Michigan Public Health Institute

Okemos, MI, United States

Michigan Public Health Institute

Okemos, MI, United States
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Palusci V.J.,New York University | Covington T.M.,Michigan Public Health Institute
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2010

Objectives: To (1) test the use of capture-recapture methods to estimate the total number of child maltreatment deaths in a single state using information from death certificates, child welfare reports, child death review teams, and uniform crime reports; and to (2) compare these estimates to the number of maltreatment deaths identified through an in-depth " gold standard" review. Methods: Child maltreatment deaths were identified in four existing administrative data sources: (1) death reports in our state vital statistics (DC); (2) child death review team reports (CDR); (3) homicide reports filed by our state police agency as uniform crime report (UCR) supplements for the FBI; and (4) abstracted reports of a minor's death from our state child protective services (CPS) agency. Capture-recapture pair-wise and pooled comparisons were then applied to estimate the numbers of abuse and total maltreatment deaths and were compared to the number of cases identified by independent case review. Results: There were a total of 194 child maltreatment deaths in Michigan during 2000-2001 with 66 due to physical abuse. Capture-recapture analysis estimated the mean number of total child maltreatment deaths as 101.02 (95%CI. = 92.52, 109.53), with abuse deaths of 64.55 (60.85, 68.25). Most pair-wise and pooled comparisons worked equally well for abuse deaths, but estimates for total child maltreatment deaths were low. Conclusions: Capture-recapture methods applied to existing administrative datasets produced accurate estimates of child abuse deaths but were not useful in producing reliable estimates of total child maltreatment deaths due to undercounting neglect-related deaths in all existing administrative data sets. The underlying assumptions for capture-recapture methods were not met for neglect deaths. Local and/or state teams conducting ongoing intensive case review may yet remain the best way to identify the total number of child maltreatment deaths. Practice implications: Capture-recapture methods allow for more accurate estimation of the true number of child physical abuse deaths than does using single existing sources of child fatality information, but deaths from causes other than abuse are undercounted. Child maltreatment fatality surveillance requires a systematic process and standard criteria for identifying cases of maltreatment, particularly neglect-related child deaths. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Siegl E.J.,Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program | Miller J.W.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Khan K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Harris S.E.,Michigan Public Health Institute
Cancer | Year: 2014

Quality assurance (QA) is the process of providing evidence that the outcome meets the established standards. Quality improvement (QI), by contrast, is the act of methodically developing ways to meet acceptable quality standards and evaluating current processes to improve overall performance. In the case of the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP), the desired outcome is the delivery of quality health care services to program clients. The NBCCEDP provides professional development to ensure that participating providers have current knowledge of evidence-based clinical standards regarding breast and cervical cancer screening and diagnosis and are monitoring women with abnormal screening results for timely follow-up. To assess the quality of clinical care provided to NBCCEDP clients, performance data are collected by NBCCEDP grantees and compared against predetermined Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) benchmarks known as Data Quality Indicator Guides. In this article, the authors describe 1) the development and use of indicators for QI in the NBCCEDP and 2) the professional development activities implemented to improve clinical outcomes. QA identifies problems, whereas QI systematically corrects them. The quality of service delivery and improved patient outcomes among NBCCEDP grantees has enhanced significantly because of continuous monitoring of performance and professional development. By using QA, NBCCEDP grantees can maximize the quality of patient screening, diagnostic services, and follow-up. Examples of grantee activities to maintain quality of care are also described in this report. Cancer 2014;120(16 suppl):2584-90. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

Beydoun M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Beydoun H.A.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Shroff M.R.,Michigan Public Health Institute | Kitner-Triolo M.H.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Zonderman A.B.,U.S. National Institute on Aging
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori seropositivity is a potential risk for poor cognition among US adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, Phase 1 (1988-1991), were used. Measures included age group-specific neuropsychological test batteries and two measures of H. pylori seropositivity (immunoglobulin G [IgG] and IgG CagA) (20-59 years old: n = 2090-2,248; 60-90 years old: n = 2123-2388). We explored sex- and race-specific associations. RESULTS: Using multiple ordinary least square and zero-inflated Poisson regression models, we detected a poorer performance among those 60-90 years old with H. pylori IgG+ versus IgG- on a verbal memory test (story recall, correct items), overall (β = -0.04 [0.01], p = .010). Non-Hispanic (NH) blacks and women (20-59 years old) performed worse on the serial digits learning total errors (SDL-TE) when H. pylori IgG+ (versus IgG-), another verbal memory test (β = +0.94 [0.40; p = .029] and β = +1.19 [0.44; p = .012], respectively; p<.10 for interaction by sex and race). More trials to completion on this test (SDL-TTC) were also required among H. pylori IgG+ overall (20-59 years old; β = +0.30 [0.13], p = .033). Other race-specific associations without significant interaction by race were detected in the same direction of worse performance with seropositivity in all three major race groups and for both age categories, covering several domains of cognition. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori seropositivity markers were associated with poor cognition among US adults. Longitudinal research is needed to extrapolote those findings to cognitive decline, incident dementia, and AlzheimerÊs disease. Copyright © 2013 by the American Psychosomatic Society.

