbolic gestures) that they have invented or learned from caregivers. In this article, I describe seven lines of child development research and show how attending to infants' use of signs can complement and extend this knowledge of development for both scientists and caregivers. The areas of developmental research include object permanence, categorization, shared meaning, mental state understanding and absent reference, emotion knowledge, identity, and self-regulation. I present qualitative data on infants' signing gathered through videos of caregiver-child interaction, student caregivers' systematic participant observations, my own observations in an infant classroom, and volunteered sign stories from parents who use signs with their infants. I also present quotes from interviews with parents and caregivers of signing children to show how infants' signing affects adults' perceptions of and feelings toward children. With infant signs, infants reveal their thoughts, feelings, interests, and personalities in their own contexts through everyday interactions. By "listening" to infant signs, parents, practitioners, and scientists gain insight into individual infants and respect for the often underestimated capacities of preverbal children. © 2011 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

Swink M.,Neeley Business School | Jacobs B.W.,Michigan State University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

We assess the operational impacts of Six Sigma program adoptions through an event study methodology, comparing financial data for 200 Six Sigma adopting firms against data for matched firms, which serve as control groups for the analyses. We employ various matching procedures using different combinations of pre-adoption return on assets (ROA), industry, and size as matching criteria. By comparing performance outcomes across a hierarchy of operating metrics, we establish a pattern of Six Sigma adoption effects that provides strong evidence of a positive impact on ROA. Interestingly, these ROA improvements arise mostly from significant reductions in indirect costs; significant improvements in direct costs and asset productivity are not evident. We also find small improvements in sales growth due to Six Sigma adoption. Cross-sectional analyses of the performance results reveal that distinctions in Six Sigma impacts across manufacturing and service firms are negligible. Interestingly, we find that the performance impact of Six Sigma adoption is negatively correlated to the firm's quality system maturity (indicated by prior ISO 9000 certification). Further analyses of manufacturing and service firms reveals that Six Sigma benefits are significantly correlated with intensity in manufacturing, and with financial performance before adoption in services. We discuss the implications of these findings for practice and for future research. © 2012 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Kaplan B.L.F.,Michigan State University
Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

There is clear evidence that CB2, historically referred to as the peripheral cannabinoid receptor, mediates many of the immune modulatory effects of cannabinoids. However, cannabinoid receptors cannot be classified simply as central or peripheral since CB2 has been shown to play a role in the central nervous system (CNS) and CB1 mediates many immune system effects. Although Cnr1 mRNA and CB1 protein expression is lower than Cnr2 mRNA or CB2 protein expression in cells of the immune system, several studies have shown direct modulation of immune function via CB1 by endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids in T cells, innate cells, and to a lesser extent, B cells. In addition, indirect, but CB 1-dependent, mechanisms of immune modulation exist. In fact, the mechanism by which cannabinoids attenuate neuroinflammation via CB1 is likely a combination of immune suppression and neuroprotection. Although many studies demonstrate that agonists for CB1 are immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory, CB1 antagonists also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, the data demonstrate that many of the immune modulatory effects of cannabinoids are mediated via CB1. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Sang T.,Michigan State University
Journal of Integrative Plant Biology | Year: 2011

Domestication of cereal crops has provided a stable source of food for thousands of years. The extent to which lignocellulosic crops will contribute to the world's renewable energy depends largely on how the new crops will be domesticated. Growing miscanthus as biofuel feedstocks on marginal and degraded land in northern and northwestern China offers an example for developing theoretical framework and practical strategies for energy crop domestication. The domestication should incorporate the highest possible genetic diversity from wild species, focus on the improvement of drought and cold tolerance especially in the stage of crop establishment, increase the efficiencies of water and nutrient uses and photosynthesis, adjust vegetative growing season according to local temperature and precipitation, and reduce or prevent seed production. Positive ecological effects on soil conservation, landscape restoration, carbon sequestration, and hydrological cycles should be maximized, while negative impact on biodiversity needs to be minimized. With the development of other sources of renewable energy, the role of lignocellulosic crops may evolve from primarily energy production to increasingly ecological restoration and biomaterial development. The integration of this new cropping system into the existing agriculture may open a new avenue to the long-term sustainability of our society. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

Mahapatra S.K.,Clarkson University | Das A.,Business One | Narasimhan R.,Michigan State University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

Direct investments in supplier development and close relationship building are the two major collaborative supplier management strategies for developing and accessing superior supplier capability. The impact of these two strategies, however, has not been uniform across firms, calling for a deeper examination of their relative effectiveness. Utilizing multiple theoretical frameworks, this study examines the relevance and effectiveness of the two collaborative strategies across the growth and maturity stages of the product life cycle (PLC). Specifically, the study analyzes the influence of competitive intensity as an antecedent to supplier development and relational initiatives, and the role of product life cycle as a moderator of the inter-relationships among competitive intensity, supplier development, relational initiatives, and supplier capability. Based on primary survey data, and discussion with practicing managers, the study finds that the individual and integrative effectiveness of supplier development investments (SDI) and relational orientation (RO) can be influenced differently by competitive intensity and PLC stage. In particular, RO can have a foundational role in motivating SDI for superior supplier capability, as also in safeguarding against supplier opportunism in the standardized product market context of the maturity stage. The managerial and theoretical implications of varied emphasis on the two collaborative supplier management strategies across the PLC stages are discussed. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Schoenherr T.,Michigan State University | Swink M.,Texas Christian University
Journal of Operations Management | Year: 2012

This paper revisits Frohlich and Westbrook's arcs of integration concept [Arcs of integration: an international study of supply chain strategies. Journal of Operations Management 2001, 19 (2) pp. 185-200]. Using survey responses from 403 supply chain professionals, we compare the arcs of integration group memberships generated with our sample to the original study, rationalize the classification scheme, and assess the impact of supply chain integration strategies on quality, delivery, flexibility and cost performance. In doing so we cross-validate Frohlich and Westbrook's framework with a more recent and broader sample of data utilizing multi-dimensional performance measures collected from supply chain managers. We ground these relationships in the relational and resource-based views of the firm. We also extend Frohlich and Westbrook's study by investigating the moderating role of internal integration on the relationships between arcs of integration and performance. In accordance with information processing theory, the results indicate that internal integration strengthens the positive impacts of external integration on both delivery and flexibility performance. However, the theory is not supported for either quality or cost performance. Overall, our study confirms and extends the work of Frohlich and Westbrook, augments theories used to describe supply chain integration efforts, and provides practical implications for managers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ge S.-F.,Tsinghua University | Dicus D.A.,University of Texas at Austin | Repko W.W.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

The residual Z2s(k) and Z̄2s(k) symmetries induce a direct and unique phenomenological relation with θ x(θ 13) expressed in terms of the other two mixing angles θ s(θ 12) and θ a(θ 23) and the Dirac CP phase δ D. Z2s(k) predicts a θ x probability distribution centered around 3°-6° with an uncertainty of 2°-4°, while those from Z̄2s(k) are approximately a factor of 2 larger. Either result fits the T2K, MINOS, and Double Chooz measurements. Alternately, a prediction for the Dirac CP phase δ D results in a peak at ±74°(±106°) for Z2s(k) or ±123°(±57° ) for Z̄2s(k) which is consistent with the latest global fit. We also give a distribution for the leptonic Jarlskog invariant J ν which can provide further tests from measurements at T2K and NOνA. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Esselman P.C.,Michigan State University | Allan J.D.,University of Michigan
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2011

1. Protected area networks for river ecosystems must account for the highly connected nature of river habitats and the fact that conditions in distant locations can influence downstream habitats and biota. We used Marxan conservation planning software to address the unique constraints of reserve design in river ecosystems and structure a reserve network to overcome key challenges to freshwater conservation.2. The range limits of 63 fish species in Mesoamerica were predicted and used in Marxan to design a network of conservation focal areas that encompasses 15% of the range of each species in areas with low risk of environmental degradation. Upstream risk intensity was estimated by propagating landscape-based sources of stress downstream along the direction of flow in GIS. We constrained Marxan solutions to account for basin divides, and we defined critical management zones to include important habitats that contribute to species persistence and mitigate threats.3. The proposed reserve network encompassed 11% of the study area, half of which was contained within existing protected areas. Our exercise also identified important gaps in protection. Because terrestrial-based environmental risks were propagated through t10he river network and considered in the solution, focal areas were constrained to catchments with low levels of upstream human activity. Addition of critical management zones - riparian buffers and fish migration corridors - expanded the network area by one-fifth.4. Our application of Marxan allowed longitudinal connectivity and topographic barriers to species movement to be considered. Adding critical management ones expanded the size of the reserve network, but is crucial to the network's conservation efficacy. We call for an evaluation of the added management capacity needed to conserve critical management zones and suggest ways to further improve the reserve design process. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Kobe R.K.,Michigan State University | Vriesendorp C.F.,Environment
Ecology Letters | Year: 2011

