Michigan State University is a public research university located in East Lansing, Michigan, United States and is the first land-grant institution that was created to serve as a model for future land-grant colleges in the country under the 1862 Morrill Act.MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, and telecommunication. It is considered to be one of America's Public Ivy universities, which recognizes top public universities in the United States.Following the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is the seventh-largest university in the United States , with 49,300 students and 2,954 faculty members.MSU's Division I sports teams are called the Spartans. They compete in the Big Ten Conference in all sports. MSU's football team won the Rose Bowl in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014 and boasts six national championships. Its men's basketball team won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and is currently enjoying a streak of six Final Four appearances over the last 13 seasons. MSU men's ice hockey won national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007. Cross country has historically been Michigan State's most successful sport, especially during a four-decade period spanning roughly 1930–1970 during which the Spartans won eight NCAA championships and numerous other conference and national titles. Wikipedia.
Michigan State University | Date: 2016-08-30
The disclosure relates to a process and related article for functionalizing a porous membrane by contacting the membrane with a polyacid polymer at low pH to stably adsorb a polyacid layer on the membrane pore surface. The resulting functionalized membrane is characterized by a high density of free acid groups, resulting in a higher specific capacity for its intended application. The process allows functionalization of porous membranes in a very simple, one-step process. Such functional membranes may find multiple uses, including rapid, selective binding of proteins for their purification or immobilization.
Michigan State University | Date: 2016-09-09
Systems and methods are described for using microplasmas in 3D printing to deposit materials, remove materials, or modify the properties of materials deposited on a given substrate surface. The resulting microplasma-based 3D printing enables the integration of different types of materials into the same 3D printed structure that is not possible with current technology.
Michigan State University | Date: 2016-05-26
The disclosure relates to materials and articles that provide an irreversible history of compression forces and torques experienced by the materials and articles. The disclosure relates more particularly to an multiple impact level detection assembly as well as related articles and methods. The multiple impact level detection assembly provides distinct impact patterns depending on the impact force and direction (for torqueing motions) received by the detection assembly. The detection assembly can be incorporated into a variety of articles and used in a variety of settings, for example to monitor personal safety in a protective garment such as a helmet. The detection assembly incorporates an impact detection medium (e.g., a plurality of microcapsules with an indicator therein), which can serve as an irreversible means for detecting impact on the assembly via a relief substrate incorporated into the assembly.
Michigan State University | Date: 2016-08-03
A method for forming a compound on a substrate is provided. The method includes depositing a composition onto a surface of a substrate; illuminating the composition and the substrate with pulsed energy; melting the substrate and decomposing the composition simultaneously; and forming a compound on the substrate. A first component of the compound is derived from the substrate and a second component of the compound is derived from the composition.
Michigan State University, Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation and University of British Columbia | Date: 2017-03-08
The invention relates to nucleic acids encoding a feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase and the feruloyl-CoA:monolignol transferase enzyme that enables incorporation of monolignol ferulates, for example, including p-coumaryl ferulate, coniferyl ferulate, and sinapyl ferulate, into the lignin of plants.
Brown B.A.,Michigan State University |
Larsen A.A.C.,University of Oslo
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2014
A strong enhancement at low γ-ray energies has recently been discovered in the γ-ray strength function of Fe56,57. In this work, we have for the first time obtained theoretical γ decay spectra for states up to ≈8MeV in excitation for Fe56,57. We find large B(M1) values for low γ-ray energies that provide an explanation for the experimental observations. The role of mixed E2 transitions for the low-energy enhancement is addressed theoretically for the first time, and it is found that they contribute a rather small fraction. Our calculations clearly show that the high-(=f) diagonal terms are most important for the strong low-energy M1 transitions. As such types of 0ω transitions are expected for all nuclei, our results indicate that a low-energy M1 enhancement should be present throughout the nuclear chart. This could have far-reaching consequences for our understanding of the M1 strength function at high excitation energies, with profound implications for astrophysical reaction rates. © 2014 American Physical Society.