Beydoun M.A.,U.S. National Institute on Aging | Atilio Canas J.,Pediatric Endocrinology | Beydoun H.A.,Eastern Virginia Medical School | Chen X.,Johns Hopkins University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

Specific micronutrients, including retinol, retinyl esters, carotenoids [α-carotene, β-carotene (cis+trans), β-cryptoxanthin, lutein+zeaxanthin, and total lycopene], vitamin E, and vitamin C have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects, properties shown to reduce oxidative stress, a process that accompanies the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. It is still largely unknown whether they are associated with the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the adolescent U.S. population. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Other non-MetS outcomes relying on blood measurements were elevated HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein (CRP), and hyperuricemia. We tested associations between serum antioxidants and MetS outcomes among adolescents aged 12-19 y using cross-sectional data from NHANES 2001-2006 (n = 782-4285). IDF MetS prevalence was estimated at 7% among boys and 3% among girls. In adjusted models, adolescents with MetS had consistently lower carotenoid concentrations compared with their counterparts without MetS. Total carotenoids were also inversely related to HOMA-IR and CRP. Vitamin C was inversely related to uric acid level and MetS binary outcome. Retinol+retinyl esters exhibited an inverse relationship with CRP and a positive relationship with uric acid and HOMA-IR as well as MetS binary outcome. Vitamin E had no association with MetS, particularly after controlling for serum cholesterol and TG. In conclusion, among U.S. adolescents, serum carotenoid concentrations were inversely associated with MetS status, HOMA-IR, and CRP, whereas serum vitamin C was inversely related to MetS status and serum uric acid. Vitamin E had no consistent association with MetS, whereas retinol+retinyl esters had a positive relationship with HOMA-IR, uric acid, and MetS, while being inversely related to CRP. These associations need further study. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition.

Covington T.M.,Review Centre | Covington T.M.,Michigan Public Health Institute
Injury Prevention | Year: 2011

The National Child Death Review Case Reporting System (NCDR-CRS) was developed in the USA to provide child death review teams with a simple method for capturing, analysing, and reporting on the full set of information shared at a child death or serious injury review. The NCDR-CRS is a web based system currently being used by 35 of the 50 US states. This article describes the purpose, features, limitations, and strengths of the system. It describes current and planned efforts for the dissemination of the data to inform and catalyse local, state, and national efforts to keep children safe, healthy, and alive.

News Article | December 9, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Trivantis®, makers of Lectora®, CourseMill®, and ReviewLink™, has released Lectora 17, the popular desktop authoring tool that introduced Responsive Course Design™ (RCD) for easily developing mobile-friendly eLearning in its last release. Lectora Inspire 17 includes a new integration with BranchTrack—a tool for easily building scenarios to add in eLearning courses. Lectora Inspire 17 also includes the new releases of Camtasia® 9 and Snagit® 13. And Lectora 17 introduces the Seamless Play publish feature, which enables smooth transitions within responsive courses, offering the end user a more immersive view of the course. Seamless Play also allows for auto play of audio and video on mobile devices within the course, as well as Anchor Position, giving developers the ability to fix the position of elements on a scrolling mobile page. “Lectora 17 with Responsive Course Design is the timesaving solution to simplify mobile course development,” said John Blackmon, Trivantis co-founder and Chief Technology Officer. “With the new integration of BranchTrack in Lectora Inspire 17, eLearning developers can create an engaging learning experience more efficiently than ever before.” Lectora 17 has already received rave reviews from customers. “Lectora 17 delivers a new level of ease, accessibility, and power [greater] than any other authoring software,” said Laurie Taylor from Michigan Public Health Institute. “With BranchTrack, this really makes Lectora the one stop for all of your customer’s needs. Auto-play of video on mobile devices is also a very welcome feature.” To try the new features in Lectora 17, sign up for a free trial, or email Sales(at)Trivantis.com to purchase. About Trivantis Trivantis® empowers inspired learning with Lectora®, CourseMill®, and ReviewLink™ eLearning software. Since the company’s founding in 1999, Trivantis has been an innovative leader in the eLearning industry. Lectora is the world’s leading eLearning authoring software with Responsive Course Design™ for easy mobile-friendly development. Responsive Course Design provides a timesaving “design once, publish to all devices” approach to creating content that is essential for our multi-device world today. With Lectora, it’s easy for organizations to quickly create award-winning, engaging training for all devices. Trivantis’ solutions are offered in seven languages and used by large enterprises, Global 2000 companies, small and mid-sized businesses, government agencies, and educational institutions across the world.