Density-dependent seedling mortality could increase with a species relative abundance, thereby promoting species coexistence. Differences among species in light-dependent mortality also could enhance coexistence via resource partitioning. These compatible ideas rarely have been considered simultaneously. We developed models of mortality as functions of irradiance and local conspecific density (LCD) for seedlings of 53 tropical woody species. Species varied in mortality responses to these factors, but mortality consistently increased with shading and LCD. Across species, density-dependent mortality on a per-neighbour basis was inversely related to species community abundance, but higher LCD in more common species resulted in a weak relationship between species abundance and density-dependent mortality scaled to species maximum LCD. Species mortality responses to shading and maximum LCD were strongly and positively correlated. Our results suggest that species differences in density-dependent mortality are more strongly related to physiologically based life-history traits than biotic feedbacks related to community abundance. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Hamilton S.K.,Michigan State University
Freshwater Biology | Year: 2012

1.Mounting interest in ecological restoration of streams and rivers, including that motivated by the Water Framework Directive, has stimulated examination of whether management and restoration measures in streams and their catchments have yielded measurable improvements in ecological status ('health'). Evidence for the efficacy of diffuse-source pollution reduction (including best management practices on land) has proven elusive. 2.Several hydrological and biogeochemical processes delay the responses of streams and rivers to a decrease in nutrient and sediment inputs, potentially for decades. The implications of such time lags in response to restoration may not be well appreciated by restoration ecologists, regulators, sponsors of restoration work or the broader community. 3.The groundwater time lag results from the long residence time of ground water. This is particularly important with respect to nitrate, but is increasingly important for phosphorus (P) as well. Isotopic tracers and groundwater age dating suggest that stream water often is more than a decade old, and that several decades are required to flush most soluble contaminants from groundwater reservoirs. 4.Sediment movement through river networks can be protracted because of storage and remobilisation processes involving stream beds, impounded reaches and fringing bars and floodplains. In lowland streams and rivers, sediment accretion can be rapid, but its removal is often far slower and can take decades to centuries. 5.Phosphorus availability is subject to time lags because P tends to associate with minerals, resulting in a potentially large yet exchangeable P reserve in upland soils and alluvial and stream-bed sediments. Thus, soils and sediments can remain rich in P for decades after new inputs are reduced, potentially acting as a source of P to surface waters. Phosphorus saturation of soils along groundwater percolation pathways can lead to even longer time lags. Restoration measures that inundate previously dry soils or desiccate previously inundated sediments can induce high rates of P release. 6.These hydrological and biogeochemical time lags can obscure the short-term responses of streams and rivers to restoration measures. In many eutrophic waters, large decreases in nutrient availability would be required to return the ecosystem to a natural nutrient-limited state, and this could take decades. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

DeLind L.B.,Michigan State University
Agriculture and Human Values | Year: 2011

Much is being made of local food. It is at once a social movement, a diet, and an economic strategy-a popular solution-to a global food system in great distress. Yet, despite its popularity or perhaps because of it, local food (especially in the US) is also something of a chimera if not a tool of the status quo. This paper reflects on and contrasts aspects of current local food rhetoric with Dalhberg's notion of a regenerative food system. It identifies three problematic emphases-the locavore emphasis, the Wal-Mart emphasis, and the Pollan emphasis-and argues that they are shifting local food (as a concept and a social movement) away from the deeper concerns of equity, citizenship, place-building, and sustainability. It is suggested that local food activists and advocates might consider the use of multiple methodologies and forms of expression to explore the integration and reintegration of local food into diverse and redundant place-based practice. A short case study of a low-income, urban neighborhood in Lansing, Michigan, illustrates the value of contextual analysis for more fully enabling the local food movement and a regenerative food system. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Van Dam R.L.,Michigan State University
Geomorphology | Year: 2012

This paper presents an overview of the strengths and limitations of existing and emerging geophysical tools for landform studies. The objectives are to discuss recent technical developments and to provide a review of relevant recent literature, with a focus on propagating field methods with terrestrial applications. For various methods in this category, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity (ER), seismics, and electromagnetic (EM) induction, the technical backgrounds are introduced, followed by section on novel developments relevant to landform characterization. For several decades, GPR has been popular for characterization of the shallow subsurface and in particular sedimentary systems. Novel developments in GPR include the use of multi-offset systems to improve signal-to-noise ratios and data collection efficiency, amongst others, and the increased use of 3D data. Multi-electrode ER systems have become popular in recent years as they allow for relatively fast and detailed mapping. Novel developments include time-lapse monitoring of dynamic processes as well as the use of capacitively-coupled systems for fast, non-invasive surveys. EM induction methods are especially popular for fast mapping of spatial variation, but can also be used to obtain information on the vertical variation in subsurface electrical conductivity. In recent years several examples of the use of plane wave EM for characterization of landforms have been published. Seismic methods for landform characterization include seismic reflection and refraction techniques and the use of surface waves. A recent development is the use of passive sensing approaches. The use of multiple geophysical methods, which can benefit from the sensitivity to different subsurface parameters, is becoming more common. Strategies for coupled and joint inversion of complementary datasets will, once more widely available, benefit the geophysical study of landforms.Three cases studies are presented on the use of electrical and GPR methods for characterization of landforms in the range of meters to 100. s of meters in dimension. In a study of polygonal patterned ground in the Saginaw Lowlands, Michigan, USA, electrical resistivity tomography was used to characterize differences in subsurface texture and water content associated with polygon-swale topography. Also, a sand-filled thermokarst feature was identified using electrical resistivity data. The second example is on the use of constant spread traversing (CST) for characterization of large-scale glaciotectonic deformation in the Ludington Ridge, Michigan. Multiple CST surveys parallel to an ~. 60. m high cliff, where broad (~. 100. m) synclines and narrow clay-rich anticlines are visible, illustrated that at least one of the narrow structures extended inland. A third case study discusses internal structures of an eolian dune on a coastal spit in New Zealand. Both 35 and 200. MHz GPR data, which clearly identified a paleosol and internal sedimentary structures of the dune, were used to improve understanding of the development of the dune, which may shed light on paleo-wind directions. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Ge S.-F.,Tsinghua University | Dicus D.A.,University of Texas at Austin | Repko W.W.,Michigan State University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2011

Model-independent consequences of applying a generalized hidden horizontal Z2 symmetry to the neutrino mass matrix are explored. The Dirac CP phase δD can be expressed in terms of the three mixing angles as 4casacssssxcosδD=(ss2-cs2sx2)(ca2-sa2) where the si, ci are sines and cosines of the atmospheric, solar, and reactor angles. This relation is independent of neutrino masses and whether neutrinos are Dirac- or Majorana-type. Given the present constraints on the angles, δD is constrained to be almost maximal, a result which can be explored in experiments such as NO νA and T2K. The Majorana CP phases do not receive any constraint and are thus model-dependent. Also a distribution of Θx with a lower limit is obtained without specifying δD. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Merritt R.W.,Michigan State University
PLoS neglected tropical diseases | Year: 2010

Buruli ulcer is a neglected emerging disease that has recently been reported in some countries as the second most frequent mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis. Cases have been reported from at least 32 countries in Africa (mainly west), Australia, Southeast Asia, China, Central and South America, and the Western Pacific. Large lesions often result in scarring, contractual deformities, amputations, and disabilities, and in Africa, most cases of the disease occur in children between the ages of 4-15 years. This environmental mycobacterium, Mycobacterium ulcerans, is found in communities associated with rivers, swamps, wetlands, and human-linked changes in the aquatic environment, particularly those created as a result of environmental disturbance such as deforestation, dam construction, and agriculture. Buruli ulcer disease is often referred to as the "mysterious disease" because the mode of transmission remains unclear, although several hypotheses have been proposed. The above review reveals that various routes of transmission may occur, varying amongst epidemiological setting and geographic region, and that there may be some role for living agents as reservoirs and as vectors of M. ulcerans, in particular aquatic insects, adult mosquitoes or other biting arthropods. We discuss traditional and non-traditional methods for indicting the roles of living agents as biologically significant reservoirs and/or vectors of pathogens, and suggest an intellectual framework for establishing criteria for transmission. The application of these criteria to the transmission of M. ulcerans presents a significant challenge.

Lennon J.T.,W.K. Kellogg Biological Station | Lennon J.T.,Michigan State University
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2011

A recent analysis revealed that most environmental microbiologists neglect replication in their science (Prosser, 2010). Of all peer-reviewed papers published during 2009 in the field's leading journals, slightly more than 70% lacked replication when it came to analyzing microbial community data. The paucity of replication is viewed as an 'endemic' and 'embarrassing' problem that amounts to 'bad science', or worse yet, as the title suggests, lying (Prosser, 2010). Although replication is an important component of experimental design, it is possible to do good science without replication. There are various quantitative techniques - some old, some new - that, when used properly, will allow environmental microbiologists to make strong statistical conclusions from experimental and comparative data. Here, I provide examples where unreplicated data can be used to test hypotheses and yield novel information in a statistically robust manner. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Agren J.,Uppsala University | Schemske D.W.,Michigan State University
New Phytologist | Year: 2012

• To quantify adaptive differentiation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we conducted reciprocal transplant experiments for fiveyears between two European populations, one near the northern edge of the native range (Sweden) and one near the southern edge (Italy). • We planted seeds (years 1-3) and seedlings (years 4-5), and estimated fitness as the number of fruits produced per seed or seedling planted. • In eight of the 10 possible site×year comparisons, the fitness of the local population was significantly higher than that of the nonlocal population (3.1-22.2 times higher at the southern site, and 1.7-3.6 times higher at the northern site); in the remaining two comparisons no significant difference was recorded. At both sites, the local genotype had higher survival than the nonlocal genotype, and at the Italian site, the local genotype also had higher fecundity. Across years, the relative survival of the Italian genotype at the northern site decreased with decreasing winter soil temperature. • The results provide evidence of strong adaptive differentiation between natural populations of A. thaliana and indicate that differences in tolerance to freezing contributed to fitness variation at the northern site. In ongoing work, we explore the functional and genetic basis of this adaptive differentiation. © 2012 The Authors New Phytologist. © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University
Traffic | Year: 2011