Brandizzi F.,Michigan State University
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2013
Coat protein complex I (COPI) and COPII are required for bidirectional membrane trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. While these core coat machineries and other transport factors are highly conserved across species, high-resolution imaging studies indicate that the organization of the ER-Golgi interface is varied in eukaryotic cells. Regulation of COPII assembly, in some cases to manage distinct cellular cargo, is emerging as one important component in determining this structure. Comparison of the ER-Golgi interface across different systems, particularly mammalian and plant cells, reveals fundamental elements and distinct organization of this interface. A better understanding of how these interfaces are regulated to meet varying cellular secretory demands should provide key insights into the mechanisms that control efficient trafficking of proteins and lipids through the secretory pathway. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Karban R.,University of California at Davis |
Yang L.H.,University of California at Davis |
Edwards K.F.,Michigan State University
Ecology Letters | Year: 2014
Volatile communication between plants causing enhanced defence has been controversial. Early studies were not replicated, and influential reviews questioned the validity of the phenomenon. We collected 48 well-replicated studies and found overall support for the hypothesis that resistance increased for individuals with damaged neighbours. Laboratory or greenhouse studies and those conducted on agricultural crops showed stronger induced resistance than field studies on undomesticated species, presumably because other variation had been reduced. A cumulative analysis revealed that early, non-replicated studies were more variable and showed less evidence for communication. Effects of habitat and plant growth form were undetectable. In most cases, the mechanisms of resistance and alternative hypotheses were not considered. There was no indication that some response variables were more likely to produce large effects. These results indicate that plants of diverse taxonomic affinities and ecological conditions become more resistant to herbivores when exposed to volatiles from damaged neighbours. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.
Michigan State University and AISIN AW Co. | Date: 2013-03-11
An improved gate drive circuit is provided for a power device, such as a transistor. The gate driver circuit may include: a current control circuit; a first secondary current source that is used to control the switching transient during turn off of the power transistor and a second secondary current source that is used to control the switching transient during turn on of the power transistor. In operation, the current control circuit operates, during turn on of the power transistor, to source a gate drive current to a control node of the power transistor and, during turn off of the power transistor, to sink a gate drive current from the control node of the power transistor. The first and second secondary current sources adjust the gate drive current to control the voltage or current rate of change and thereby the overshoot during the switching transient.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SFS-14b-2015 | Award Amount: 521.83K | Year: 2016
It is acknowledged that historically anti-food fraud capability within Europe has not been consolidated and lacks the coordination and support structures available to those working in food safety. There are various initiatives underway to redress this balance e.g. DGSants Food Fraud network, DG Researchs FoodIntegrity project, as well as numerous national programmes and industry initiatives. One pivotal area that still needs to be addressed is bringing together national research funding bodies to facilitate the development of transnational research programmes. AUTHENT-NET will address this need by mobilising and coordinating relevant research budget holders in order to facilitate the eventual development of a transnational European funding vehicle that will allow Members States (MS) to jointly fund anti-fraud research. Authent-Net comprises a core group of 19 participants from 10 MS, 1 NGO and the US, who are either National research funding bodies; experts in food authenticity, and/or experts in transnational funding mechanisms. AUTHENT-NET will: 1) Bring together relevant MS R&D budget holders to coordinate inter-disciplinary research effort and build a cohesive and sustainable network 2) Undertake stocktaking of existing national research and assess against the international landscape 3) Establish transnational mechanisms and instruments for collating and exchanging information on food authenticity research 4) Develop a high level research and innovation strategy for transnational research and a rationale for a potential ERANET on food authenticity The two year project will have the following expected impacts: improved coordination and communication between relevant MS research budget holders; enhanced cognisance of existing national research; joint strategy for food fraud R&D; agreed priorities and capability to deliver transnational European research on food fraud.
Leakey A.D.B.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
Lau J.A.,Michigan State University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012
Variation in atmospheric [CO 2] is a prominent feature of the environmental history over which vascular plants have evolved. Periods of falling and low [CO 2] in the palaeo-record appear to have created selective pressure for important adaptations in modern plants. Today, rising [CO 2] is a key component of anthropogenic global environmental change that will impact plants and the ecosystem goods and services they deliver. Currently, there is limited evidence that natural plant populations have evolved in response to contemporary increases in [CO 2] in ways that increase plant productivity or fitness, and no evidence for incidental breeding of crop varieties to achieve greater yield enhancement from rising [CO 2]. Evolutionary responses to elevated [CO 2] have been studied by applying selection in controlled environments, quantitative genetics and traitbased approaches. Findings to date suggest that adaptive changes in plant traits in response to future [CO 2] will not be consistently observed across species or environments and will not be large in magnitude compared with physiological and ecological responses to future [CO 2]. This lack of evidence for strong evolutionary effects of elevated [CO 2] is surprising, given the large effects of elevated [CO 2] on plant phenotypes. New studies under more stressful, complex environmental conditions associated with climate change may revise this view. Efforts are underway to engineer plants to: (i) overcome the limitations to photosynthesis from today's [CO 2] and (ii) benefit maximally from future, greater [CO 2]. Targets range in scale from manipulating the function of a single enzyme (e.g. Rubisco) to adding metabolic pathways from bacteria as well as engineering the structural and functional components necessary for C 4 photosynthesis into C 3 leaves. Successfully improving plant performance will depend on combining the knowledge of the evolutionary context, cellular basis and physiological integration of plant responses to varying [CO 2]. © 2012 The Royal Society.