Over the past 50 years, most major advances in child maltreatment have focused on protecting severely maltreated children and punishing perpetrators. This article argues that it is time to rigorously apply a public health framework to improve our understanding of, and accelerate efforts to, prevent child abuse and neglect. The article describes the fundamentals of a public health approach; discusses how this approach has been applied to improve surveillance of serious maltreatment injuries and fatalities, the understanding of risk and protective factors, and the long-term consequences of maltreatment; and describes how a public health approach is an effective means to prevention.

Torres J.M.C.,Michigan Public Health Institute
Qualitative Health Research | Year: 2015

Much attention has been given to the commercialization of care and its relationship to the outsourcing of family life, as well as larger social and cultural processes that can change the nature of caring. I engage with this question of why certain aspects of care are provided by the market, using 72 interviews with lactation consultants, doulas, clients, and clinicians, as well as 150 hours of ethnographic observation in the USA. Examining how participants understood the role of these services in the maternity care system and the reasons why clients turned to these services, I found that, in several ways, these forms of care work reflected outsourcing trends. However, lactation consultants and doulas were also acting as advocates and guides, helping their clients navigate the complex medical maternity system. This reflects a fundamental transformation in the nature of maternity support, attributed to the impact of medicalization, both historically and currently. © The Author(s) 2014.

Shroff M.R.,Michigan Public Health Institute | Holzman C.,Michigan State University | Tian Y.,Michigan State University | Evans R.W.,University of Pittsburgh | Sikorskii A.,Michigan State University
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Objective: Maternal blood leptin levels are positively associated with adiposity. Recent studies suggest that leptin is also abundantly produced by the placenta and may function as a regulator of foetal growth. Our goal was to examine mid-pregnancy levels of leptin in maternal blood in relation to birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA) and timing of delivery after accounting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (prepreg-BMI) and pregnancy complications. Patients Data were from 1304 subcohort mother/infant pairs who participated in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study (1998-2004). Measurements Leptin levels, measured at 16-27 weeks' gestation, were log-transformed. Geometric mean (GMean) leptin levels were estimated by weighted linear regression with gestational age at blood draw as a covariate. GMean was re-transformed to the original scale for reporting. Results: Using the GMeans leptin in mothers of term appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates as the referent (25.2 μg/l), we observed lower levels in mothers of preterm-AGA (21.9 μg/l), term small-for-gestational age (SGA) (20.3 μg/l) and preterm-SGA neonates (21.7 μg/l). Results were largely unchanged after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Leptin levels were higher in mothers who delivered large-for-gestational age (LGA) neonates, both preterm (33.6 μg/l) and term (29.1 μg/l), but the GMeans were markedly attenuated after adjustment for prepreg-BMI. Conclusion The association between BW/GA and maternal leptin levels after adjustment for prepreg-BMI may represent: (i) a residual effect of maternal adiposity that is not fully captured by BMI; and/or (ii) variation in placental leptin levels entering the maternal circulation. In conclusion, mid-pregnancy maternal blood leptin levels may be an early indicator of foetal growth status. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Bentley M.E.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Johnson S.L.,Aurora University | Wasser H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Creed-Kanashiro H.,Institute Investigacion Nutricional | And 3 more authors.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

Nutritional and developmental insults in the first few years of life have profound public health implications, including substantial contributions to neonatal, infant, and early childhood morbidity and mortality, as well as longer term effects on cognitive development, school achievement, and worker productivity. Optimal development that can lead to the attainment of an individual's fullest potential, therefore, requires a combination of genetic capacity, adequate nutrition, psychosocial stimulation, and safe, clean physical environments. Researchers and policymakers have called for integrated child nutrition and development interventions for more than 20 years, yet there are only a handful of efficacy trials and even fewer examples of integrated interventions that have been taken to scale. While a critical component in the design of such interventions is formative research, there is a dearth of information in both the literature and policy arenas to guide this phase of the process. To move the field forward, this paper first provides an overview of formative research methods with a focus on qualitative inquiry, a description of the critical domains to be assessed (infant and young child feeding, responsive feeding, and child development), and currently available resources. Application of these methods is provided through a real-world case study-the design of an integrated nutrition and child development efficacy trial in Andhra Pradesh, India. Recommendations for next steps are discussed, the most important of which is the need for a comprehensive set of formative guidelines for designing locally tailored, culturally appropriate, integrated interventions. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

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