COPII proteins facilitate membrane transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi. They are highly conserved, although there are variations in their subcellular localization across plant, animal and yeast cells. Such variations may be needed to suit the unique organization of the ER and Golgi in the different cell systems. Earlier bioinformatics analyses have indicated that the Arabidopsis nuclear genome may encode chloroplast isoforms of the cytosolic trafficking protein machineries, including COPI and COPII, for vesicular transport within chloroplasts. These analyses suggest the intriguing possibility that plants may have evolved or adapted COP-like proteins to suit membrane trafficking events within specialized organelles. Here, we discuss recent data on the distribution and activity of the product of the At5g18570 locus, which encodes a putative chloroplast isoform of Sar1, the GTPase that regulates COPII assembly on the surface of the ER. Evidence is accumulating that the protein is targeted to the chloroplasts, that it has GTPase activity and that it may have a role in thylakoid membrane development, supporting the possibility that COPII-like trafficking machinery may be active in chloroplasts. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

Bauman D.E.,Cornell University | Harvatine K.J.,Pennsylvania State University | Lock A.L.,Michigan State University
Annual Review of Nutrition | Year: 2011

Mammary synthesis of milk fat continues to be an active research area, with significant advances in the regulation of lipid synthesis by bioactive fatty acids (FAs). The biohydrogenation theory established that diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in the dairy cow is caused by an inhibition of mammary synthesis of milk fat by specific FAs produced during ruminal biohydrogenation. The first such FA shown to affect milk fat synthesis was trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid, and its effects have been well characterized, including dose-response relationships. During MFD, lipogenic capacity and transcription of key mammary lipogenic genes are coordinately down-regulated. Results provide strong evidence for sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1) and Spot 14 as biohydrogenation intermediate responsive lipogenic signaling pathway for ruminants and rodents. The study of MFD and its regulation by specific rumen-derived bioactive FAs represents a successful example of nutrigenomics in present-day animal nutrition research and offers several potential applications in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Morrison E.B.,Michigan State University
Behaviour | Year: 2011

Animals use a variety of cues to evaluate their risk of predation when foraging, including direct cues of predator presence such as vocalizations or scent, and indirect cues, or environmental correlates of predation risk, such as vegetation structure. Research took place in a large-scale forest restoration experiment where habitat patches of different sizes were planted. I examined the effects of predator vocalizations (direct cues) on the vigilance behavior of Cherrie's Tanagers (Ramphocelus costaricensis) foraging in three different locations with varying amounts of vegetation cover (indirect cues): small patches and the centers and edges of large patches. Results show that the indirect cue of predation risk mediated birds' response to the direct cue. The increase in time birds spent alert in response to the predator call was significantly greater in the presumably riskier small patches and large patch edges compared to the relatively safe large patch centers. The increase in frequency of head-turns also was significantly greater in small patches compared to the large patch centers in response to the predator call. Although birds recognized the threat of the predator call and reacted by fleeing more quickly than after the non-predator call, this response did not differ between locations. Birds appeared to integrate information from both types of cues to evaluate their predation risk and determine their vigilance response. Individuals responded more strongly to the direct cue of predation risk when foraging in the presumably riskier smaller patches and large patch edges by increasing vigilance. These results highlight the importance of investigating behavioral responses to the characteristics of forest restoration sites, many of which consist of small patches of habitat. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

Sharkey T.D.,Michigan State University | Monson R.K.,University of Arizona
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2014

Isoprene emission from plants plays a dominant role in atmospheric chemistry. Predicting how isoprene emission may change in the future will help predict changes in atmospheric oxidant, greenhouse gas and secondary organic aerosol concentrations in the future atmosphere. At the leaf-scale, an increase in isoprene emission with increasing temperature is offset by a reduction in isoprene emission rate caused by increased CO2. At the canopy scale, increased leaf area index in elevated CO2 can offset the reduction in leaf-scale isoprene emission caused by elevated CO2. At the landscape scale, a reduction in forest coverage may decrease, while forest fertilization and community composition dynamics are likely to cause an increase in the global isoprene emission rate. Here we review the potential for changes in the isoprene emission rate at all of these scales. When considered together, it is likely that these interacting effects will result in an increase in the emission of the most abundant plant volatile, isoprene, from the biosphere to the atmosphere in the future. About the same amount of isoprene is emitted from vegetation to the atmosphere as all other non-methane hydrocarbons combined. Isoprene emission is very sensitive to environmental variables, especially variables likely to change in the future such as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. These will affect isoprene emission both directly because of changes at the leaf level and indirectly as a result of landscape level effects of global change. We review what is known about how isoprene emission will change in the future and conclude that, on balance, isoprene emission is likely to be greater in the future than it is today. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Robison A.J.,Michigan State University
Trends in Neurosciences | Year: 2014

Although it has been known for decades that hippocampal calcium/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) plays an essential role in learning and memory consolidation, the roles of CaMKII in other brain regions are only recently being explored in depth. A series of recent studies suggest that CaMKII dysfunction throughout the brain may underlie myriad neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction, schizophrenia, depression, epilepsy, and multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, perhaps through maladaptations in glutamate signaling and neuroplasticity. I review here the structure, function, subcellular localization, and expression patterns of CaMKII isoforms, as well as recent advances demonstrating that disturbances in these properties may contribute to psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

McNew J.A.,Rice University | Sondermann H.,Cornell University | Lee T.,Carnegie Mellon University | Stern M.,Rice University | Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2013

Shape changes and topological remodeling of membranes are essential for the identity of organelles and membrane trafficking. Although all cellular membranes have common features, membranes of different organelles create unique environments that support specialized biological functions. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a prime example of this specialization, as its lipid bilayer forms an interconnected system of cisternae, vesicles, and tubules, providing a highly compartmentalized structure for a multitude of biochemical processes. A variety of peripheral and integral membrane proteins that facilitate membrane curvature generation, fission, and/or fusion have been identified over the past two decades. Among these, the dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) have emerged as key players. Here, we review recent advances in our functional and molecular understanding of fusion DRPs, exemplified by atlastin, an ER-resident DRP that controls ER structure, function, and signaling. © 2013 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

Cox C.L.,Michigan State University
Current Opinion in Neurobiology | Year: 2014

Neuronal output typically involves neurotransmitter release via axonal terminals; however, a subpopulation of neurons can also release neurotransmitters through vesicle-containing presynaptic dendrites. In the thalamus, local circuit inhibitory interneurons are a class of cells that can release γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via both axon terminals (termed F1 terminals) as well as presynaptic, vesicle-containing dendrites (termed F2 terminals). For example, in the visual thalamus, these F2 terminals are tightly coupled to the primary sensory afferents (axons of retinogeniculate neurons) that synapse onto thalamocortical relay neurons. The F2 terminals are primarily localized to distal dendrites of the interneurons, and in certain situations the excitation/output of F2 terminals can occur independent of somatic activity within the interneuron thereby allowing these F2 terminals to serve as independent input/output components giving rise to focal inhibition. On the other hand, somatically evoked Na+-dependent action potentials can backpropagate throughout the dendritic arbor of the interneuron. The transient depolarizations, or stronger somatically initiated events (e.g. activation of low threshold calcium transients) can initiate a backpropagating Ca2+-mediated potential that invades the dendritic arbor activating F2 terminals and leading to a global form of inhibition. These distinct types of output (focal versus global) could play an important role in the temporal as well as spatial roles of inhibition that in turn impacts thalamocortical information processing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liu H.,Michigan State University | Waite L.,University of Chicago
Journal of Health and Social Behavior | Year: 2014

Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckmantype corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. © American Sociological Association 2014.

Pleskac T.J.,Michigan State University | Busemeyer J.R.,Indiana University
Psychological Review | Year: 2010

The 3 most often-used performance measures in the cognitive and decision sciences are choice, response or decision time, and confidence. We develop a random walk/diffusion theory-2-stage dynamic signal detection (2DSD) theory-that accounts for all 3 measures using a common underlying process. The model uses a drift diffusion process to account for choice and decision time. To estimate confidence, we assume that evidence continues to accumulate after the choice. Judges then interrupt the process to categorize the accumulated evidence into a confidence rating. The model explains all known interrelationships between the 3 indices of performance. Furthermore, the model also accounts for the distributions of each variable in both a perceptual and general knowledge task. The dynamic nature of the model also reveals the moderating effects of time pressure on the accuracy of choice and confidence. Finally, the model specifies the optimal solution for giving the fastest choice and confidence rating for a given level of choice and confidence accuracy. Judges are found to act in a manner consistent with the optimal solution when making confidence judgments. © 2010 American Psychological Association.