Michigan State University and Basf | Date: 2012-12-19
Isolated nucleic acids and polypeptides associated with lipid and sugar metabolism regulation are provided. In particular, lipid metabolism proteins (LMP) and encoding nucleic acids originating from Arabidopsis thaliana are provided. The nucleic acids and polypeptides are used in methods of producing transgenic plants and modulating levels of seed storage compounds in a plant. Preferably, the seed storage compounds are lipids, fatty acids, starches, or seed storage proteins.
Michigan State University and Foundation University | Date: 2013-10-09
Detection of neurological diseases such as Parkinsons disease can be accomplished through analyzing a subjects speech for acoustic measures based on human factor cepstral coefficients (HFCC). Upon receiving a speech sample from a subject, a signal analysis can be performed that includes identifying articulation range and articulation rate using HFCC and delta coefficients. A likelihood of Parkinsons disease, for example, can be determined based upon the identified articulation range and articulation rate of the speech.
Foundation University and Michigan State University | Date: 2016-04-30
Disclosed herein is a method of estimating the pose of a ligand in a receptor comprising identifying all possible atom pairs of protein-ligand complexes in a given configuration space for a system that comprises proteins; creating a first database and a second database; where the first database comprises associated pairwise distant dependent energies and where the second database comprises all probabilities that include how the atom pairs can combine; combining the first database with the second database via statistical mechanics to accurately estimate binding free energies as well as a pose of a ligand in a receptor; and selecting a protein-ligand complex for further study.
McCright A.M.,Michigan State University |
Dunlap R.E.,Oklahoma State University
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2011
We examine whether conservative white males are more likely than are other adults in the U.S. general public to endorse climate change denial. We draw theoretical and analytical guidance from the identity-protective cognition thesis explaining the white male effect and from recent political psychology scholarship documenting the heightened system-justification tendencies of political conservatives. We utilize public opinion data from ten Gallup surveys from 2001 to 2010, focusing specifically on five indicators of climate change denial. We find that conservative white males are significantly more likely than are other Americans to endorse denialist views on all five items, and that these differences are even greater for those conservative white males who self-report understanding global warming very well. Furthermore, the results of our multivariate logistic regression models reveal that the conservative white male effect remains significant when controlling for the direct effects of political ideology, race, and gender as well as the effects of nine control variables. We thus conclude that the unique views of conservative white males contribute significantly to the high level of climate change denial in the United States. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 224.81K | Year: 2016
International demand for wood has grown steadily in the past few decades due to the growth in the world’s population and is expected to continue to grow rapidly as policies promoting greater use of renewable energy are adopted globally. Providing over 9% of the global primary energy supply, wood energy is as important as other renewable energy sources. Due to wood’s potential for large-scale commercial production of cellulosic biofuels, such as ethanol, a rapid increase in the use of wood as a source of energy is expected as policies promoting greater use of renewable, non-fossil fuel energy are adopted globally. In order to achieve the productivity gains necessary for wood-based bioenergy applications to be sustainable both economically and environmentally, significant breakthroughs in the productivity of the feedstock tree crops are needed. The applicant adapts the powerful tool of genetic engineering, specifically the gene/trait-stacking approach for use in the development of advanced biomass tree crop technology that features both accelerated stem growth and increased wood density. The proposed technology will produce a consistent supply of woody biomass feedstock that can be grown cost effectively on a 2- or 3-year cycle in dedicated plantations on otherwise nonproductive secondary agriculture land not suitable for food crops. During the Phase I STTR project, the applicant will (1) develop and produce enough transgenic poplar trees expressing the proposed technology to conduct a field test, (2) establish a field test with the transgenic trees, and (3) obtain initial in-field performance. This Phase I project prepares for the in-depth analysis (i.e., chemical composition, heat value of the biomass, and growth rate) and demonstration of the commercial value of this technology in Phase II. This in-field validation of the technology is a required step toward commercial deployment of the technology. Securing a cost-effective feedstock supply is a major limiting factor in bioenergy production. The applicant will use an innovative and propriety technology to speed the introduction of genetically designed crops for economic and sustainable production of woody biomass feedstock with reduced environmental impact for production of bioenergy and bio-based materials. Commercial Applications and Benefits: This application directly responds to the growing demand for woody biomass by developing economically and environmentally sustainable production systems. The proposed technology supplies a highly significant yield boost in both quantity and quality of woody biomass in short rotation poplar, thus enabling lower land use for production and cutting input cost. Additionally, commercial deployment of the proposed technology offers a number of social and economic benefits including cost-competitive production of bioenergy feedstock from non-food crops, thereby reducing impacts on both food prices and access, reducing dependence on foreign oil and the associated environmental impact of its use, increasing energy supply diversity, and strengthening rural economies. This STTR project will enable the proposed technology to enter the biomass feedstock markets and contribute toward a widespread sustainable US bioenergy industry.