Janulis P.,Michigan State University
American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse | Year: 2014

Background: Recent research highlights the multiple steps to preparing and injecting drugs and the resultant viral threats faced by drug users. This research suggests that more sensitive measurement of injection drug HIV risk behavior is required. In addition, growing evidence suggests there are gender differences in injection risk behavior. However, the potential for differential item functioning between genders has not been explored. Objectives: To explore item response theory as an improved measurement modeling technique that provides empirically justified scaling of injection risk behavior and to examine for potential gender-based differential item functioning. Methods: Data is used from three studies in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. A two-parameter item response theory model was used to scale injection risk behavior and logistic regression was used to examine for differential item functioning. Results: Item fit statistics suggest that item response theory can be used to scale injection risk behavior and these models can provide more sensitive estimates of risk behavior. Additionally, gender-based differential item functioning is present in the current data. Conclusion: Improved measurement of injection risk behavior using item response theory should be encouraged as these models provide increased congruence between construct measurement and the complexity of injection-related HIV risk. Suggestions are made to further improve injection risk behavior measurement. Furthermore, results suggest direct comparisons of composite scores between males and females may be misleading and future work should account for differential item functioning before comparing levels of injection risk behavior. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.

Andrechek E.R.,Michigan State University
Oncogene | Year: 2013

HER2/Neu is amplified and overexpressed in a large proportion of human breast cancers, but the signaling pathways that contribute to tumor development and metastatic progression are not completely understood. Using gene expression data and pathway signatures, we predicted a role for activator E2F transcription factors in Neu-induced tumors. This was genetically tested by interbreeding Neu transgenics with knockouts of the three activator E2Fs. Loss of any E2F delayed Neu-induced tumor onset. E2F1 loss accelerated tumor growth, while E2F2 and E2F3 loss did not. Strikingly, it was observed that loss of E2F1 or E2F2 significantly reduced the metastatic capacity of the tumor and this was associated with a reduction in circulating tumor cells in the E2F2 knockout. Gene expression analysis between the tumors in the various E2F-mutant backgrounds revealed that there was extensive compensation by other E2F family members in the individual knockouts, underscoring the importance of the E2Fs in HER2/Neu-induced tumors. Extension to HER2-positive (HER2+) human breast cancer revealed a number of HER2+ subtypes based on E2F activity with differences in relapse-free survival times. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the E2F transcription factors are integral to HER2+ tumor development and progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.540.

Toriello H.V.,Michigan State University
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2011

It now recognized that the use of folate fortification and/or supplementation before initiation of pregnancy can impact the risk of the fetus developing a neural tube defect. This document serves to update the policy statement issued by the American College of Medical Genetics and published in 2005. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tan H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Liang W.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Hu J.,Michigan State University | Zhang D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University
Developmental Cell | Year: 2012

In flowering plants, formation of the haploid male gametophytes in anthers requires the interaction between reproductive cells and the neighboring somatic cells, yet the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we reveal the crucial role of a fasciclin glycoprotein, MICROSPORE AND TAPETUM REGULATOR1 (MTR1), in controlling the development of sporophytic and reproductive cells in rice (Oryza sativa). MTR1 is specifically expressed in the male reproductive cells, yet its mutant exhibits defects in both tapetum and microspore development, causing complete male sterility. We also demonstrate that the fasciclin domains, N-glycolation, and N-terminal signal peptide-mediated plasma membrane localization of MTR1 are required for normal anther development and pollen fertility. Our findings show that rice male reproductive cells secrete the MTR1 protein to control the development of reproductive cells and their adjacent somatic cells, thus providing novel insights into the mechanism of plant male reproductive development.

Kaur N.,Michigan State University
Sub-cellular biochemistry | Year: 2013

In higher plants, light-grown seedlings exhibit photomorphogenesis, a developmental program controlled by a complex web of interactions between photoreceptors, central repressors, and downstream effectors that leads to changes in gene expression and physiological changes. Light induces peroxisomal proliferation through a phytochrome A-mediated pathway, in which the transcription factor HYH activates the peroxisomal proliferation factor gene PEX11b. Microarray analysis revealed that light activates the expression of a number of peroxisomal genes, especially those involved in photorespiration, a process intimately associated with photosynthesis. In contrast, light represses the expression of genes involved in β-oxidation and the glyoxylate cycle, peroxisomal pathways essential for seedling establishment before photosynthesis begins. Furthermore, the peroxisome is a source of signaling molecules, notably nitric oxide, which promotes photomorphogenesis. Lastly, a gain-of-function mutant of the peroxisomal membrane-tethered RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase PEX2 partially suppresses the phenotype of the photomorphogenic mutant det1. Possible mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed.

Mcalister A.R.,Michigan State University | Peterson C.C.,University of Queensland
Child Development | Year: 2013

Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children aged 3 years 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling influences suggests that benefits-in terms of advanced ToM development-accrue to children with siblings versus without, and to those with a larger number of child-aged siblings. Any advance in either area (ToM or EF) is likely to benefit the other, and early sibling interaction appears to act as a catalyst. © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

Nazeer A.,Michigan State University
Pediatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2011

This article provides an overview of the psychopharmacologic management of irritability, hyperactivity, and repetitive behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A review of the current literature on medications used to treat these conditions with emphasis on randomized controlled trials is presented. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Reusch R.N.,Michigan State University
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2012

Poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrates (PHB), linear polymers of (R)-3- hydroxybutyrate, are components of all biological cells in which short polymers (<200 monomer residues) are covalently attached to certain proteins and/or noncovalently associated with polyphosphates - inorganic polyphosphate (polyP), RNA, and DNA. The low concentrations, lack of unusual atoms or functional groups, and flexible backbones of this complexed PHB, referred to as cPHB, make them invisible to many analytical procedures; whereas other physical properties - water-insolubility, high intrinsic viscosity, temperature sensitivity, multiple bonding interactions with other molecules - make them requisite participants in vital physiological processes as well as contributors to the development of certain diseases. © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

Bourdeau P.E.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Bourdeau P.E.,Michigan State University
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

Many organisms have evolved inducible defences in response to spatial and temporal variability in predation risk. These defences are assumed to incur large costs to prey; however, few studies have investigated the mechanisms and costs underlying these adaptive responses. I examined the proximate cause of predator-induced shell thickening in a marine snail (Nucella lamellosa) and tested whether induced thickening leads to an increase in structural strength. Results indicate that although predators (crabs) induce thicker shells, the response is a passive by-product of reduced feeding and somatic growth rather than an active physiological response to predation risk. Physical tests indicate that although the shells of predator-induced snails are significantly stronger, the increase in performance is no different than that of snails with limited access to food. Increased shell strength is attributable to an increase in the energetically inexpensive microstructural layer rather than to material property changes in the shell. This mechanism suggests that predator-induced shell defences may be neither energetically nor developmentally costly. Positive correlations between antipredator behaviour and morphological defences may explain commonly observed associations between growth reduction and defence production in other systems and could have implications for the evolutionary potential of these plastic traits. © 2009 The Royal Society.

Cupples A.M.,Michigan State University
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2013

The explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) has caused significant soil and groundwater contamination. To remediate these sites, there is a need to determine which microorganisms are responsible for in situ biodegradation of RDX to enable the appropriate planning of bioremediation efforts. Here, studies are examined that have reported on the microbial communities linked with RDX biodegradation. Dominant microorganisms across samples are discussed and summarized. This information is then compared to current knowledge on RDX degrading isolates to predict which organisms may be responsible for RDX degradation in soils and groundwater. From the phyla with known RDX degrading isolates, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria (particularly Gammaproteobacteria) were the most dominant organisms in many contaminated site derived samples. Organisms in the phyla Deltaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria were dominant in these studies less frequently. Notably, organisms within the class Betaproteobacteria were dominant in many samples and yet this class does not appear to contain any known RDX degraders. This analysis is valuable for the future development of molecular techniques to track the occurrence and abundance of RDX degraders at contaminated sites. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Solomon D.J.,Michigan State University | Bjork B.-C.,Hanken School of Economics
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Open access (OA) journals distribute their content at no charge and use other means of funding the publication process. Publication fees or article-processing charges (APC)s have become the predominant means for funding professional OA publishing. We surveyed 1,038 authors who recently published articles in 74 OA journals that charge APCs stratified into seven discipline categories. Authors were asked about the source of funding for the APC, factors influencing their choice of a journal and past history publishing in OA and subscription journals. Additional information about the journal and the authors' country were obtained from the journal website. A total of 429 (41%) authors from 69 journals completed the survey. There were large differences in the source of funding among disciplines. Journals with impact factors charged higher APCs as did journals from disciplines where grant funding is plentiful. Fit, quality, and speed of publication were the most important factors in the authors' choice of a journal. OA was less important but a significant factor for many authors in their choice of a journal to publish. These findings are consistent with other research on OA publishing and suggest that OA publishing funded through APCs is likely to continue to grow. © 2011 ASIS&T.

Neal Z.,Michigan State University
Urban Studies | Year: 2011

Centrality and power have become common foci for world city network research and frequently serve as tools for describing cities' position or status in the system. However, these concepts are difficult to define and measure. Often they are treated as equivalent: more central cities have more power. This paper challenges this assumed equivalence by proposing conceptually distinct definitions and developing two new measures that allow them to be differentiated empirically. Applying the proposed measures in a hypothetical world city network and the Internet backbone network reveals that centrality and power are distinct and suggests that world cities should be viewed as arising from multidimensional network positions that define multiple types: quintessential world cities that are both central and powerful (such as New York and London), hub world cities that are central but not powerful (such as Washington and Brussels) and gateway world cities that are powerful but not central (such as Miami and Stockholm). © 2010 Urban Studies Journal Limited.