Morris J.J.,University of Alabama at Birmingham |
Morris J.J.,Michigan State University
Trends in Genetics | Year: 2015
Black Queen (BQ) functions are biological processes that yield neither purely private nor purely public products. This partitioning of benefits, also called 'leakiness', can produce negative frequency dependence of fitness in microbial communities, allowing coexistence between function-performing helpers and function-requiring beneficiaries. The ubiquity of leakiness favors a 'race to the bottom' as members of a community lose the ability to perform functions whose products are available from the environment. Rather than being social altruists, helpers are merely those populations that lost this race and got stuck in their role as function performers. Here I discuss many such BQ functions and the microbial communities that evolve around them. I also compile evidence from laboratory evolution experiments as well as phylogenetic reconstructions that show that organisms gain greater fitness increases from gene/function loss events than is commonly expected. Finally, I consider possible consequences of long-term BQ-stabilized coexistence, including sympatric speciation and the evolution of true mutualisms. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.
Ge S.-F.,Tsinghua University |
Dicus D.A.,University of Texas at Austin |
Repko W.W.,Michigan State University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012
The residual Z2s(k) and Z̄2s(k) symmetries induce a direct and unique phenomenological relation with θ x(θ 13) expressed in terms of the other two mixing angles θ s(θ 12) and θ a(θ 23) and the Dirac CP phase δ D. Z2s(k) predicts a θ x probability distribution centered around 3°-6° with an uncertainty of 2°-4°, while those from Z̄2s(k) are approximately a factor of 2 larger. Either result fits the T2K, MINOS, and Double Chooz measurements. Alternately, a prediction for the Dirac CP phase δ D results in a peak at ±74°(±106°) for Z2s(k) or ±123°(±57° ) for Z̄2s(k) which is consistent with the latest global fit. We also give a distribution for the leptonic Jarlskog invariant J ν which can provide further tests from measurements at T2K and NOνA. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Ivezic Z.,University of Washington |
Beers T.C.,National Optical Astronomy Observatory |
Beers T.C.,Michigan State University |
Juric M.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012
Studies of stellar populations, understood to mean collections of stars with common spatial, kinematic, chemical, and/or age distributions, have been reinvigorated during the past decade by the advent of large-area sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, the Radial Velocity Experiment, and others. We review recent analyses of these data that, together with theoretical and modeling advances, are revolutionizing our understanding of the nature of the Milky Way and galaxy formation and evolution in general. The formation of galaxies like the Milky Way was long thought to be a steady process leading to a smooth distribution of stars. However, the abundance of substructure in the multidimensional space of various observables, such as position, kinematics, and metallicity, is now proven beyond doubt and demonstrates the importance of mergers in the growth of galaxies. Unlike smooth models that involve simple components, the new data reviewed here clearly exhibit many irregular structures, such as the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream and the Virgo and Pisces overdensities in the halo and the Monoceros stream closer to the Galactic plane. These recent developments have made it clear that the Milky Way is a complex and dynamic structure, one that is still being shaped by the merging of neighboring smaller galaxies. We also briefly discuss the next generation of wide-field sky surveys, such as SkyMapper, Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, Global Astrometric Interferometer for Astrophysics, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which will improve measurement precision manyfold and include billions of individual stars. The ultimate goal, development of a coherent and detailed story of the assembly and evolutionary history of the Milky Way and other large spirals like it, now appears well within reach. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews.
Jain A.K.,Michigan State University |
Feng J.,Tsinghua University
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2011
Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy. © 2006 IEEE.