Liu J.,Michigan State University | Raven P.H.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

After three decades of exceptional economic growth, China has become a global economic powerhouse. As the economy has grown, though, so have China's environmental challenges, causing enormous socioeconomic consequences for China and the rest of the world. The global financial crisis has prompted China to create more domestic demand for consumption and implement massive infrastructure construction. Although China has the second-largest total gross domestic product (GDP) in the world, its per capita GDP is still much lower than per capita GDP of developed countries: there is much room for further increase in GDP and consequent environmental challenges. Despite China's many efforts to protect the environment and improve resource use efficiency, increasing environmental pollution and resource scarcity have become a severe bottleneck for sustainable development. Because of China's size, these and other challenges and opportunities have huge implications for the world. However, literature related to China's various environmental challenges and rapid changes is scattered. In this article, we outline China's socioeconomic transformation, synthesize China's environmental challenges and their interrelationships, illustrate impacts of environmental challenges on human well-being in China and beyond, and offer a systems approach to addressing environmental sustainability. © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

The effect of distance-decay on nutrient flux usually plays an important role in nutrient retention from non-point sources to surface waters. However, the distance-decay effect has been inappropriately neglected in many studies that adopted regression modeling method to quantify the relationship between watershed landscape and in-stream nutrient loading level. The goal of this study was to develop non-linear regression models that better quantify the role of distance on non-point source nutrient loads in rivers by using simulation results of a spatially-explicit model applied to the watersheds in the Upper Chattahoochee River Basin, Georgia. Because a detailed spatially-explicit modeling approach typically simulates the nutrient flux across the entire watershed, it provides opportunities to examine the nutrient decay patterns at watershed scale. The simulation results confirmed that regarding the effect of flow distance on nutrient loading, the exponential decay setting in the spatially-explicit model performs well. Other heterogeneous factors including slope and soil conditions do affect the decay results but not strongly enough to change the general exponential patterns. The nutrient contribution from areas that were greater than 300 meters to the river network was negligible. It was also found that the decay rate for urban lands is lower than that for other land-covers. Based on these findings, a spatial aggregation strategy in the lateral dimension of the river network was adopted and eight non-linear regression models which explicitly addressed the effects of distance-decay were designed to estimate the nutrient annual average loads. The model validation results showed that three of them can well estimate the nutrient loads. This study shows the usage of stream-lateral-dimension aggregation strategy in addressing nutrient distance-decay patterns and developing simple regression models of nutrient loading. This study also illustrates the advantages of using comprehensive spatially-explicit models to design and configure simpler regression models for improving our understanding of nutrient export from land to water. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Although the technical and human resources for epilepsy care and classification are located largely in high income countries, most people with epilepsy reside in developing regions of the world. Advances over the past two decades in the clinical and basic neurosciences have transformed epilepsy care and largely drive the present need for a revised epilepsy classification. These advances have been mirrored by new knowledge about epilepsy in tropical, resource limited settings. A nonhierarchical, multidimensional approach to classification that includes dimensions that can be ascertained in, and are relevant to, resource-limited settings is needed. Such a classification system could be designed for relevance at tertiary care settings in developed regions as well as primary health care settings in developing regions. Insights from the global use of such a classification approach would also offer opportunities to gain complementary information regarding epilepsy across a broad range of settings and could provide new insights into epilepsy and epileptogenesis. Failure to develop a classification inclusive of the developing world would exclude 80% of the epilepsies globally. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

Walton J.D.,Michigan State University
Biopolymers | Year: 2010

Some species of mushrooms in the genus Amanita are extremely poisonous and frequently fatal to mammals including humans and dogs. Their extreme toxicity is due to amatoxins such as alpha- and beta-amanitin. Amanita mushrooms also biosynthesize a chemically related group of toxins, the phallotoxins, such as phalloidin. The amatoxins and phallotoxins (collectively known as the Amanita toxins) are bicyclic octa- and heptapeptides, respectively. Both contain an unusual Trp-Cys crossbridge known as tryptathionine. We have shown that, in Amanita bisporigera, the amatoxins and phallotoxins are synthesized as proproteins on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. The proproteins are 34-35 amino acids in length and have no predicted signal peptides. The genes for alpha-amanitin (AMA1) and phallacidin (PHA1) are members of a large family of related genes, characterized by highly conserved amino acid sequences flanking a hypervariable "toxin" region. The toxin regions are flanked by invariant proline (Pro) residues. An enzyme that could cleave the proprotein of phalloidin was purified from the phalloidin-producing lawn mushroom Conocybe apala. The enzyme is a serine protease in the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) subfamily. The same enzyme cuts at both Pro residues to release the linear hepta- or octapeptide.

In this discussion of contributed papers for the special issue of DAD, the author draws attention to early American laws concerning cannabis and to statements made about the epidemiology of cannabis smoking and other drug use between 1858 and the contemporary scene, with coverage of opium, heroin, tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, kava, and other drugs. He discusses these steppingstone and gateway processes in relation to political environment and in relation to scientific challenges such as uncontrolled confounding. He provides a critique of between-individual research designs, including co-twin and co-sib designs of behavior genetics, as well as imaging research, where uncontrolled confounding often exists. He highlights the epidemiologic case-crossover design and prevention research experiments as potentially valuable approaches in new directions for research on the steppingstone and gateway processes. © 2012.

Swenson N.G.,Michigan State University
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

The present-day spatial distribution of interspecific contact zones and intraspecific phylogeographical breaks provides a window into the past ecological and evolutionary processes that underlie speciation and species ranges. The clustering of contact zones and/or phylogeographical breaks in space indicates the suturing of diverged biotas. The presence of such suture zones indicates that similar ecological and historical factors have influenced the past and present distributions of populations and their divergence. Thus, suture zones are ideal natural laboratories for studying divergence, secondary contact and speciation across many different taxa. The concept of suture zones was formalized decades ago by Remington (1968), but only a few detailed and quantitative investigations of suture zones exist (Swenson & Howard 2004, 2005; Whinnett 2005; Moritz 2009). This limited number of investigations is largely because of a lack of detailed geographical data and sophisticated analytical tools. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rissler & Smith (2010) have accomplished a detailed investigation into the suturing of amphibian lineages in the United States which uses both detailed geographical data and sophisticated analytical methods. The work greatly enhances our knowledge of suture zones by extending previous work that has focused less on amphibians and by explicitly considering the relationship between species richness and suture zones. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Pestka J.J.,Michigan State University
World Mycotoxin Journal | Year: 2010

Produced by the mould genus Fusarium, the type B trichothecenes include deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and their acetylated precursors. These mycotoxins often contaminate cereal staples, posing a potential threat to public health that is still incompletely understood. Understanding the mechanistic basis by which these toxins cause toxicity in experimental animal models will improve our ability to predict the specific thresholds for adverse human effects as well as the persistence and reversibility of these effects. Acute exposure to DON and NIV causes emesis in susceptible species such as pigs in a manner similar to that observed for certain bacterial enterotoxins. Chronic exposure to these mycotoxins at low doses causes growth retardation and immunotoxicity whereas much higher doses can interfere with reproduction and development. Pathophysiological events that precede these toxicities include altered neuroendocrine responses, upregulation of proinflammatory gene expression, interference with growth hormone signalling and disruption of gastrointestinal tract permeability. The underlying molecular mechanisms involve deregulation of protein synthesis, aberrant intracellular cell signalling, gene transactivation, mRNA stabilisation and programmed cell death. A fusion of basic and translational research is now needed to validate or refine existing risk assessments and regulatory standards for DON and NIV. From the perspective of human health translation, biomarkers have been identified that potentially make it possible to conduct epidemiological studies relating DON consumption to potential adverse human health effects. Of particular interest will be linkages to growth retardation, gastrointestinal illness and chronic autoimmune diseases. Ultimately, such knowledge can facilitate more precise science-based risk assessment and management strategies that protect consumers without reducing availability of critical food sources. © 2010 Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Ivezic Z.,University of Washington | Beers T.C.,National Optical Astronomy Observatory | Beers T.C.,Michigan State University | Juric M.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Studies of stellar populations, understood to mean collections of stars with common spatial, kinematic, chemical, and/or age distributions, have been reinvigorated during the past decade by the advent of large-area sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, the Radial Velocity Experiment, and others. We review recent analyses of these data that, together with theoretical and modeling advances, are revolutionizing our understanding of the nature of the Milky Way and galaxy formation and evolution in general. The formation of galaxies like the Milky Way was long thought to be a steady process leading to a smooth distribution of stars. However, the abundance of substructure in the multidimensional space of various observables, such as position, kinematics, and metallicity, is now proven beyond doubt and demonstrates the importance of mergers in the growth of galaxies. Unlike smooth models that involve simple components, the new data reviewed here clearly exhibit many irregular structures, such as the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream and the Virgo and Pisces overdensities in the halo and the Monoceros stream closer to the Galactic plane. These recent developments have made it clear that the Milky Way is a complex and dynamic structure, one that is still being shaped by the merging of neighboring smaller galaxies. We also briefly discuss the next generation of wide-field sky surveys, such as SkyMapper, Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will improve measurement precision manyfold and include billions of individual stars. The ultimate goal, development of a coherent and detailed story of the assembly and evolutionary history of the Milky Way and other large spirals like it, now appears well within reach. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews.

Shingleton A.W.,Michigan State University
Organogenesis | Year: 2010

The correct regulation of organ size is a fundamental developmental process, the failure of which can compromise organ function and organismal integrity. Consequently, the mechanisms that regulate organ size have been subject to intense research. This research has highlighted four classes of mechanism that are involved in organ size regulation: physiology, plasticity, patterning and physical force. Nevertheless, how these mechanisms are integrated and converge on the cellular process that regulate organ growth is unknown. One group of animals where this integration is beginning to be achieved is in the insects. Here, i review the different mechanisms that regulate organ size in insects, and describe our current understanding of how these mechanisms interact. The genes and hormones involved are remarkably conserved in all animals, so these studies in insects provide a precedent for future research on organ size regulation in mammals.

Melde C.,Michigan State University | Esbensen F.-A.,University of Missouri-St. Louis
Criminology | Year: 2011

Gang-involved youth are disproportionately involved in criminal behavior, especially violence. The processes accounting for this enhanced illegal activity, however, remain speculative. Employing a life-course perspective, we propose that gang membership can be conceptualized as a turning point in the lives of youth and is thus associated with changes in emotions, attitudes, and routine activities, which, in turn, increase illegal activity. Using prospective data from a multisite sample of more than 1,400 youth, the findings suggest that the onset of gang membership is associated with a substantial change in emotions, attitudes, and social controls conducive to delinquency and partially mediate the impact of gang membership on delinquent activity. Desistance from gangs, however, was not associated with similar systematic changes in these constructs, including delinquent involvement. © 2011 American Society of Criminology.

Chen B.-Y.,Michigan State University
Tamkang Journal of Mathematics | Year: 2014

Submanifolds of finite type were introduced by the author during the late 1970s. The first results on this subject were collected in author's books [26, 29]. In 1991, a list of twelve open problems and three conjectures on finite type submanifolds was published in [40]. A detailed survey of the results, up to 1996, on this subject was given by the author in [48]. Recently, the study of finite type submanifolds, in particular, of biharmonic submanifolds, have received a growing attention with many progresses since the beginning of this century. In this article, we provide a detailed account of recent development on the problems and conjectures listed in [40].

Feng J.,Tsinghua University | Jain A.K.,Michigan State University | Jain A.K.,Korea University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

Fingerprint matching systems generally use four types of representation schemes: grayscale image, phase image, skeleton image, and minutiae, among which minutiae-based representation is the most widely adopted one. The compactness of minutiae representation has created an impression that the minutiae template does not contain sufficient information to allow the reconstruction of the original grayscale fingerprint image. This belief has now been shown to be false; several algorithms have been proposed that can reconstruct fingerprint images from minutiae templates. These techniques try to either reconstruct the skeleton image, which is then converted into the grayscale image, or reconstruct the grayscale image directly from the minutiae template. However, they have a common drawback: Many spurious minutiae not included in the original minutiae template are generated in the reconstructed image. Moreover, some of these reconstruction techniques can only generate a partial fingerprint. In this paper, a novel fingerprint reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the phase image, which is then converted into the grayscale image. The proposed reconstruction algorithm not only gives the whole fingerprint, but the reconstructed fingerprint contains very few spurious minutiae. Specifically, a fingerprint image is represented as a phase image which consists of the continuous phase and the spiral phase (which corresponds to minutiae). An algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the continuous phase from minutiae. The proposed reconstruction algorithm has been evaluated with respect to the success rates of type-I attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against the original fingerprint) and type-II attack (match the reconstructed fingerprint against different impressions of the original fingerprint) using a commercial fingerprint recognition system. Given the reconstructed image from our algorithm, we show that both types of attacks can be successfully launched against a fingerprint recognition system. © 2011 IEEE.

Jain A.K.,Michigan State University | Feng J.,Tsinghua University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011

Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy. © 2006 IEEE.

Wu L.,University of Sydney | Yang J.M.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics | Yuan C.-P.,Michigan State University | Zhang M.,CAS Institute of Theoretical Physics
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

Measuring the Higgs self-coupling is one of the crucial physics goals at the LHC Run-2 and other future colliders. In this work, we attempt to figure out the size of SUSY effects on the trilinear self-coupling of the 125 GeV Higgs boson in the MSSM and NMSSM after the LHC Run-1. Taking account of current experimental constraints, such as the Higgs data, flavor constraints, electroweak precision observables and dark matter detections, we obtain the observations: (1) In the MSSM, the ratio λ3hMSSM/λ3hSM has been tightly constrained by the LHC data, which can be only slightly smaller than 1 and minimally reach 97%; (2) In the NMSSM with λ<0.7, a sizable reduction of λ3h2NMSSM/λ3h2SM can occur and minimally reach 10% when the lightest CP-even Higgs boson mass mh1 is close to the SM-like Higgs boson mh2 due to the large mixing angle between the singlet and doublet Higgs bosons; (3) In the NMSSM with λ>0.7, a large enhancement or reduction -1.1<λ3h1NMSSM/λ3h1SM<2 can occur, which is accompanied by a sizable change of h1τ+τ- coupling. The future colliders, such as the HL-LHC and ILC, will have the capacity to test these large deviations in the NMSSM. © 2015 The Authors.

Olson R.S.,Michigan State University
Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society | Year: 2013

Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint--predator confusion--could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey.

Vignaroli N.,Iowa State University | Vignaroli N.,Michigan State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We analyze the bounds on the spectrum of composite Higgs models that come from flavor observables, by means of simple two-site effective Lagrangians, which incorporate a custodial symmetry and a left-right parity, and which could also be adopted in further phenomenological studies on composite Higgs models. We derive, in particular, an important constraint on the masses of the (t L,bL) partners, which does not depend on the flavor structure of the sector beyond the Standard Model. This bound is obtained from the "infrared" contribution to b→sγ induced by the flavor-conserving effective vertex WtRbR. We find that the presence of a custodial symmetry can play a role in protecting this effective coupling and, as a consequence, in attenuating the constraint, which, however, remains of the order of 1 TeV. In addition to this bound, we calculate the constraints from the "ultraviolet" contribution to b→sγ, induced by loops of heavy fermions, and to μ′/μ K. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Basso B.,Michigan State University
Vadose Zone Journal | Year: 2012

Studies on water use efficiency (WUE) have primarily dealt with crops grown under water limited conditions and have usually not considered crop management factors other than irrigation. Improvements in crop management strategies, such as supplemental irrigation, proper fertilizer use, plant population and row-spacing, and new cultivars, attempt to minimize a crop exposure to soil water deficits. Under these circumstances, factors other than water supply can become limiting and production related to evaporation may not be a useful approach. Crop simulation models like CERES and SALUS have proven capability to provide reasonable estimates of each evaporation component as affected by management. Using simulated transpiration to estimate growth through transpiration efficiency, or simulated growth to estimate transpiration has major limitations when management influences yield and water supply is fixed or non-limiting. The microenvironment in sparse canopies strongly influences transpiration and soil evaporation due to large possible variations in sensible heat arising from variations in wetness of the soil surface. Crop growth is related to photosynthesis and plant development rates and is influenced primarily by intercepted photosynthetically active radiation whereas evaporation is influenced by a wider spectrum of energy. Factors related to management such as plant population and nutrient supply influences biomass production but has less influence on evaporation rates. Our analysis of published data and simulation studies indicates the use of simulated transpiration to estimate growth, or growth simulations to estimate transpiration is an unreasonable approach when management influences yield and water supply is fixed or not-limiting. © Soil Science Society of America.

Rooney T.O.,Michigan State University | Deering C.D.,University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh
Geology | Year: 2014

Many arc silicic igneous provinces exhibit compositional variability defi ned by oscillation between dry and wet rhyolites. The origins of this variability are often uncertain due to the poor constraints on the compositions of the mantle-derived inputs to the lower crustal hybridization zones. The Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand, the most productive of modern silicic igneous provinces, exhibits variability of rhyolite compositions, but small-volume coeval basaltic eruptions also occur, making it an ideal location to study the mantle contributions to these distinctive types of rhyolite. Here we present major and trace element data from 12 magmatic centers that reveal that mafi c units from the northern portion of the central TVZ are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE) in comparison to the southern TVZ. The results of models quantifying slab-derived contributions to the mantle suggest that the observed heterogeneity in LILE concentrations, and volatile fugacities, can be explained by variable amounts of subduction-derived fl uid within the melting region of the basalts. These new data and modeling results provide the fi rst direct evidence that the spatial diversity in the fl ux of mantle-derived basalts and associated volatile elements into the lower crustal differentiation system of the TVZ are coincident with wet to dry rhyolite compositional variability. © 2013 Geological Society of America.