Macnamara B.N.,Princeton University |
Hambrick D.Z.,Michigan State University |
Oswald F.L.,Rice University
Psychological Science | Year: 2014
More than 20 years ago, researchers proposed that individual differences in performance in such domains as music, sports, and games largely reflect individual differences in amount of deliberate practice, which was defined as engagement in structured activities created specifically to improve performance in a domain. This view is a frequent topic of popular-science writing-but is it supported by empirical evidence? To answer this question, we conducted a meta-analysis covering all major domains in which deliberate practice has been investigated. We found that deliberate practice explained 26% of the variance in performance for games, 21% for music, 18% for sports, 4% for education, and less than 1% for professions. We conclude that deliberate practice is important, but not as important as has been argued. © The Author(s) 2014.
Danielewicz P.,Michigan State University |
Lee J.,Accelerator Centre
Nuclear Physics A | Year: 2014
Using excitation energies to isobaric analog states (IAS) and charge invariance, we extract nuclear symmetry coefficients, representing a mass formula, on a nucleus-by-nucleus basis. Consistently with charge invariance, the coefficients vary weakly across an isobaric chain. However, they change strongly with nuclear mass and range from a a ~ 10MeV at mass A ~ 10 to a a ~ 22MeV at A ~ 240. Variation with mass can be understood in terms of dependence of nuclear symmetry energy on density and the rise in importance of low densities within nuclear surface in smaller systems. At A ≳ 30, the dependence of coefficients on mass can be well described in terms of a macroscopic volume-surface competition formula with aaV≃33.2MeV and aaS≃10.7MeV. Our further investigation shows, though, that the fitted surface symmetry coefficient likely significantly underestimates that for the limit of half-infinite matter. Following the considerations of a Hohenberg-Kohn functional for nuclear systems, we determine how to find in practice the symmetry coefficient using neutron and proton densities, even when those densities are simultaneously affected by significant symmetry-energy and Coulomb effects. These results facilitate extracting the symmetry coefficients from Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) calculations, that we carry out using a variety of Skyrme parametrizations in the literature. For the parametrizations, we catalog novel short-wavelength instabilities. In our further analysis, we retain only those parametrizations which yield systems that are adequately stable both in the long- and short-wavelength limits. In comparing the SHF and IAS results for the symmetry coefficients, we arrive at narrow (±2.4MeV) constraints on the symmetry-energy values S(ρ) at 0.04 ≲ ρ ≲ 0.13fm -3. Towards normal density the constraints significantly widen, but the normal value of energy aaV and the slope parameter L are found to be strongly correlated. To narrow the constraints, we reach for the measurements of asymmetry skins and arrive at aaV=30.2-33.7MeV and L = 35-70MeV, with those values being again strongly positively correlated along the diagonal of their combined region. Inclusion of the skin constraints allows to narrow the constraints on S(ρ), at 0.04 ≲ ρ ≲ 0.13fm -3, down to ±1.1MeV. Several microscopic calculations, including variational, Bruckner-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Bruckner-Hartree-Fock, are consistent with our constraint region on S(ρ). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Kaufman M.G.,Michigan State University |
Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Annual Review of Entomology | Year: 2014
Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. © Copyright ©2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.
Liao S.,CAS Institute of Automation |
Jain A.K.,Michigan State University |
Li S.Z.,CAS Institute of Automation
IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence | Year: 2013
Numerous methods have been developed for holistic face recognition with impressive performance. However, few studies have tackled how to recognize an arbitrary patch of a face image. Partial faces frequently appear in unconstrained scenarios, with images captured by surveillance cameras or handheld devices (e.g., mobile phones) in particular. In this paper, we propose a general partial face recognition approach that does not require face alignment by eye coordinates or any other fiducial points. We develop an alignment-free face representation method based on Multi-Keypoint Descriptors (MKD), where the descriptor size of a face is determined by the actual content of the image. In this way, any probe face image, holistic or partial, can be sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors. A new keypoint descriptor called Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) is also developed for robust and discriminative face recognition. Experimental results are reported on four public domain face databases (FRGCv2.0, AR, LFW, and PubFig) under both the open-set identification and verification scenarios. Comparisons with two leading commercial face recognition SDKs (PittPatt and FaceVACS) and two baseline algorithms (PCA+LDA and LBP) show that the proposed method, overall, is superior in recognizing both holistic and partial faces without requiring alignment. © 1979-2012 IEEE.