Chomiuk L.,Michigan State University | Chomiuk L.,U.S. National Radio Astronomy Observatory
Publications of the Astronomical Society of Australia | Year: 2013

SN 2011fe is the nearest supernova of Type Ia (SN Ia) discovered in the modern multi-wavelength telescope era, and it also represents the earliest discovery of an SN Ia to date. As a normal SN Ia, SN 2011fe provides an excellent opportunity to decipher long-standing puzzles about the nature of SNe Ia. In this review, we summarise the extensive suite of panchromatic data on SN 2011fe and gather interpretations of these data to answer four key questions: (1) What explodes in an SN Ia? (2) How does it explode? (3) What is the progenitor of SN 2011fe? and (4) How accurate are SNe Ia as standardisable candles? Most aspects of SN 2011fe are consistent with the canonical picture of a massive CO white dwarf undergoing a deflagration-to-detonation transition. However, there is minimal evidence for a non-degenerate companion star, so SN 2011fe may have marked the merger of two white dwarfs. © 2013 Astronomical Society of Australia.

Vignaroli N.,Iowa State University | Vignaroli N.,Michigan State University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

Top partners from a new strong sector can be discovered soon, at the 8 TeV LHC, by analyzing their single production, which exhibits a large enhancement in the cross section compared to the analogous productions of bottom partners and exotic quarks. We analyze the subsequent decay of the top partners into a 125 GeV Higgs. This channel proves to be very promising for both the discovery of top partners and a test of the Higgs sector. For a reference value λ T∼=3 of the Higgs coupling to the top partner, we could have a discovery (observation) at the 8 TeV LHC, with 30fb -1, for top partner masses up to 760 (890) GeV. If the LHC and Tevatron excesses near 125 GeV are really due to a composite Higgs, naturalness arguments demand top partners below ∼1TeV. Our results highlight thus that the 8 TeV LHC already has a large sensitivity on probing the composite Higgs hypothesis. The LHC reach is even wider at √s=14TeV. With λ T∼=3 the LHC with 100fb -1 can observe (at 5σ) a Higgs from a top partner decay for masses of this latter up to ≃1450GeV. In the case that the top partner is as light as ≃500GeV, the 14 TeV LHC would be sensitive to the measure of the λ T∼ coupling in basically the full range λ T∼>1 predicted by the theory. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Steiner A.W.,University of Washington | Steiner A.W.,Michigan State University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

A quasistatistical equilibrium model is constructed to simulate the multicomponent composition of the crust of an accreting neutron star. The ashes of rp-process nucleosynthesis are driven by accretion through a series of electron captures, neutron emissions, and pycnonuclear fusions up to densities near the transition between the neutron star crust and core. A liquid droplet model which includes nuclear shell effects is used to provide nuclear masses far from stability. Reaction pathways are determined consistently with the nuclear mass model. The nuclear symmetry energy is an important uncertainty in the masses of the exotic nuclei in the inner crust and varying the symmetry energy changes the amount of deep crustal heating by as much as a factor of two. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Lau J.A.,Michigan State University
Oecologia | Year: 2012

Just as ecological indirect effects can have a wide range of consequences for community structure and ecosystem function, theory suggests that evolutionary indirect effects can also influence community dynamics and the outcome of species interactions. There is little empirical evidence documenting such effects, however. Here, I use a multi-generation selection experiment in the field to investigate: (1) how the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic insect herbivore Hypera brunneipennis affect the evolution of anti-herbivore resistance traits in the native plant Lotus wrangelianus and (2) how observed Lotus evolutionary responses to Hypera alter interactions between Lotus and other members of the herbivore community. In one of two study populations, I document rapid evolutionary changes in Lotus resistance to Hypera in response to insecticide treatments that experimentally reduced Hypera abundance, and in response to Medicago-removal treatments that also reduced Hypera abundance. These evolutionary changes in response to Hypera result in reduced attack by aphids. Thus, an evolutionary change caused by one herbivore species alters interactions with other herbivore taxa, an example of an eco-evolutionary feedback. Given that many traits mediate interactions with multiple species, the effects of evolutionary changes in response to one key biotic selective agent may often cascade through interaction webs to influence additional community members. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Pratt S.,Michigan State University
Physical Review C - Nuclear Physics | Year: 2012

In the canonical picture of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma during a high-energy heavy-ion collision, quarks are produced in two waves. The first is during the first fm/c of the collision, when gluons thermalize into the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). After a roughly isentropic expansion that roughly conserves the number of quarks, a second wave ensues at hadronization, 5-10 fm/c into the collision. Because entropy conservation requires the number of quasiparticles to stay roughly equal, and because each hadron contains at least two quarks, the majority of quark production occurs at this later time. For each quark produced in a heavy-ion collision, an antiquark of the same flavor is created at the same point in space-time. Charge balance functions identify, on a statistical basis, the location of balancing charges for a given hadron, and given the picture above one expects the distribution in relative rapidity of balancing charges to be characterized by two scales. After first demonstrating how charge balance functions can be defined using any pair of hadronic states, it is shown how one can identify and study both processes of quark production. Balance function observables are also shown to be sensitive to the charge-charge correlation function in the QGP. By considering balance functions of several hadronic species, and by performing illustrative calculations, this class of measurement appears to hold the prospect of providing the field's most quantitative insight into the chemical evolution of the QGP. © 2012 American Physical Society.

Ingersoll B.,Michigan State University
Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions | Year: 2011

Naturalistic interventions show promise for improving language in children with autism. Specific interventions differ in direct elicitation of child language and indirect language stimulation, and thus may produce different language outcomes. This study compared the effects of responsive interaction, milieu teaching, and a combined intervention on the type and communicative function of expressive language in two preschoolers with autism using a randomized alternating treatments design. Milieu teaching led to more overall language, prompted language, and requests than responsive interaction. Responsive interaction led to more comments than milieu teaching. The combined intervention was similar to milieu teaching for prompted language and requests and responsive interaction for child comments. Implications for treatment of language deficits in autism are discussed. © 2011 Hammill Institute on Disabilities.

Macnamara B.N.,Princeton University | Hambrick D.Z.,Michigan State University | Oswald F.L.,Rice University
Psychological Science | Year: 2014

More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.

English B.K.,Michigan State University
Journal of Infection | Year: 2014

Penicillin and related beta-lactam agents have been the most widely used and most important antimicrobials in medical history, and remain the recommended therapy for many infectious diseases 85 years after the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming. Yet the efficacy of these agents has been undermined by two factors - the emergence of clinically significant resistance to the antimicrobial activity of these agents, and clinical situations in which these drugs may be suboptimal (even though the bacterial pathogens are not "resistant" to the drugs). Observations in experimental infection models in animals (group A streptococcal myositis, pneumococcal meningitis and pneumonia, group B streptococcal sepsis) and in some cases clinical studies suggest that monotherapy with beta-lactam antibiotics may be inferior to treatment with other types of antibiotics, alone or in combination with beta-lactams - even in situations where the bacterial pathogens remain fully "susceptible" to beta-lactams invitro. © 2014 The British Infection Association.

Clark J.T.,Michigan State University
Journal of Statistical Physics | Year: 2013

I study a model for a massive one-dimensional particle in a singular periodic potential that is receiving kicks from a gas. The model is described by a Lindblad equation in which the Hamiltonian is a Schrödinger operator with a periodic δ-potential and the noise has a frictionless form arising in a Brownian limit. I prove that an emergent Markov process in an adiabatic limit governs the momentum distribution in the extended-zone scheme. The main result is a central limit theorem for a time integral of the momentum process, which is closely related to the particle's position. When normalized by t5/4 the integral process converges to a time-changed Brownian motion whose diffusion rate depends on the momentum process. The scaling t5/4 contrasts with t3/2, which would be expected for the case of a smooth periodic potential or for a comparable classical process. The difference is a wave effect driven by momentum reflections that occur when the particle's momentum is kicked near the half-spaced reciprocal lattice of the potential. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Nguyen K.,Michigan State University
Medical image computing and computer-assisted intervention : MICCAI ... International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention | Year: 2012

A novel gland segmentation and classification scheme applied to an H&E histology image of the prostate tissue is proposed. For gland segmentation, we associate appropriate nuclei objects with each lumen object to create a gland segment. We further extract 22 features to describe the structural information and contextual information for each segment. These features are used to classify a gland segment into one of the three classes: artifact, normal gland and cancer gland. On a dataset of 48 images at 5x magnification (which includes 525 artifacts, 931 normal glands and 1,375 cancer glands), we achieved the following classification accuracies: 93% for artifacts v. true glands; 79% for normal v. cancer glands, and 77% for discriminating all three classes. The proposed method outperforms state of the art methods in terms of segmentation and classification accuracies and computational efficiency.

Seedall R.B.,Utah State University | Anthony J.C.,Michigan State University
Drug and Alcohol Dependence | Year: 2013

Background: A specific facet of parental monitoring is known as 'limiting time with friends' (LTF). Here, we aim to learn whether LTF-associated differences in adolescent risk of starting to use tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs now might be as large as observed male-female risk differences. Methods: Data are from the US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, with annual large scale nationally representative samples of community-dwelling civilian age 12 years and older, conducted 2002-2009. Focus is on 12-17-year-old participants, assessed via computerized self-interviews. Risk differences are estimated for all 12-17 year olds, males and females separately, and in relation to the LTF facet of parenting. Results: Contingency table analyses disclose a female excess risk of initiating use of tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, opioids, and EMIRD, with male-female risk differences ranging from 0.1% (cocaine) to 1.6% (alcohol). LTF-associated risk differences were of similar magnitude for young people whose parents 'always' limit time with friends versus those with parents who are more relaxed about the LTF facet of parenting [e.g., RD. = 0.4% (cocaine); 1.5% (alcohol)]. Conclusions: Not just for tobacco, but also for other drugs, there now is female excess risk of extra-medical drug use. Drug-by-drug, observed LTF-associated risk differences are about the same size as the female excess risk. This evidence provides a rationale to sustain focus on the LTF facet of parenting if the goal is to enhance prevention of precocious drug involvement and to delay its onset until later in the adolescent or adult years. © 2013.

Durbin C.E.,Michigan State University
Child Development Perspectives | Year: 2010

A growing literature indicates that temperamental emotionality traits may represent diatheses for mood disorders. This article describes the advantages of laboratory methods for assessing these traits, reviews issues regarding their use, and argues that these techniques provide unique opportunities for advancing understanding of temperamental risk. © 2010 The Author. Child Development Perspectives © 2010 The Society for Research in Child Development.

Hoffman A.J.,Michigan State University
Cancer Nursing | Year: 2013

Background: In today's world, greater patient empowerment is imperative because 90 million Americans live with 1 or more chronic conditions such as cancer. Evidence reveals that healthy behaviors such as effective symptom self-management can prevent or reduce much of the suffering from cancer. Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in developing a symptom self-management plan that is critical to optimizing a patient's symptom self-management behaviors. Objective: This article uses exemplars to describe how oncology nurses can apply a tested middle-range theory, the Theory of Symptom Self-management, to clinical practice by incorporating interventions to increase a patient's perceived self-efficacy to optimize patient outcomes. Methods: The Theory of Symptom Self-management provides a means to understand the dynamic aspects of symptom self-management and provides a tested framework for the development of efficacy-enhancing interventions for use by oncology nurses in clinical practice. Results: Exemplars based on the Theory of Symptom Self-management depict how oncology nursing can use perceived self-efficacy-enhancing symptom self-management interventions to improve the functional status and quality of life of their patients. Conclusion: Guided by a theoretical approach, oncology nurses can have a significant positive impact on the lives of their patients by reducing the symptom burden associated with cancer and its treatment. Implications for Practice: Oncology nurses can partner with their patients to design tailored approaches to symptom self-management. These tailored approaches provide the ability to implement patient-specific behaviors that recognize, prevent, relieve, or decrease the timing, intensity, distress, concurrence, and unpleasant quality of symptoms. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ghosh S.M.,Michigan State University
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013

Most ectotherms show an inverse relationship between developmental temperature and body size, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule (TSR). Several competing hypotheses have been proposed to explain its occurrence. According to one set of views, the TSR results from inevitable biophysical effects of temperature on the rates of growth and differentiation, whereas other views suggest the TSR is an adaptation that can be achieved by a diversity of mechanisms in different taxa. Our data reveal that the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, obeys the TSR using a novel mechanism: reduction in critical size at higher temperatures. In holometabolous insects, attainment of critical size initiates the hormonal cascade that terminates growth, and hence, Drosophila larvae appear to instigate the signal to stop growth at a smaller size at higher temperatures. This is in contrast to findings from another holometabolous insect, Manduca sexta, in which the TSR results from the effect of temperature on the rate and duration of growth. This contrast suggests that there is no single mechanism that accounts for the TSR. Instead, the TSR appears to be an adaptation that is achieved at a proximate level through different mechanisms in different taxa.

Decker S.H.,Arizona State University | Melde C.,Michigan State University | Pyrooz D.C.,Sam Houston State University
Justice Quarterly | Year: 2013

This review provides an opportunity to assess the current state of gang research and suggest directions for its future. There has been a dramatic increase in research on gangs, gang members, and gang behavior since the early 1990s, making this review especially timely. We use Short's three-level framework of explanation to organize the findings of prior research, focusing on individual-, micro-, and macro-level research. Attention is focused on the findings of such research, but we also examine theoretical and methodological developments as well. Drawing from Short and life-course research, we introduce a cross-level temporal framework to guide future directions in gang research. © 2013 Copyright Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

Melde C.,Michigan State University | Esbensen F.-A.,University of Missouri-St. Louis
Journal of Quantitative Criminology | Year: 2013

Objectives: To determine whether membership in youth gangs provides a unique social forum for violence amplification. This study examines whether gang membership increases the odds of violent offending over and above involvement in general delinquent and criminal behavior. Methods: Five waves of data from a multi-site (seven cities) panel study of over 3,700 youth originally nested within 31 schools are analyzed. We estimate four level repeated measures item response theory models, which include a parameter to differentiate the difference in the log of the expected event-rate for violent offense items to the log of the expected event-rate for nonviolent offense items. Results: Depending on the comparison group (gang youth, overall sample), periods of active gang membership were associated with a 10 or 21% increase in the odds of involvement in violent incidents. When the sample is restricted to youth who report gang membership during the study, the proportionate increase in the odds of violence associated with gangs is statistically similar for males and females. After youth reported leaving the gang their propensity for violence was not significantly different than comparison group observations, although levels of general offending remain elevated. Conclusions: While results are limited by the school-based sampling strategy, the importance of gang prevention and intervention programming for violence reduction is highlighted. Preventing youth from gang membership or shortening the length of gang careers through interventions may reduce absolute levels of violence. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Gibbs C.,Michigan State University
British Journal of Criminology | Year: 2010

Environmental crimes, noncompliance and risks create significant harm to the health of humans and the natural world. Yet, the field of criminology has historically shown relatively little interest in the topic. The emergence of environmental or green criminology over the past decade marks a shift in this trend, but attempts to define a unique area of study have been extensively criticized. In the following paper, we offer a conceptual framework, called conservation criminology, designed to advance current discussions of green crime via the integration of criminology with natural resource disciplines and risk and decision sciences. Implications of the framework for criminological and general research on environmental crime and risks are discussed.

Walker R.,Michigan State University
Annals of the Association of American Geographers | Year: 2011

Global energy demand will increase through the twenty-first century. Competition for energy resources has already revealed geopolitical fault lines, and the dependence of industrial economies on fossil fuel promises to keep nations on edge. A widespread consensus has emerged that societies must transition to a new energy basis, given that fossil fuel is nonrenewable and its combustion leads to global warming. Although alternatives like nuclear energy and hydropower provide important electrical supplies locally, the search goes on, and recently much attention has focused on biofuel. Although biofuel represents a renewable and "green" energy, there is also a downside. This article considers one potential problem, namely, the impact of growing international biofuel demand on Amazônia. The article focuses on Brazil, given the explosive growth of Brazilian agriculture, and notable effects on forests within its national borders. The article seeks to answer this question: How will global demand for Brazil's land-based commodities, including biofuel, impact its tropical forest in the Amazon basin? In attempting to answer this question, the article describes recent agricultural expansion in Brazil and its emergent landscape of renewable energy. Using an adaptation of rent theory, it frames a concept of landscape cascade and shows how Brazil's expanding landscape of renewable energy is impacting forest areas at a great distance. The article then considers recent projections of demand for Amazonian land out to 2020, given growth of Brazilian biofuel production and cattle herds. The projections indicate that more Amazonian land will be demanded than has been made available by Brazilian environmental policy. With this result in mind, the article discusses the discursive dismemberment of Amazônia and how this articulates with efforts by Brazilian politicians to increase the region's land supply. The article points out that agricultural intensification holds the key to meeting global demand without degrading the Amazonian forest, a landscape unique in the world for its ecological and cultural riches. © 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

Geeslin A.G.,Michigan State University | LaPrade R.F.,Steadman Clinic
Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - Series A | Year: 2011

Background: Few studies have reported the outcomes of surgical treatment of an acute grade-III posterolateral knee injury. Our purpose was to report the objective stability and subjective outcomes for a prospective series of patients with an acute grade-III posterolateral knee injury treated with anatomic repair and/or reconstruction of all injured structures. Methods: A prospective study of all patients with a grade-III posterolateral knee injury treated with an anatomic repair and/or reconstruction within six weeks of injury was initiated in May 2005. International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) objective scores and bilateral varus stress radiographs were obtained at each visit, including preoperatively and at the final follow-up visit. In addition, all patients completed Cincinnati and IKDC subjective evaluations. All associated cruciate ligament tears were reconstructed concurrently. Results: Twenty-nine patients (twenty-four men and five women with a mean age of twenty-seven years) (thirty knees) were enrolled in the study. Eight knees had an isolated posterolateral corner injury, ten also had an anterior cruciate ligament tear, four also had a posterior cruciate ligament tear, and eight also had tears of both cruciate ligaments. Four patients were lost to follow-up prior to two years, resulting in a final study cohort of twenty-five patients (twenty-six knees). All five IKDC objective subscores had improved significantly at the time of the final follow-up evaluation at an average of 2.4 years postoperatively. Varus stress radiographs demonstrated a significant improvement in the side-to-side difference in the lateral compartment gap, from 6.2 mm preoperatively to 0.1 mm at the time of the final follow-up. The mean Cincinnati and IKDC subjective outcomes scores improved from 21.9 to 81.4 points and from 29.1 to 81.5 points, respectively. Conclusions: Treatment of grade-III posterolateral knee injuries with acute repair of avulsed structures, reconstruction of midsubstance tears, and concurrent reconstruction of any cruciate ligament tears resulted in significantly improved objective stability. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2011 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.